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xtoi e v^s 








Nichols, Son, and Bentley, Printers, 
1U<1 Lion Passage, Fleet Stieet, Loudoa. 















VOL. in. 



1812. ^t-^ 





ArNULPH or EARNULPH, or ERNULPH, bishop of 
Rochester in the reign of king Henry I. was a Frenchman 
by birth, and for some time a monk of St. Lucian de 
Beativais. Observing some irregularities among his brieth- 
ren, which he could, neither remedy nor endure, he re- 
solved to quit the monastery ; but first. he took the advice 
of Lanfranc archbishop of CanterbtiTy,; ur '?r whom he had 
studied in the abbey of Bee. That prelate, who was well 
acquainted with his merit, invited him over into England, 
and placed him in the monastery of Catnterhury, where he 
lived till Lanfranc^s death. 'cAftejftwards, when Anselm 
came into that see, Arnulph was itiilidid^ptior of the monas-- 
tery of Canterbury, and afterwards abbot of Peterborough, 
and to both placeshe was a considerable benefactor, hg,ving 
rebuilt part /of the church of Canterbury, which had fallen 
down, and also that of Peterborough, but this latter viras 
destroyed by an accidental fire, and our prelate removed 
to. Rochester before he could repair tlie loss. In 1 1 15, he 
"was consecrated bishop of that see, in the room of Ra- 
dulphus or Ralph, removed to the see of Canterbury. He 
sat nine years and a few days, und died in March 1124, 
aged eighty- four. He is best known by bis work concern- 
ing the foundation, endowment, charters, laws, and other 
things relating to the church of Rochester. It generally 
passes by the name of Textus Roffensis, and is preserved in 
the archives of the cathedral church of Rochester. Mr. 
Wharton, in his Anglia Sacra, has published an extract of 
this history, under the title of " Ernulphi Episcopi Rof- 
fensis Collectanea de rebus Ecclesiae Roffensis, a prima 
sedis fundaXione ad sua tempora. £x Textu Roffensi^ 
Vot.111. B 


xjiiem eomposuit Emulphus." This extract consists of 
the names of the bishops of Rochester, from Justus, who 
was translated to Canterbury in the year 624, to Ernulfus 
inclusive; benefactions to the church of Rochester; of the 
agreement made between archbishop Lanfranc, and.Odo 
bishop of Bayeux ; how Lanfranc restored to the monks 
the lands of the church of St. Andrew, itnd others, which 
had been alienated from them ; how king William the' son 
of king William did, at the request of archbishop Lanfranc, 
grant unto the church of St. Andrew the apostle, at Ro- 
chester, the manor called Hedenham, for the maintenance 
of the monks ; and why bishop Gundulfus built for the 
king the stone castle of Rochester at his own expence ; 
a grant of the great king William ; Of the dispute between 
Gundulfus and Pichot; benefactions to the church of 
Rochester. Oudm is of opinion, our Arnulph had no band 
in this collection ; but the whole was printed, in 1769, by 
the lat^ Mr. Thorpe, in his " Registrum KoflFense." 

There are' extant likewise, " Tomellus, sive epistola 
^rnulfi ex Monacho Benedictino Episcopi Rofiensis de In« 
cestis Conjugiis,'' and ^^ Epistola solutiones quasdam con^ 
.tinens ad varias Lamberti abbatis Bertiniani qusestiones, 
praecipue de Corpore et Sanguine Domini." Bale, who 
confounds our Arnulph with Arnoul bishop of Lisieux, and 
with Arnoul abbot of Bonneval, atid Arnulphus the pres- 
byter, informs us, that Arnulphus went to Rome, where, 
inveighing strongly against the vices of the bishops, par- 
ticularly their lewdness, grandeur, and worldlyrminded- 
ness, he fell a sacrifice to the rage and resentment of the 
Roman clergy, who caused him to be privately assassinated. 
But this was Arnulphus the presbyter, who, as Platina 
tells us, was destroyed by the treachery of the Roman 
clergy, in the time of pope Honorius IL for remonstrating 
with great severity against the corruptions of the court of 
Rome. Nor could this possibly be true of our Arnulph, in 
the time of that pope : for this bishop of Rochester died 
before Honorius II. was raised to the pontificate. As to 
the works ascribed by Bale to Arnulphus, such as *^ De 
Operibus sex dierum," &c. they were written either by 
Arnoul bishop of Lisieux, or by Anioul abbot of Bonneval. * 

ARNWAY (John), descended of a good family in the 
€0|ioty of Salop, from which he inherited a considerable 

> Biof. BriUmiica* 

A R N W A Y. « 

estate, was bom in 1601, educated in granuxiatical learn- 
ing in bis own country, and in 1618 became a commoner 
of St. Edmund's baU, in Oxford, wbere be remained till 
he ' bad taken bis degrees in arts, and bad also received 
boly orders. He tben went down again into Shropsbire, 
wbere, in process of time, be obtained tbe rectories of 
Hodnet and IgbtBeld, wbicb be enjoyed to the breaking 
out of the civil war. He was a man of much learning and 
very extensive charity, so that though bis income was con- 
siderable, yet be laid up very little, jit was bis custom to 
clothe annually twelve poor people according to their sta* 
tion, and every Sunday he entertained as many at bis table^ 
. not only plentifully, but with delicate respect. His loyalty 
to bis prince being as warm as his charity towards his 
neighbours, be raised and clothed eight troopers for bis 
service, and always preached warmly against rebellion* 
The parliament having a garrison in the town of Wem, a 
detachment was sent from thence who plundered him of 
every thing, besides terrifying him with the cruellest in- 
sultSi In 1 640 be repaired to Oxford, to serve tbe king 
in person, and there was created doctor in divinity, and bad 
also the archdeaconry of Coventry given him, on the pro- 
motion of Dr. Brownrig to the bishopric of Exeter. His 
former misfortunes did not hinder Dr. Arnway from being 
as active afterwards in the king's service, which subjected 
him to a new train of hardships, his estate being seques« 
tered, and himself imprisoned. At length, after the king's 
murder, be obtained his liberty, and, like many other loy- 
alists^ was compelled by the laws then in being to retire 
to Holland. While at the Hague, in 1650, he published 
two little pieces ; the first entitled " The Tablet ; or, the 
Moderation of Charles I. the Martyr.'' In this he endea- 
vours to wipe off all tbe aspersions that were thrown on that 
prince's memory by Milton and his associates. The se- 
cond is called ^* An Alarm to the Subjects of England," in 
wbicb be certainly did bis utmost to picture the oppressions 
of the new government in the strongest colours ; and in this 
work he gives some very remarkable anecdotes of himself. 
His supplies from England failing, and his hopes in that 
country being also frustrated, be was compelled tp accept 
an offer that was made him of going to Virginia, where, 
oppressed vrith grief a|:>d caxes, he died, in 1653, leaving 
behind him the character of a pious, upright, and con- 
sistent loyalist. The tracts above mentioned were reprinted 

B 2 

4 A R N W A Y. 

in England, 1661, by the care of Mr. William Rider, of 
Mertou College, who married a relation of the author, but 
this volume is very scarce. * 

AROMATARI (Joseph), a learned Itarlian physician, 
was born at Assisi, about the year 1586. His father, who 
was also a physician of character, spared nothing to give 
him an education suitable to the profession which he wished 
him to follow. He began his studies at Perugia, and meant 
to have completed them at Montpellier, but he was sent 
to Padua, where he attended the logical, philosophical, 
and medical classes. Having obtained his doctor's degree 
in his eighteenth year, he went to Venice and practised 
physic there for fifty years, during which he refused very 
advantageous offers from the duke of Mantua, the king of 
England, and pope Urban VIII. and died there July 16,1660. 
He had collected a copious library, particularly rich in 
manuscripts, and cultivated general literature as well as 
the sciences connected with his profession, in which last 
he published only one tract, to be noticed hereafter. His 
first publication was ^^ Riposte alle considerazion di Ales- 
sandro Tassoni, sopralerime del Petrarca," Padua, 1611^ 
8vo, to which Tassoni replied under the assumed name of 
Crescendo Pepe ; " Awertimenti di Cres. Pepe a Guiseppe 
degli Aromatari, &c." 1611, 8vo. Aromatari answered 
this by " Dialoghi di Falcidio Melampodio in riposta agli 
awertimenti date sotto nome di Cres. Pepe, &c.'* Venice, 
1613, 8vo. But the work which has procured him most 
reputation was a letter on the generation of plants, ad- 
dressed to Bartholomew Nanti, and printed for the first 
time, prefixed to his (Aromatari's) ** Disputatio de rabie 
contagiosa," Venice, 1625, 4to, Francfort, 1626, 4to, and 
the Letter was afterwards printed among the ** Epistolse 
selects" of G. Richt, Nuremberg, 16^62, 4to. It was also 
translated into English, and published in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, No. CCXI, and again reprinted with 
Jungius's works, in 1747, at Cobourg. His opinions on 
the generation of plants were admired for their ingenuity, 
and if his health and leisure had permitted, he intended to 
have prosecuted the subject more minutely. * 

ARON (Peter). See AARON. 

ARPINO (Joseph d'), the son of a painter named Ce- 
sari at Arpiuo, was born at Rome in 1560. While yet in 

. ^ Biog. Britannica.— Atb. Ox. vol. II. 
* Uio^, Uuirefsetle.-^MaD^ BibUScript Med.— Ualler.^ 

A R P I N O. 5 

hislSth year his father placed him with the artists em- 
ployed by Gregory XIII. in painting the lodges of the 
Vatican, whom he served in the humble employment of 
preparing tBeirpaUetS' and colours. But, in this situati(^n. 
he discovered such talents, that the pope gave orders to 
pay him a golden crown per day so long as he continued 
to work in the Vatican. Pope Clement VIII. distinguished 
him by adding new and higher favours to those of Gregory 
XIII. He made him chevalier of the order of Christy and 
appointed him director of St. John de Lateran. In 1600 
he followed the cardinal Aldobrandini, who was sent legate 
on occasion of the marriage of Henry IV. with Mary de 
Medicis. Caravagio, his enemy and his rival, having at- 
tacked him, Arpino refused to fight him be<iause he was^ 
not a knight, and in order to remove this obstacle, Cara- 
vagio was obliged to go to IVIalta to be admitted chevalier- 
servant Arpino wanted likewise to measure swords with 
Annibal Carachid, but the latter, with becoming contempt, 
took a pencil in his hand, and, shewing it to him, said, 
" With this weapon I defy you." Arpino died at Rome 
in 1640, at the age of four-score. He was among painters, 
what Marino was among poets, born to dazzle and to seduce, 
and both met with a public prepared to prefer glitter ta 
reality. He is said to have conducted some of his first 
pictures from designs of Michel Angelo, but it was less 
their solidity that made him a favourite, than the facility, 
the fire, the crash, and the crowds, that filled his compo^ 
sltions. The horses which he drew with great felicity, the 
decisive touch that marked his faces, pleased all ; few but 
artists could distinguish manner from style, and them his 
popularity defied. The. long course of his practice was 
distinguished by%two methods, in fresco and in oil. The. 
first, rich, vigorous, amene, and animated, has sufficient 
beauties to balance its faults ; it distinguishes, with several 
altar-pieces, his two first frescos in the Campidoglio, the 
Birth of Romulus, and the Battle of the Sabines ; and with 
this class might be numbered some of his smaller works, 
with lights in gold, and exquisitely finished ; this method, 
however, soon gave way to the second, whose real prin- , 
ciple was dispatch, free but loose and negligent ; in this 
he less finished than sketched, with numberless other 
works,, the remainder of the frescos in the Campidoglio, 
forty years after the two first. He reared a numerous" 
school, distis]guished by little more than the barefacted 


e A R P I N O. 

imitation of bis faults, and a brother Bernardino Cesari^ 
who was an excellent copyist of the designs of Michel 
Angelo, but died young. Among painters he is some-- 
times known by the name of II Cavalier d'Arpino, and 
sometimes by that of Josephin. Mr. Fuseli has given the 
above character of him under that of Cesari. ' 

ARRIAGA (RoDERic de), a Spanish Jesuit, was born at 
Logrona, in CastiUe, Jan. 17, 1592. Reentered into the 
society Sept. 17, 1606, and taught philosophy with great 
applause at Valladolid, and divinity at Salamanca. After- 
wards, at the instigation of the society, he went to Prague 
in 1624, where he taught scholastic divinity three years, 
was prefect general of the studies twenty years, and chan- 
cellor of the university for twelve years. He took the de* 
gree of doctor in divinity in a very public manner, and 
gained great reputation. The province of Bohemia de- 
puted him thrice to Rome, to assist there at general con- 
gregations of the order, and it appears that he afterwards 
refused every solicitation to return to Spain. He was 
highly esteemed by Urban VIII. Innocent X. and the em- 
peror Ferdinand IIL He died at Prague, June 17, 1667. 
His works are, " A course of Philosophy," fol. Antwerp, 
1632, and at Lyons, 1669, much enlarged; •* A course 
of Divinity," 8 vols. fol. printed at different periods from 
1645 to 1655, at Antwerp. Other works have been at- 
tributed to him, but without much authority. By these^ 
however, he appears to have been a man of great learning, 
with some turn for boldness of inquiry ; but, in general, 
his reasoning is perplexed and obscure, and perhaps the 
abb6 I'Avocat is right in characterising him as one of the 
most subtle, and most obscure of the scholastic divines. 
Bayle says he resembles those authors who admirably dis-- 
cover the weakness of any doctrine, but never discover 
the strong side of it : they are, be adds, like warriors, who 
bring fire and sword into the enemijBS* country, but are not 
able to put their own frontiers into a state of resistance. * 

ARRIAN, a celebrated historian and philosopher, lived 
under the emperor Adrian and the two Antonines, in the 
second century. He was born at Nicomedia in Bithynia, 
wias styled the second Xenophon, and raised to the most 

1 Pilkington's Dict.««-Abrege de Vies des Peintres. — ^Moreri in arC Pin« 

* Gen. Dict.-«'Moreri««f^AntoBio Bibl. Hi8p^ii.*^I^Ayocat Piyt. Hist.**— Bioji^. 

A R R I A N. f 

considerable dignities of Rome. Tillemont takes him' to 
be the same person with that Flaccus Arrianus, who, being 
governor of Cappadocia, stopped the incursions of the 
Alani, and sent an account of his voyage round the Euxine 
to Adrian. He is also said to have been preceptor to the 
philosopher and emperor Marcus Antoninus. There are 
extant four books of his Diatribe, or Dissertations upoii 
Epictetus, whose disciple he had been ; and Photius tella 
us that he composed likewise twelve books of that philo- 
sopher's discourses. We are told by another author, that 
he wrote the Life and death of Epictetus. The most ce- 
lebrated of his works is his History, in Greek, of Alexan- 
der the Great, in seven books, a performance much 
esteemed for more accuracy and fidelity than thatof Quin- 
tus Curtius. Photius mentions also his History of Bithynia, 
another of the Alani, and a third of the Parthians, in se- 
venteen books, which he brought down to the war carried 
oij by Trajan against them. He gives us likewise an 
abridgement of Arrian's ten books of the History of the 
[Successors of Alexander the Great; and adds, that he 
wrote an account of the Indies in one book, which is still 
extant. The work which he first entered upon was his 
History of Bithynia ; but wanting the proper memoirs and 
materials for it, he suspended the execution of this design 
till he had published some other things. This history con- 
sisted of eight books, and was carried down till the time 
when Nicomedes resigned Bithynia to the Romans ; but 
there is notliing of it remaining except what is quoted iii 
Photius and Stephanus Byzantinus. Arrian is said to have 
written several other works : Lucian tells us, that he wrote 
the life of a robber, whose name was Tiliboru«, and when 
Lucian endeavours to excuse himself for writing the life of 
Alexander the impostor, he adds, " Let no person accuse' 
me of having employed my labour upon too low and mean 
a subject, since Arrian, the worthy disciple of Epictetus, 
who is o«e df the greatest men amongst the Romans, and 
who has passed his whole life amongst the muses, conde- 
scended to write the Life bf Tiliborus.'* There ii likewisie, 
under the name of Arrian, a Periplus of the Red- sea, that 
is, of the eastern coasts of Africa and Asia, as fer as the 
Indies ; but Dr. Vincent thinks it was not his. There is 
KkewiSTe a b6o"k of Tacti<is under his name, the beoinrtlnop of 
which is loj$t; to these is adde4 the order whicii he gave 
for the marching of the Roman army against the Aiant,' 

9 A R R I A N*. 

and giving them battle, which may very properly be as- 
cribed to our author^ who was engaged in a war against 
thiit people. 

The best editions of Arrian are, that of Gronovius, Gr. 
& Lat. Ley den, 1704, fol. ; of Raphelius, Gr. & Lat. Aip^ 
sterdam, 1757, 8vo; and of Schmeider, Leipsic, 1798, 8vo. 
Schmeider also published the " Indica cum Bonav. Vul- 
canii interpret. Lat." 8vo. ibid. 1798. jDodwell's "Disser- 
tatio de Arriani Nearcho," in which the authenticity of 
the voyage of Nearchus is contested, is affixed to this 
edition of the Indica, in connexion with Dr. Vincent's 
able refutation of that attack. The expedition was trans- 
lated into English by Mr. Rook, Lond. 1729, 2 vols. 8vo. 
illustrated with historical, geographical, and critical notes^ 
with Le Clerc's criticism on Quintus Curtius, and some 
remarks on Perizonius's vindication of that author. Rook 
also added the Indica, the division of the empire after 
Alexander's death, Raderus's tables^ and other useful do- 
cuments. ^ 

ARRIGHETTI (Philip), a native of Florence, where, 
he was born in 1582, and died in 1662, was appointed by 
pope Urban VIII. canon of the cathedral. He wrote a 
great many books, among which are, 1. "The Rhetoric 
of Aristotle,^' divided into fifty-six lessons ; 2.. *^ A trans- 
lation of the Poetic", of the same author ; 3. " Four Aca- 
demical discourses," on pleasure, laughter, spirit, and 
honour. 4. " A life of St. Francis.'*. '5. Some pious writ- 
ings, particularly a " Treatise on vocal and mental 
Prayer." His father, Nicholas Arrighetti, died at Florence 
in 1639, and was a man of learning, and skilled in mathe- 
matics. There was also a Jesuit of the same name, who 
published " The theory of Fire," in 1750, 4to ; and died 
at Sienna in 1767.* 

ARRIGHETTO or ARRIGO (Henry), a Latin poet 
of the twelfth century, was born at Settimello near Florence, 
and for some time was curate of Calanzano. Disturbed 
by the yexations he met with from certain enemies, he 
gave up his benefice, and beca^me so poor that he was 
obliged to subsist on charity ; from which circumstance he 
obtained the surname of II Pavero, He painted his dis<* 

1 Gen. Diet.— <-Fabr. Bibl. Grasc— Voss. de Higt. Gnec.<fc->M«rerl.— Clark'i 
Bibliog. Diet.—- Saxii Onomasticon. 

s Diet Hist, s and for Nteholas* Biog. Unirenelle.— Fabroni Vit. Ital«n 



grace and his misfortunes in elegiac verse, in a manner so 
pure and pathetic, that tbejr were prescribed as models at 
all public schools. They remained in manuscript in vari- 
ous libraries until about a century ago, when three edition* 
of them were published in Italy. The first is that of 1684, 
8vo ; the second is incorporated in the History of the Poets, 
of the middle ages by Leiser ; and the third was printed 
at Florence in 1730, 4to, with a very elegant translation 
iuto Italian, by Dominic Maria Manni. ^ 

ARRIGHI (Francis), a native of Corsica, was profes-* 
sor of law at Padua, where he died May 28, 1765. He 
was remarkably tenacious of his opinions, .and carried on a^ . 
long controversy with some antiquaries relative to the ex- 
planation of an ancient epitaph. His principal writings^ 
are, " A History," in Latin, " of the war of Cyprus," in 
seven books ; and a " Life of Franciscus Maurocenus." * 

ARRIGONI (Francis), of Bergamo, was born there 
Dec. 1, 1610,; and died July 28, 1645. He applied him*- 
self to the study of the Greek language, and was employed 
by the cardinal Frederick Boromeo, in decyjjhering the 
Greek manuscripts of the Ambrosian library. He wrote 
some ** Eulogies," and " Discourses," which were col- 
lected and published at Bergamo in 1636 ; "The Theatre 
of Virtue," and other pieces, which are noticed by Vaerini. 
in his history of the writers of Bergamo. ^ 

ARRIVABENE (John Francis), of a noble family of 
Mantua, flourished about the year 1546. £njo}ring much 
intimacy with Possevin and Franco, he imbibed their t^ste 
for poetry, and composed " Maritime Eclogues," which, 
were printed with the "JMaritime Dialogues" of Botazzo, 
at Mantua, in 1547. Arriyabene was no less distinguishedj 
as a prose writer, and there are many of his letters and| 
essays in RufHnelli's collection, pubUshed at Mantua aboul; 
the same time. * . 

ARRIVABENE (John Peter), of the same family a% 
the preceding, became bishop of Urbino, where he died iix 
1504, in the sixty- third year of his age. He bad been thj, 
scholar of Philelphus, under whom he studied the Greek, 
language with great diligence. KJe wrote, 1. "Gpnza- 
gidos," a Latin poem, in honour of Ludovico, marquis pfj 
MantUa, a celebrated general^ who died in 1 47 8. 2. *^ Latin 
epistles," with those of James Piccolomini, called the car'C. 

1 Bidg. Uni7eTselle.-.Dict. Hist. •^ Diet Hist • Ibid.. 

* Ibid.— Biog. UniTersellei 

10 A R R I V A B E N E. 

dinal of Pavia, printed at Milan in 1506. From his Gon- 
zagidosy first printed by Meuschenius in his collection 
entitled ** Vitae sumtnorum dignitate et eruditione viro- 
rum," vol. III. Cobourg, 1738, it appears that the author 
had been present at many of the victories and transactions 
which he there relates. * 

ARRIVABENE (Hyppolito), a descendant of the same 
family, who died March 22, 1739, practised with great 
reputation as a physician at Rome. He printed his 
** Poems'* at Modena in 1717, and an academical disser- 
tation, the title of which is, " La vera idea della Medi* 
cina," Reggio, 1730, 4to. ' 

ARROWSMITH (John), an English divine and writer, 
was born at or near Newcastle-upon Tyne, March 29, 
1602. He was admitted of St. John*s college, in Cam-* 
bridge, in 1616, and took his first two degrees from thence 
in 1619 and 1623. In this last year he was chosen fellow 
of Katherine hall, where he is supposed to have residecj 
some years, probably engaged in the tuition of youth ; 
but in 1631 he married, and removed to Lynn in Norfolk. 
He continued in this town, very much esteemed, for about 
ten or twelve years, being first assistant or curate, and 
afterwards tninister in his own right, of St. Nicholas 
chapel there. He was afterwards called up to assist in 
the assembly of divines ; had a parish in London, and is 
named with Tuckney, Hill, and others, in the list of 
Triers, as they were called : i. e. persons appointed to exa- 
mine and report the integrity and abilities of candidates for 
the eldership in London, and ministry at large. When 
Dr. Beale, master of St. John's college, was turned out 
by the earl of Manchester, Mr. Arrowsmith, who had 
taken the degree of B. D. from Katherine hall eleven years 
before, was put into his place ; and also into the royal di- 
vinity chair, from which the old professor Collins was re-^ 
inbved; and after about nine years possession of these 
honours, to which he added that of a doctor's degree in 
divinity, in 1649, he was farther promoted, on Dr. HilPs 
death, to the mastership of Trinity college, with which 
be kept his professor's place only two years ; his health 
toeing considerably impaired. He died in Feb. 1658-9. 

Dr. Arrowsmith is represented as a learned and able 
divine, but somewhat stiff and narrow ; his natural temper 

^ Biog. Vnlrerselle. — ^Roscoe's Leo.— Mazzucbelti. * Diet. Hist. . 

A R R 6 W Sf M I T H. If 

is said to have been incomparably better than his princi-i 
ples^ and all agree that he was a ihan of a most sweet and 
engaging disposition. This, says Dr. Salter, appears 
through all the sourness and severity of his opinions, in 
his **Tactica Sacra," a book written in a clear style, and* 
with a lively fancy ; in which is displayed at once much 
weakness and stiffness, but withal great reading ; and a 
very amiable candour towards the peraons and characters' 
of those, from whom he found himself obliged to differ. 
This book he dedicated to the fellows and students of his* 
college, and published it in 1657, to supply the place of 
his sermons, which his ill health would not permit him to 
preach in the chape). He also printed three sermons; 
and in 1659 bis friends, Horton and Dillingham, masters 
of Queen's and Emanuel colleges, published a collection 
of his theological aphorisms in quarto, with the title of 
"Armilla Catechetica." Dr. Whichcote, in one of his 
letters, speaks of him with high respect, although he had 
no agreement with him in his principles, which were Cal- 
vinistic. Mr. Cole praises him for being remote from the 
latitudinarian principles of modern times. ^ 

ARSENIUS, bishop of Constantinople, was called to' 
the metropolitan see, firom a private monastic life, in 12^5^ 
by the emperor Theodore Lascans ; who, a little before' 
his death, constituted him one of the guardians of his son 
John, an infant in the sixth year of his age. Arsenius 
was renowned for piety and simplicity; but these afforded 
no security against the ambition ai>d perfidy of the age. 
Michael! Palaeologus usurped the sovereignty; and Arse- 
nius at length, with reluctance, overpowered by the influ-* 
cnce of the nobility, consented to place the diadem on hisr^ 
head, with this express condition, that he shotild resign 
the empire to the royal' infant when he came to maturity. ' 
But after^ he had made this concession, he found his pupii' 
treated with great disregard, and, probably repenting of 
what he had done, he retired from his see to a monastery. '■ 
Sometime after, by a sudden revolution, Palseologus re- • 
covered Constantinople from thie Latins; and Amidst his' 
successes, found it necessary to his reputsitibn to recall the 
bishop, and he accordiiigly fixed him in 'the metropolitan ' 
see ; such was the ascendancy of Arsemus*s character. 

'. ■ ■ . . .; 

1 Dr. Salter's Preface to Whichcote's Letters appended to Dr. W's Aphorisms, 
1753.— Ncal'i Hist, of the Puritans, vol. II.— Cole's MS Athenss CanUb. if 
Brit Mas: 

\t . ; A B S E N I U S. 

Palaeologus, however, still dreaded the youtb, whom he 
had so deeply injured ; and, to prevent him from recover- 
ing bis throne, he had recourse to the barbarous poUcy of 
putting out his eyes. Arsenius bearing this, excommuni- 
<;ated the empejror, who then exhibited some appearance 
of repentance. But the bisbop refused to admit him into 
the church, and Palseologus meanly accused him of cer- 
tain crimes before, an assembly, over which he had abso- 
lute sway. Arsenius was accordingly condemned, and; 
banished to a small island of the Propontis, Conscious of 
his integrity, he bore his sufferings with serenity ; and re-, 
questing that an account might be taken of the treasures 
of the church,' h^ shewed that three pieces of gold, which- 
he had earned by transcribing psalms, were the whole of 
his property. The emperor, after all this, solicited him. 
tp repetal his ecclesiastical censures, but he p<ersisted iri, 
his refusal ; and, it is supposed, died in his pbscure retreat. ^ 
Gibbon, with his usual suspicions respecting the piety and 
virtue of an. ecclesiastic, endeavouiB to lessen the character 
of this patriarch. * , 

ARSENIUS, archbishop of Mon^mbasia, or Malvasia in: 
the Morea, was a. learned philologist of the fifteenth cen- 
tpry.. : He was the particular friend of pope Paul IIL and 
wrote to him some very elegant letters. He submitted 
also to the Romish church, which gave so much offence to^ 
the. heads of the Greek church, that they excommunicatedi. 
liim. There are of bis extant, a "Collection of Apo* 
phthegmp," printed at Rpme, in Greek 5 and another ^'Cplr.; 
leQtion of Scholia on seven of the trigigedies of Euripides,'*, 
printed at Venice in 1518, 8f:o; >Biasil, 1544'; and agaia. 
at Venice in 15S3. His collection , of Apophthegms,, pr^ 
'VPfaecl^ra dicta Philosophorum,'V has no date of year^.i 
-The time pf his death is uncertain^ but he was alive ii^j 

1535.^ .-' ■:.;■.. 

:.ARSILLI (Francis), a celebrated poet and physician, r 
flpurished in^the beginning of th^ sixteenth century, undejr. 
the pontificates of Leo X. and Clement; VIL He was a. 
native of Sinigaglia, and. after bavip^ studied at^ Paduf^, , 
practiced medicine 91 Rome; but,, according tp the eloge, 
of his friend Paul Jdvius,, sel(jloni.>pjEi^sed a day without 
produciiig spme poetical composition. He either possessed, 
or affected that independence of mind which does not ac- 

} Cav€.— Du Pin.— Miln^r^s Churcli Hist. vol. IV. p. 16, 

* Gen. Diet.— Hodius de Grecis illust.-^Fabr^ "Bibl. Graec.—* Saxli OnpnnsU , 


cord witb the pliant manners of a court; and avoided thd 
patronage of the great, while he complains (rf their neg- 
lect. He died in the 66th year of his age, at Sinigaglia, 
1540. He wrote a poem in Latin verse, " De poetis Ur- 
banis," addressed to Paul Jovius ; in which he celebrates 
the names, and characterises the works, of a great number 
of Latin poets resident at Rome iii the time of Leo X. It 
was first printed in the Coryciana, Rome, 1524, 4to ; and 
reprinted by Tiraboschi, who obtained a more complete 
copy in the hand-writing of the author, with the addition 
of many other names. It has also been reprinted by Mr. 
Roscoe, in his life of Leo, who is of opinion that his com- 
plaint of the neglect of poets in the time of that pontiff 
was unjust. * 

ARTALIS, or ARTALE (Joseph), an Italian poet, 
was born at Mazzareno in Sicily, 1628, and had an early 
passion for poetry, and a strong inclination for arms. He 
finished his studies at 1 5 years of age, about which time 
he fought a duel, in which he mortally wounded his adver- 
sary. He saved himself by taking shelter in a church ; 
and it was owing to this accident that he afterwards ap- 
plied himself to the study of philosophy. His parents 
being dead, and himself much embarrassed in his circum- 
stances, he resolved to quit his country, and seek his for- 
tune elsewhere. He accordingly vvent to Candia, at the 
time when that city was besieged by the Turks, and dis- 
played there so much bravery, that he obtained the ho- 
nour of knighthood in the military order of St. George. 
When he was upon his return for Italy, he was often 
obliged to draw his sword, and was sometimes wounded in 
these rencounters ; but his superior skill generally gave him 
the advantage. He rendered himself so formidable even 
in Germany, that they used to style him Chevalier de 
Sang. Ernest duke of Brunswic and Lunenburg appointed 
him captain of his guards, but no appointment could de« 
tach him from the Muses. He was member of several 
academies in Italy, and became highly in favour with 
many princes, especially the emperor Leopold. He died 
Feb. 11, 1679, at Naples, where be was interred in the 
church of the Dominicans, with great magnificence : the 
academy DegP Intricati attended his funeral, and Vin- 
cent Autonio Capoci made his funeral oration. His works 


^ Bio;. VaiverfliiBller— Roscoe's Leo. 


14 A R T A L 1 5* 

are, 1. "Dell' Encyclopedia poetica/* 2 parts, 1658, 1679, 
12mo ; and a third, Naples, same year. 2. " La Pasife," 
a musical drama, Venice, 1661, 12mo. 3. ^^ La Bellezza 
atterrata, elegia," Naples, 1646; Venice, 1661, 12mo. * 

ARTAUD (Peter Joseph), born at Bonieux in the 
comtat-Venaissin, went to Paris in 1706, when yery young, 
and filled in a distinguished manner tjbe several chairs of 
that capital. He was afterwards miide curate of 8. Tilery ; 
in which preferment he instructed bis flocfk by his dis** 
courses, and edified it by his example. He was appointed 
bishop of Cavaillon in 1756, and died in 176a, aged 54 ; 
lea,ving behind him the reputation of ^n exemplary prelate 
and an amiable Bpan* His works are: 1. " Panegyric on 
S. Louis,'* 1754, 4to. 2. "Discourse on Marriage;" on 
occasion of the birth of the due de Bourgogne, 1757, 4to. 
3. Several Charges, and Pastoral Letters. In all his writ- 
ings a solid and Christian eloquence prevails, and his ser« 
mons, which have not been printed, are said to have been 
models of a familiar and persuasive style. ^ 

ARTEAGA (Stephen), a learned writer on music and 
poetry, was a Spanish Jesuit, and very young when that 
order was suppressed in Spain. He then went to Italy, 
and lived a considerable time at Bologna, in the house of 
cardinal Albergati. He afterwards accompanied his friend 
the chevalier Azara, the Spanish ambassador, to Paris; 
and died in his house Oct. 30, 1799; His fii-st publication 
was a treatise on '^ Ideal Beauty,*' in Spanish ; but that 
which has contributed most to his fame, was his " Revo- 
luzioni del teatro musicale Italiano, dalla sua origine, fine 
al presente,'* Venice, 1785, 3 vols. 8vo. This is the se- 
cond edition, but the only complete one ; the first con- 
sisting of only one volume, printed at Bologna^ 1783; 
and now entirely changed and augmented. An excellent 
analysis and criticism on this work, from the pen of a ve- 
teran scholar in the musical art, appeared in the Monthly 
Review, vols. LXXVII. and LXXIX. He left also some 
learned dissertations on Greek and Latin poetry, and an ela- 
borate work on rhythm, which he intended to have printed at 
Parma, at the Bodoni press ; these manuscripts appear to 
have been confided to Grainville, who died soon after. ' 

ARTEDI (Peter), a Swedish physician and naturalist, 
the friend and contemporary of Linnaeus, was born in 

' Moreri.— Diet Hist Amsterdam, l740.-«-Life of Artale by Caballone. 
* Diet. Hist.<^Biog. Uuirerselle. > Ibid, 

A R T E D I. 15 

1705, in the province of Angermaniay of poor parents^ 
who intended him at first for the church ; but incliaa* 
tion led him to. the pursiuit of natural history, tie began 
his studies at Upsal, where, in 1728, he first became ac- 
quainted with Linnaeus, who informs us that at that time 
the name of Artedi was heard everywhere ; and that the 
remarks Artedi made, and the knowledge he displayed, 
struck him with astonishment A higher character cannot 
well be supposed : and here their friendship and amicable 
rivalship commenced. Even the dissimilitude of their 
tempers turned out to advantage. Artedi excelled Lin- 
naeus in chemistry^ and Linnaeus out-did him in the know- 
ledge of birds and insects, and in botany. Arte^di finally 
restricted his botanical studies to the umbelliferous plants, 
in which he pointed out a new method of classification, 
which was afterwards published by Linnaeus. But the 
chief object of his pursuits, and which transmitted his 
fame to posterity, was Ichthyology ; and Linnaeus found 
himself so far excelled in point of abilities, that be relin- 
quished to him this province, on which Artedi afterwards 
bestowed all his juvenile labours. In the course of his in- 
vestigations, he projected a new classification in Ichthy- 
ology, which encouraged Linnaeus in his similar design in 
hotany. In 1734 Artedi left Sweden, and went to En- 
gland for the purpose of making greater improvements in 
the knowledge of fishes ; and from England he proceeded 
to Holland, where he wished to have taken his doctor's 
degree ; but was prevented by the want of money. On 
this occasion Linnaeus recommended him to the celebrated 
apothecary Seba, of Amsterdam, a lover of natural history, 
and who had formed a very extensive museum. Seba re- 
ceived Artedi as his assistant, and the latter would proba- 
bly have beeiT enabled to pursue his studies with advan- 
tage, had he not lost his life by falling into one of the 
canals in a <lark night, Sept. 25, 1735. "No sooner," 
says Linnaeus, " had I finished my ^ Fundamenta Botanica,* 
than I hastened to communicate them to Artedi; he 
shewed me on his part the work which had been the result 
pf several years study, his ^ Philosophia Ichthyologia,* 
and other manuscripts. I was delighted with his familiar 
conversation; Ji>ut, being overwhelmed with business, I 

frew impatient at his detaining me so long. Alas ! had I 
nown that this was the last visit, the last words of mf 

16 A R T E D I. 

friend, how fein would I have tarried to prolong bis exist- 

When Artedi and Linneeus were at Upsal, they recipro*' 
cally constituted themselves heirs to each other's books, 
and manuscripts. Linnseus was now ready to assert hit 
right, that he might rescue at least the fame of his de«- 
ceased friend from oblivion. But the landlord of Artedi, at 
whose house his situation had compelled him to contract 
some small debts, would not deliver up his effects, which he 
threatened to sell by public auction.. Through the generous 
liberality, however, of Dr. ClifTort, a princely patron of 
natural history, the wish of Linnseus was accomplished. 
CliiFort purchased the manuscripts, and made him a pre- 
sent of them. The principal one was the general work on 
fishes, which Linnaeus published under the title " Petri 
Artedi, Sueci medici, Ichthyologia, sive opera omnia de 
Piscibus," Leyden, 1738, 4to; with the life of the author. 
But a more valuable edition was published by Dr. Wal- 
baum of Lubeck, 3 vols. 4to, 1788, 1789, 1792; includ- 
ing not only all the modern discoveries and improvements; 
but a history of the science of ichthyology, from the earliest 
accounts to the present times. Schneider also published 
a new edition of a part of this work, under the title " Pe- 
tri Artedi Synonymia Piscium," Leipsic, 1789, 4to. * 

ARTEMIDORUS, celebrated for a superstitious trea- 
tise upon Dreams, was born at Ephesus, but took the sur- 
name of Daldianus in this book, out of respect to the 
country of his mother, and he styled himself the Ephesian 
in his*other performances. He lived under the emperor 
Antoninus Pius, as himself informs us, when he tells u» 
that he knew a wrestler, who, having dreamed he had lost 
his sight, carri<?d the prize in the games celebrated by 
command of that emperor. He not only bought up all 
that had been written concerning the explication of dreams, 
which amounted to many volumes, but likewise spent 
many years in travelling, in order to contract an acquaint- 
ance with the tribe ofc fortune-tellers : he also carried on 
an extensive correspondence with all persons of this de- 
scription ill Greece, Italy, and the most populous islands, 
collecting at the same time all reports of dreams, and th^ 
events which are said to have followed them. He despised 
the reproaches of those supercilious persons, who treat 

t Bi«;. Vniverselle.— *Mor«ri,— Stoerer's Life of LianiBus/S«ct. 1I« and Sect IV. 


the foretellers of events^'as cheats^' impostors^ and jugglers, 
and frequented much the company of those diviners for 
several years. He was the more assiduous in his study and 
search after the interpretation of. dreams, being moved 
thereto, as he fancied, by the advice, or, in some measure, 
by the command of Apollo. The work which he wrote on 
dreams consists of five books ; the three first were dedi« 
cated to one Cassius Maximus, and the two last to his son, 
whom he took a good deal of pains to instruct in the na- 
ture and interpretation of dreams. The work was first 
printed in Greek, at Venice, 1518, 8vo; and Regaltius 
published an edition at Paris, Greek and Latin, in 1603, 
4to, and added some notes. Artemidorus wrote also a 
treatise upon Auguries, and another upon Chiromancy, 
but they are not extant. Contemptible as his work is, it 
contains some curious particulars respecting ancient rites 
and customs. Bayle remarks, what may indeed be said of 
all works of the kind, that there is not one dream which 
Artemidorus has explained in a particular manner, but what 
will admit of a very different explication, and tjiis with 
the same degree of probability, and founded upon as 
reasonable principles as those upon which Artemidorus 

ARTEMIDORUS, an ancient geographer, who lived 
about JOG years B. C. wrote a *^ Description of the Earth," 
which is often qaentioned by Strabo and Pliny ; and the 
only fragments remaining are inserted -in the 6rst vol. of 
Hudson's Minor Greek Geographers, Oxford, 1703. * 
' ARTEPHIUS, a hermetic philosopher, lived ^about 
1130. He wrote 1. ^^ Clavis majoris sapiential,'' printed 
in the Chemical Theatre, Francfort, 1614, 8vo; Stras* 
burgh, 1699, and afterwards translated into French. 2. 
^' Liber secretus." 3. *^ De characteribus planetarum, 
cantu et motibus avium, rerum prsteritarum et futurarum^ 
lapideque philosophico." 4. ^^ De vita propaganda," a 
work, of the merit of which we may judge from being 
gravely told that he wrote it at the age of 1025 years* 
5. *^ Speculum speculorum." Artephius' treatise on the 
philosc^er's stone, was translated into French by Peter 
Amauld, and printed with those of Synesius and Flamel, 
Paris, 1612, 1659, and 1682, 4to, no inconsiderable proof 
of the attention bestowed on that delusion. ' 

\ Q£n.Dict— Vois. deHiit. Orsc— Pabric. Bibl. Qrac«<>-Sftzu OncmasticoB. 
* Ibid. 3 Biog. UnivwrieUe. 

Vol. Ill, C 

18 A R T H UH. 

ARTHUR (Archibau)), professor of moral phild; 
sophy in the university of Glasgow, the eldest son of 
Andrew Arthur, a farmer, was born at Abbots- Inchj in ' 
the shire of Renfrew, Sept. 6, 1744. After being edu* 
cated in the elements of knowledge and piety by his 
parents, he was, at the age of eight, placed at ^e gram-*^ 
mar*8chool of Paisley, where he was taught Latin. In his 
thirteenth or fourteenth year, he was removed to the uni« 
versity of Glasgow, where his uncommon proficiency was 
soon noticed and encouraged by his teachers, who dis* 
cerned a brilliancy of genius and strength of understanding 
which were concealed from more superficial observers by 
an almost invincible bashfulness, and hesitation in his 
speech, from which he never was altogether free. After 
having gone through the usual course of classical studies 
with increasing reputation, he determined on the clerical 
profession, and with that view attended the philosophical 
and theological lectures. Such was the intenseness of his 
application, and the vigour of his intellect, that, we are 
told, long before his nomination to an academical chair, 
there were few or no departments, whether literary, phi« 
losophical, or theological, with the exception of the me--^ 
dical school only, in which he could not have been an 
eminent teacher. On one occasion, during the necessary 
absence of the professor of Church History, he lectured 
for a whole session of college in that department, highly 
to the satisfaction and improvement of his hearers, which 
many of them acknowledged at a distant period when their 
own researches rendered such an opinion valuable. He 
was also, during the period of his academical studies, 
employed as private tutor in some families of rank. In 
October 1767, after the usual trials, according to the 
forms of the church of Scotland, he was licensed to be a 
preacher, although not without some opposition, owing to 
his reluctance to embrace the creed of that church in 
its full extent. Soon after he was apppinted chaplain to 
the university of Glasgow, and assistant to the rev. Dr« 
Craig, one of the clergy of Glasgow. About the same 
time he wais appointed librarian to the university, ia which 
office he compiled the catalogue of that library on the 
model of that of the Advocates^ library in Edinburgh. 
In 1780 he was appointed assistant and successor to the 
learned and venerable Dr. Reid, professor of moral phi- 
losophy, and delivered a course of lectures^ of the meritpf 


which a judgment may be formed from the parts now pub* 
lished. In sentiments he nearly coincided with his colleague 
«nd predecessor. He taught this class for fifteen years, as 
assistant to Dr. Reidy who died in 1796, when he sue** 
ceeded a$ professor, but held this situation for only one 
session. A dropsical disorder appeared in his habit soon 
after the commencement of 1797, and proved fatal, June 
14 of that year. In 1803., professor Richardson, of the 
same university, published some part of Mr. Arthur's lec«* 
tures, under the title of ^< Discourses on Theological and 
Literary Subjects," 8vo, with an elegant sketch of his life 
and character, from which the above particulars have been 
borrowed. These discourses amply Justify the eulogium 
Mr, Richardson has pronounced on him, as a man of just 
taste, and correct in his moral and religious principles, 
nor were bis talents and temper less admired in private 

ARTIGNI (Anthony Gachet d'), canon of the cathe* 
dral church at Vienna, was born in that metropolis, the 
9th of March 1704. He shewed an early inclination for 
literature and bibliographical inquiries, and wrote some 
verses, which he afterwards judiciously suppressed. Hia 
first publication, in 1739, was a piece entitled << Relation 
d'une assemiblee tenue au has de Pamasse, pour la reforme 
des Belles Lettres," 12mo. Mr. Sabathier, with more 
spleen than reason, observes that the place for this as« 
sembly was very happily chosen. But Artigni is more 
advantageously known by his '^ Memoires d'histoire, de 
critique & de Utterature,'' Paris, 1749, & seqq. 7 vols. 12mo.. 
Though this book is a compilation, it sufficiently proves 
him to have been endowed with the spirit of disquisition 
and criticism. It is, however, necessary to mention that 
the nK>st interesting articles are taken from the manuscript 
bistory of the French poets by the late abb6 Brun, dean 
of S. Agrjcola at Avignon. This history existed in MS. 
in the library belonging to the seminary of S. Sulpice de 
Lyon, yrhere the abb^le Clerc, the friend of abb6 Brun, 
bad lived a long time ; and it was by means of «ome 
member of the seminary that the abb6 d' Artigni j^rocured 
it. Before bis death he was employed op an abridgement 
of the Universal History, part of which was found among 
bis manuscripts. He died at Vienna the 6th of May 1768> 

}, J3tm«iiis«f» l((. vkVi supr9. — ^WoodhouB«]te>t lift of Lord Kiuntt. 

C 2 

20 A R T I G N I. 

in his 65th year. He was of a polite, obliging, and cheer- 
ful temper ; and his conversation was rendered highly 
agreeable by the great number of anecdotes and pleasant 
stories with which his memory was stored. * 

ARTOIS (Jean Van), an eminent landscape painter, 
was born at Brussels in 1613, and having been carefully 
instructed in the art of painting by Wildens (as spme au« 
thors imagine), he perfected himself by a studious ob- 
servation of nature.- His landscapes have an agreeable 
solemnity, by the disposition of his trees, and the breaking 
of his grounds ; the distances are well observed, and die 
away perspectively, with a bluish distance of remote hills ; 
and his figures are properly and very judiciously placecT. 
His pencil is soft, his touch light and free, particularly in 
the leafing of his trees ; and there is generally a pleasing 
harmoiry in the whole. It is said that Teniers either 
painted or retouched the figures of his landscapes. He is 
remarkable for always ornamenting the stems of his treesf 
with moss, ivy, or other plants, the extremities of which 
are often loosely hanging down. His pictures are coloured 
with a force resembling those of Titian, except that some- 
times t^ey are a little too dark. Mechlin, Brussels, 
Ghent, and the gallery of Dusseldorp, were ornamented 
with many of his pictures. In the course of his practice^ 
he acquired a good fortune, but is said to have dissipated 
it by giving entertainments to persons of rank. He died 
in 1665, aged fifty-two. ' 

ARTUSI (GiOMARiA, or John Maria), a musical cri- 
tic, who flourished in the sixteenth century, was a native 
of Bologna, and a canon-regular of the congregation del 
Salvatore. Though be is ranked only among the minor 
writers on music, yet if his merit and importance are es- 
timated by the celebrity and size of his volumes, he cer- 
tamly deserves the attention of students and collectors of 
musical tracts. In his ^^ Arte del Contrappunto ridotta in 
tavole," published at Venice, in 1586, he has admirably 
analyzed and compressed the voluminous and diffused 
works of Zarlino and other anterior writers on musical 
composition, into a compendium, in a manner almost as 
clear and geometrical as M. d^Alembert has abridged the 
theoretical works of Rameau. In 1589, he published a 
i^econd part of^ his *^ Arte del Contrappunto,'* which is a 

I Biag. UniTeneUe.--Pict; flUt. 1 lbld.«»PilkiDgtMi'i IMct 

A RT U S L 21 

useful and excellent supplement to his former eompendium.. 
And in 1600^ and 1603, this intelligent writer published 
^t Venice, the first and second part of another work, 
'^ Delle Imperfettioni della moderna musioa/^ in which 
he gives a curious account of the state of instrumental 
music in his time, and strongly inveighs against the inno- 
vations then attempted by Monteverde. The time oi 
Artusi's decease is not known. * 

ARVIEUX (Laukence d'), a French eastern scholar 
and traveller, was born at Marseilles in 1635, of a family 
originally from Tuscany, and from his infancy discovered 
an uncommon aptitude for learning languages, apd a strpng 
^passion for travelling. In 1653 he accompanied his father^ 
who was appointed consul at Saida, and resided for twelve 
years in the different ports of the Levant, where he learned 
the Persian, Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac languages. After 
his return to France, he was, in 1668, sent to Tunis, to 
negociate a treaty with the Dey, and was the means of 
delivering three hundred and eighty French slaves, who 
wished to show their gratitude by making up a purse of 
600 pistoles, which he refused to accept. In 1672, he 
was sent to Constantinople, where beiiad a principal hand 
in concluding ^ treaty with Mahomet IV. and succeeded 
chieBy by ^he facility with which he spoke the Turkish 
language, and which strongly recommended him to th^ 
coniidfeqce of tij^e grand visier. M. Turenne had also re-*- 
quested him to obtain information respecting the opinions 
of jthe Greeks on the eucharist, which he found to be the 
^iaiqe with that of t;he Latins. On his return, he was n^ade 
^ knight pf St. La;9arus, and received a pension of 1000 
livres. The knowledge he had now so often displayed la 
the affairs of the Levant, induced the court to Sjend him aiS 
consul to Algiers, and afterwards to Aleppo. Pope In- 
nocent XI. in jcon^ideration of the services he nad r^lr 
dered to religiopj made him an offer of the l9ii3hopric of 
Babylon, which he refused, but agreeab^ tQ (he pope'« 
permission, named father Pidou for that o.ffice9 which the 
Pope confirmed. During the latter part of his life, the 
chevalier d'Arvieux lived in retireiuent at Marseilles, de- 
voting, his time to the study of the sacred scriptures, which 
bfi read in the originals. He diecj in that pity, Oct. 3, 170^, 
He bad written the history of a voyage made by order of 

* Bumey's Hist, of Music, vql. III.-rBioj^. Uoiverselle. 

t2 A R V I E U X. 

Loois XrV. to ihe grand Emir, the chief of the Arabiatl 
princes, and a treatise on the manners knd customs of the 
Arabians, both pnblished by M. de la Roque, Paris, 1711^, 
12mo. His *^ Memoires** were published by father Labat, 
Paris, 1735, 6 vols. 12mo. This work was attacked in 
^ Lettres critiques de Hadji-Mehemet-Effendi,'* Paris, 
1735, 12tno, supposed to hare been written under this 
name by M. Petis de la Croix. ^ 

ARUM (Dominic Van), or ARUMCEUS, a nobleman 
of Friesland, was born atLeuwarden in 1579, and studied 
law at Franeker, Oxford, and Rostock. In 1599 he went 
to Jena, where, in 1605, he was appointed professor of 
law, and where he died Feb. 24, J 637. He is esteemed 
one of the most able writers on the German law, and one 
of the first who reduced it to a regular system. His 
principal works are: 1. ** Discursus academici de jure 
publico," Jena, 1617 — 23, 5 vols. 4to. , 2. "Discursus 
academici ad auream bullam Caroli IV." ib.;i617, 4to. 
3. ** Gommentaria de comitiis Roman. German, imp." ib* 
1630, 4to.* 

'ARUNDEL (Thomas), archbishop of Canterbury in the 
reigns of Richard II. Henry IV. and Henry V; was thfe 
(second son of Robert Fitz- Alan, eari of Arundel and War^. 
)ren, and brother of Richard earl of Arundel, who was af» 
terwards beheaded. He was but twenty -two years of age 
Vfhen, from being archdeacon of Taunton, he was pro- 
moted to the bishopric of Ely, by the pope^s provision, 
and consecrated April 9, 1374, at Otteford. He was a 
ebhsiderable bene&ctor to the church and palace of that 
iee. He almost rebuilt the episcopal palace in Holborn, 
and, among^'other doltations, be presented the cathedral 
with a very curious table of massy gold, enriched with 
precious stones ; which had been given to prince Edward 
by the king of Spain, and sold by the latter to bishop 
Arundel for three hundred marits. In the year 1366, the 
tenth of Richard II. he was made lord high chancellor of 
England ; but resigned it in 1389 ; was again appointed ii^ 
1391, and resigned it finally, upon his advancement to the 
see of Canterbury. After he nad sat about fourteen years 
in the see of Ely, he was translated to the archbishopric of 
York, April 3, 1388, where he expended a very larg^ 

.1 Morari. — ^Blof . Unirenelle.— •Saxii OnomasU 
f Popptu BibI* lelg.— Bicf • UBiyenelle, 


warn a£ money in building a pakce for the afcbbishopsi^ 
and, besi4e$ other rich omaments^ gave to the church 
aeTeral pieces of silver-gilt plate^ In 1393, being then 
chancellor, he removed the courts of justice from London 
to York ; and, as a precedent for this unpopular step, be 
alledged the exsunple of archbishop Corbridge, eighty 
years before* The, see of Canterbury being vacant by the 
death of Dr. William Courtney, archbishop Arundel was 
translated thither, January 13V6. The crosier was deli- 
vered into his hands h^ Henry CheUenden, prior of Can- 
terbury, in the presence of the king, and a great nuiaber 
of the nobility, and on the 19th of February lid?,, be was 
enthroned with great pomp at Canterbury, the first in- 
stance of the translation of an archbishqfi of York to the 
see of Canterbury. Soon after be had a contest with the 
university of Oxford about the right of visitation, which 
was detennined by Kidg Richard, to whom the decisioa 
was referred, in fevour of the archbishop* At bis visita*- 
(ion in London, he revived an old constilnition, first seit 
on foot by Siqion Niger, bishop of London^ by which the 
inhabitants of the respective parisdies were obliged to pay 
to their.rector one halfpenny in d»e pound out of the rent 
of their houses* In the second year of his translation, a 
parliament, was held at Lonidoa^ in which, the commons, 
with the fcing'f >I|ea,ve^ hnpeaobed the archbishop, together 
with his brother the esari of Arundel^ and the diuce of 
Gloueesteiv of high^treason, for comp^Uing the king^ in 
the tenth year of lus reign, to grant them a conounissiop to 
govern the, kingdom* The Jdrchbishop was sentenced to 
be banished^ and had fofty days allowed him to prepare 
for his exile, within which time he was to depart the king^ 
dom on pain of death. Upoa this he retired first into 
France, and then to Ron^^ where pope Qonifaoe IX. gav^ 
him a v«ry friendly r^iception, and wrote a letter to^ aing 
Jlichard, desiring him to receive the archbishop agpun intoi 
&veur. But not meeting with suocess, his hoHuesa «^ 
solved to interpose his authority in fi&vour of Arundd* 
Accordingly he nominated him t^ the archbishopric of 
St. Andrews, and declared his intention of giTit>g him 
several other preferments in England, by way of provision. 
The king,, upon this, wrote an expostuktosy letter to the 
pope, which induced him not only to withhold the intended 
favours from Arundel, but likewise, at the king^s request, 
to promote Roger Walden dean of York and lord treasurer 


of England^ to the see of Canterbury. That prelate, boir* 
ever, was soon obliged to quit bis new dignity ; for, next 
year, Arundel returned into England with the duke of 
Lancaster, afterwards king Henry IV. upon whose acces* 
sion to the throne, the pope revoked the bull granted to 
Walden, ^nd restored Arundel; and among the articles of 
misgovernment brought against king Richard, one was his 
usage and banishment of this prelate. The throne j>eing 
vacant by Richard's resignation, and the duke of Lancas^ 
-ter's title being allowed in parliapaent, Arundel bad the 
honour to crown the new king; and, at the coronation- 
dinner, sat at his right hand; the archbishop of York 
being placed at his left. In the first year of king Henry's 
reign, Arundel summoned a synod, which sat at St. Paurs. 
'Harpsfield, and the councils fromiiim, have mistaken this 
synod for one held during the vacancy of the see. He 
also by his courage and resolution, preserved several c^ 
the bishops, who were in king Henry's army, from being 
plundered of their equipages and money. The next year, 
the commons having moved, that the revenues of the church 
inight be applied to the service of the public, Arundel op* 
posed the motibn so vigorously, that the king and lords 
promised him, the church should never be plundered in 
.their time. Afiter this, he vbited the univevsity of Cam- 
bridge, where he made several statutes^ suppressed seve- 
ral bad customs, and punished the students for their nus« 
behaviour. And, . when the visitation was ended, at the 
request of the university, he reserved all those matters 
and causes, which had been laid before him, to his own 
4Sognizance and jurisdiction. In the year 1408, Arundel 
began to exert himself with vigour against the Lollards or 
Wickliffites, To this end, he summoned the bishops and 
clergy at Oxford, to ^cheek the progress, of this new sect, 
and prevent^ that university's being farther tinctured with 
their :opinii>ns. But the doctrines of Wickliff still gaining 
•ground,. the archbishop resolved to visit the university, 
attended by the earl of Arundel, his nephew, and a splendid 
. retinue. When he c^me near the town, he was met by 
^the principal members of the university, who told him, 
.that,. if \ie came only to see the town, he was very weU 
.come, but if he came in the character of a visitor, they 
refused to acknowledge his jurisdiction. The archbishop, 
.ireseoting this treatment, left Oxford in a day or two, and 
vrpte to the king oo account of his disappointment Afteir 


a warm contest between the university and the archbi^op^ 
both parties agreed to refer the dispute to the king's deci<« 
sion ; who, governing himself by the example of his pre* 
decessors, gave sentence in favour of the archbishop. Soon 
after this controversy was ended, a convocation being held 
at St. Paul's in London, the bishops and clergy com* 
plsuned of the growth of Wicklevitism at Oxford, and 
pressed the archbishop to visit that university. He ac-» 
cordingly wrote to the chancellor and others, giving them 
notice, that he^intended to hold a visitation in St. Mary's 
<hurcfa. Hia delegates for this purpose were sent down 
soon after, and admitted by the university, who, to make 
some satis&ction for their backwardness in censuring 
WicklifPs opinions, wrote to the archbishop, and asked 
his paidon: after which they appointed g committee of 
twelve persons, to examine heretical books, particularly 
those of Wickiiff. These inquisitors into heretical pravity, 
bavijig censured some conclusions extracted, out of Wick* 
liflPs books, sent an account of theiar proceedings to the 
archbishop, who confirmed their censur^ and sent an 
authority in writing to some* eminent members of the uni- 
versity, empowering them. to inquire into persons suspect- 
ed of heterodoxy, and oblige^ them to declare their opi- 
nions. These rigorous proceedings made Arundel ex*, 
tremely bated by the Wickliffiteff, and certainly form the 
deepest stain on bis character. However he went on with 
the prosecution, and not only^ solicited the pope tb con* 
demn the abovementioned conclusions, bat desired like- 
wise a bull for the digging up WicklifF's bones.. The pope 
granted the first of these requests, but refused the other^ 
not thinking it any useful part of discipline to disturb the 
ashes of the dead. Arundel's warm zeal- for ^suppressing 
the Lollards, or Wickliifites, carried him to- several un* 
.ju$tiftahle severities, against the heads of that sect, particu* 
larly against sir Jolm Oldcastle, lord Cobbam; and in- 
duoed him to procnre a synodical constitution, which 
forbad the translation of the scriptures into the vulgar 
tongue. This prelate died at Canterbury, after having sat 
seventeen years,^he 20th of February, 1413. The Lol* 
lards pf those times asserted the immediate- hand of hea^ 
ven in the manner of bis deadi. He died of an inflamnfia* 
tion in his throat, and it is said that he was struck with 
this disease, as he was pronouncing sentence of excom* 
fnuuication and condemnation on the lord Cobham ; and 


from that time, notwithstanding all the assistance of medi** 
cine, he could swallow neither meat nor drink, avd was 
stan^ed to death. The Lollards imputed this lamentable 
end to the just judgment of God upon him, both for his 
severity towards that sect, and forbidding the scriptures 
to be translated into English ; and bishop Godwin seems to 
lean to the same opinion. He was buried in the cathedral 
of Canterbury, near the west end, under a monument erect*' 
ed by himself in his life-time. He was a considerable bene<* 
faetor to that church, having built the Lanthorn Tower, 
and great part of the Nave ; and he gave a ring of five 
b^lls, called from him '^ Arundel's Ring,*' several rich 
vestments, a mitr^ enchased with jewels, a silver gilt 
crosier, a golden chalice for the high altar, and another 
to be used only on St Thomas Socket's day. He be- 
stowed also the church of Godmersham, out of the in- 
ccnne of which, he ordered six shillings and eight pence 
to be given annually to every monk of the convent, on "the 
foresaid festival. Lastly, he gave several valuable boc^s^ 
particularly two Missals, and a collection in one volume of 
St. Gregory's works, with mmthema to any person who 
should semove it out of the church. He appears to have 
possessed a great natural capacity, and was a splendid 
benefactor to many of our ecclesiastical structures. As a 
pcditician, he took a very active share in the principal 
measures of very turbulent times, and it is perhaps now 
difficult to appreciate his character in any other particu- 
lars than what are most prominent, his zeal for the catho- 
lic religion, and bis munificence Ik the various offices he 


ARZACHEL (Abraham), or EIZARAKEL, a native 
of Toledo, in the twelfth century, was one of the most 
celebrated astronomers who appeared after the time of the 
Greeks, and before the revival of learning. He wrote a 
treatise on the *^ obliquity of the Zodiac,** which he fixed, 
for his time, at 23^ 34', and determined the apogee of the 
sun by four hundred and two observations. The famous 
Alphonsine Tables, published by order of Alphonsus, king 
of Castille, were partly taken from the works of ArzacheL 
Few particulars are known of the personal history of this 

1 Biog. Brit -^Some correctioni and sdditioM to tbat sooount ar« given ia 
B«Btham'f History of Ely. 


astronomer^ unless that he was of the Jewish persuasion* 
Montucla says that his tables are preserved in several 
libraries, in 'manuscript, with, an introduction wMch ex* 
plains their use. ^ 
^ ASAPH (ST.)f who gave his name to the episcopal sed 
^ of St. Asaph in Wales, was descended of a good f&mily iu 
North Wales, and became a monk in the convent of 
. Llanelvy, over which Kentigern the Scotch bishop of thai 
place presided. That prelate, being recalled to his own 
country, resigned his convent and cathedral to Asaph, who 
demeaned himself with such sanctity, that after his death 
Uanelvy lost its name, and took that of the saint. St. 
Asaph flourished about the year 590, under Carentius, king 
of the Britons. He wrote the ordinances of his churcl^ 
the life of his master Kentigern, and some other pieces* 
The time of bis death is not certainly known. After hb 
death the see of St Asaph continued vacant 500 years. ' 

ASCH (George Thomas Baron d'), an eminent Rus- 
sian physician, counsellor of state, and member of mauy 
academies, was born at Petersburgh of German parents^ 
in 1729, and died in that city iu 1807. He studied in 
the university of Gottingen, under Haller, and his repu*^ 
tatiou is in a great measure owing to the respect he pre* 
served for that celebrated school, and to the princely 
contributions he made to it. His fortune enabled him to 
make vast collections during his various travels, a part of 
which he regularly sent every year to Gottingen. In par- 
ticular he enriched the library with a complete collection 
of Russian writers, a beautiful Koran, Turkish manu« 
scripts, and many other curious articles ; and he added to 
the museum a great number of valuable articles collected 
throughout the Russian empire, curious habits, armour, 
instruments, minerals, medals, &c. He was also a liberal 
contributor to Blumenbach's collection. A^ a writer, he 
had a principal part in the Russian Pharmacopoeia, Peters- 
burgh, 1778, 4to, and wrote many essays, in Latin and 
German, on different subjects of physiology and medicine, 
of which a list may be seen in the ^^ Gelehrtes Deutsche 
land'* of M. Meusel, fourth edition, vol. I. p. 98. What 
he published on the plague has been highly valued by 
practitioners, and there are two curious papers by him 
in No. 171 and 176 of our Philosophical Transactions, 

> MorcrK'^Bioff. CToiTcrMlle. * BUif. Brit. 

S» A S C H. 

His memory was honoured by Heyne with an elegant 
eulogium, <^ De Obitu Bar. de Asch, ad vivos amahtissi* 
mos J. Fr. Blumenbach, et J. D. Reuss," 4to. * 

ASCHAM (Roger), an illustrious English scholar, was 
bom at Kirby-Wiske, near North- AUerton, in Yorkshire, 
libout the year 1515. His father, John Ascham, was of 
moderate fortune, but a man of understanding and probity^ 
and steward to the noble family of Scroop ; his mother's 
name was Margaret, descended of a genteel femily, and 
allied to several persons of great distinction; but her 
maiden name is not recorded. Besides this, they had two 
odier sons, Thomas and Anthony, and several daughters; 
and it has been remarked as somewhat singular, that after 
living together forty-seven years in the greatest harmony, 
and with the most cordial affection, the father and mother 
died the same day, and almost in the same hour. Roger, 
some time before his father's death, was adopted into the 
family of sir Anthony Wing&eld, and studied with his two 
sons under the care of Mr. Bond. The brightness of his 
genius, and his great affection for learning, very early dis* 
covered themselves, by his eagerly reading all the English 
books which came to his hands. This propensity for study 
was encouraged by his generous benefactor, who, when he 
had attained the elements of the learned languages, sent 
him, about 1530, to St John's college in Cambridge, at 
that timie one of the most flourishing in the university. . 

" Ascham entered Cambridge," says Dr. Johnson, *' at 
a time when the last great revolution of the intellectual 
world was filling every academical mind with ardour or 
anxiety. The destruction of the Constantinopolitan em- 
pire had driven the Greeks, with tlieir language, into the 
interior parts of Europe, the art of printing had made the 
books easily attainable, and Greek now began to be taught 
in England. "^Tbe doctrines of Luther had already filled 
all the nations of the Romish communion with controversy 
and dissention. New studies of literature, and new tenets 
of religion, found employment for all who were desirous of 
truth, or ambitious of fame. Learning was, at that time, 
prosecuted with that eagerness and perseverance, which, 
in this age of indifference and dissipation, it is not easy to 
conceive. To teach or to learn, was at once the business 
and the pleasure of academical life ; and an emulation of 

I Biog« Unirerselle.— Diet, pistoriqoe. 

.A S C H A M. 29 

study was' raised by Cheke and Smith, to which even the 
present age, perhaps, owes many advantages, without re-* 
membering or knowing its benefactors.** 

The master of St. John*s college at this time, Nicholas 
Medcalf, was a great encourager of learning, and his tutor, 
Mr. Hugh Fitzherbert, had not only much knowledge, but 
also a graceful and insinuating method of imparting it to bis 
pupils. To a genius naturally prone to learning, Mr. Ascham 
added a spirit of emulation, which induced him to study so 
bard, that, while a mere boy, he made a great progress in po- 
lite learning, and became exceedingly distinguished amongst 
the most eminent wits in the university. He took his de- 
gree of B. A. on the twenty-eighth of February, 1534, 
when eighteen years of age ; and on the twenty -third of 
March following, was elected fellow of his college by the 
interest of the master, though Mr. Ascham's propensity to 
the reformed religion had made it difficult for Dr. Medcaif, 
who, according to Ascham^s account, was a man of uncom- 
mon liberality, to carry his good intention into act. These 
honours served only to excite him to still greater vigilance 
in his studies, particularly in that of the Greek tongue, 
wherein he attained an excellency peculiar to himself, and 
read therein, both publicly for the university, and privately 
in his college, with universal applause. At the commence- 
ment held after the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, in 
1536, he was inaugurated M. A. being then twenty-one 
years old. By this time many of his pupils came to be 
taken notice of for their extraordinary proficiency, and 
William Grindall, one of them, at the recommendation of 
Mr. Ascham, was chosen by sir John Cheke, to be tutor to 
the lady Elizabeth. As he did not accept this honour 
himself, he probably was delighted with an academical life, 
and was not very desirous of changing it for one at court. 
His affection for his friends, though it filled him with a 
deep concern for their interests, and a tender regard for 
their persons, yet could not induce him to give up his 
understanding, especially in points of learning. For this 
reason he did not assent to the new pronunciation of the 
Greek, which his intimate friend, sir John Cheke, la« 
boured^ by his authority, to introduce throughout the 
univiersity; yet when he had thoroughly examined, he 
eame over to his opinion, and defended the new pronun* 
ciation with that zeal* and vivacity which gave a peculiar 
liveliness to all his writings. In July 1 542, he supplicated 

so A S C H A M. 

the university of Oxford to he incorporated M. A. but it i« 
doubtful whether this was granted. To divert him after 
the fatigue of severer studies, he addicted himself to arcb^ 
ery, which innocent amusement drew upon him the censure 
of some persons, against whose opinion he wrote a small 
treatise, entitled ^' Toxophilus," published in 1544, ahd 
dedicated to king Henry VIII. then about to undertake his 
expedition against Boulogne. This work was yery kindly 
received ;' and the king, at the recommendation of sir Wil-* 
liam Paget, was pleased to settle a pension of ten pounds 
(now probably in value one hundred) upon him, which^ 
after that prince's death, was for some time discontinued^ 
but at length restored to him, during pleasure, by Edward 
VI. and confirmed by queen Mary, with an additional 
ten pounds per annum. Among other accomplishments he 
.was remarkable for writing a very fine hand, and taught 
that art to prince Edward, the lady Elizabeth, the two 
brothers Henry and Charles, diikes of Suffolk, and several 
other persons of distinction, and for many years wrote all 
the letters of the university to the king, and to the great 
men ai court. The same year that he published his book 
he was cho^n university-orator, in the room of Mr. John 
Cbeke, arl office which gratified his passion for an acade* 
mical life, and afforded him frequent opportunities of dis« 
playing his superior eloquence in the Latin and Greek 
tongues. In 1^148, on the death of his pupil, Mr. Grindal, 
he was sent for to court, in order to instruct the lady Eli* 
zabeth in the knowledge of the learned languages, which 
duty he discharged for two years, with great reputation to 
himself, and with much satisfaction to his illustrious pupil. 
For some time he enjoyed as great comfort at court as he 
had done at college ; but at length, on account of some ill- 
judged and ill-founded whispers, Mr.Ascham took such a 
' distaste at some in the lady Elizabeth's family, that he lefk 
her a little abruptly, which he afterwards heartily repented^ 
and took great and not unsuccessful pains, to be restored 
to her good graces. On his returning to the university, he 
resumed his studies, and the discharge of his office of 
public orator, his circumstances being at this time tolerably 
easy, by considerable assistance from lovers of learnings 
and a small pension allowed him by king Edward, and an- 
other by archbishop Lee. In the summer of 1 550, he went 
into Yorkshire to visit his family and relations, but was re- 
called to court in order to atteiid sif Richard Morysine^ 

A S C H A M. 31 

then going ambassador to the emperor Charles V. ^ I^his^ 
journey to London he visited the lady Jane Gray, at her 
father's house at Broadgate in Leicestershire, with whoia 
he had been well acquainted at court, and for whom he 
had already a very liigh esteem. In September following^ 
he embarked with sir R. Morysine for Germany, where he 
remained three years, during which he left nothing omitted 
which might serve to perfect his knowledge of men as weli 
as books. As he travelled with an ambassador, he thought 
it became him to make politics some part of his study, and 
how well he succeeded appears from a short but very curi^ 
ous tract which he wrote, concerning Germany, and of the 
affairs of Charles Y. He was also of great use to the am«* 
bassador, not only in the management of his public con* 
cerns, but as the companion of his private studies, which 
were for the most part in the Greek language. He read. 
Herodotus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Demosthenes, three 
days in a week; the other three he copied the letters which 
the ambassador sent to England. While thus employed, 
his friends in England, particularly sir WilliaQi Cecil, pro* 
cured for him the post of Latin secretary to king Edward. 
But 'this he did not enjoy long, being recalled on account of 
the king's death, on which occasion he lost all bis places, to-* 
gether with his pension, and all expectation of obtaining 
any farther favours at court In .this situation he was at 
first hopeless, and retired to the university to indulge his 
melancholy. But the prospect quickly became more pro- 
mising. His friend the lord Paget mentioned him to 
Stephen Gardiner bishop of Winchester, lord highxhancel- 
lor, who very frankly received him into his favour, notwith- 
standing Mr. Ascham remained firm to his religion, which 
was so far from being a secret to the bishop, that he had 
many malicious informations given him on that head, which 
he treated with contempt, and abated nothing in his friend* 
ship to our author. He first procured him the re-estab- 
lishment of his pension, which consisted of but ten poundil 
a year, with the addition of ten pounds a year more ; he 
then fixed him in the post of Latin secretary to the king and 
queen, and, by her majesty's interest and his own, kept 
him in the fellowship of St. John's, and in his place of 
orator to the university, to Midsummer 1554*. Soon 
after bis admission to his new employment, he gave an 
extraordinary specimen of his abilities and diligence, by 
cooo^sing and transcribing, with his usual eleganc^^ in^ 

S2 A S C H A M. 

three da3'S, forty-seven letters to princes and persdif'* 
agesy of whom cardinals were the lowest. He was like- 
wise patronised by cardinal Pole, who, though he wrote 
elegant Latin, yet sometimes made use of Mr. Ascham's 
pen^ particularly in translating his speech to the parlia- 
ment, which he made as the pope^s legate, and of which 
translation he sent a copy to the pope. On the first of 
June 1554^ Ascham married Mrs. Margaret Howe, a lady of 
at good family, with whom he had a very.considerabhe for* 
time, and of whom he gives an excellent character, in one 
of bis letters to his friend Sturmius. His favour with 
<|ueen Mary^s ministers was not less than what he enjoyed 
from the queen herself, who conversed with him often, and 
was much pleased with his company. On her deaths hav^ 
ing been previously reconciled to the jady Elizabeth, he 
was immediately distinguished by her, now queen, and 
from this time until his death he was constantly at court, very 
fully .employed in the discharge of his two great ofBces^ 
the one of secretary for the Latin tongue, and the other 
of tutor to her majesty in the learned languages, reading 
some hours with her every day. This interest at court 
would have procured a man of a more active temper many 
considerable advantages; but such was either Ascham's 
indolence, oi; disinterestedness, that he never asked any 
things eitJier for himself or his family, though he received 
feveral favours unsolicited, particularly the prebend of 
Westwang in the church of York, in 1559, which he held 
to his death. Yet however indifferent to his own affairs, 
' he was very far from being negligent in those of his friends, 
for whom he wiLs ready to do any good office in his power, 
and in nothing readier than in parting with his money, 
though he never had much to spare. He always associated 
with the greatest men of the court, and having once in con- 
Tersation heard the best method of educating youth de* 
bated with some heat, he from thence took occasion, at the 
ifequest of sir Richard Sackville, to write his '< ScbooU 
master,^' which he lived to finish, but not to publish. Hi» 
application to study rendered him infirm throughout hi9 
whole life, and at last he became so weak, that he was un- 
able to read in the evenings or at night; to ma^e anaiends 
for which, he rose very early in the morning. The year 
before his death he was seized with a hectic, which brought 
him very low ; and then, contrary to his former custom, 
relapsing into nigbt-studies, in order to complete a Latinr 

A S H A M. 83 

pryetik with which he designed to present the queeii oh the 
new year, he, on the 23d of December 1563, was attacked 
by an aguish distemper, which threatened him with imme-^ 
diate death. He was visited in bis last sickness by Dr. 
Alexander Nowell, dean of St. Paul's, and Graves^ vicar 
of St. Sepulchre's, who found him perfectly calm and 
cbearful, in which disposition he continued to the 30th pf 
the same month, when he expired. On the 4th of January 
following, he was interred according to his own directions, 
in the most private manner, in St. Sepulchre's church, his 
funeral sermon being preached by the before-mentioned 
Dr. Nowell. He was universally lamented, and even the 
queen herself not only shewed great concern, but was also 
pleased to say, that she had rather have lost ten thousand 
pounds than her tutor Ascham. His only failing was too 
great a propensity to dice -and cock-fighting, which the 
learned bishop Nicolson would persuade us to be an un- 
founded calumny; but as it is mentioned by Camden, ad 
well as some other contemporary writers, it seems impos- 
sible to deny it. It is certain -that he died in -very iudifFer- 
ent circumstances, as may appear from the address jof his 
widow to sir William Cecil, in her dedication of his 
** Schoolmaster," wherein she says expressly, that Mr. 
. Ascham left her a poor widow with many orphans ; and Dr. 
Grant,, in 'his dedication of Ascham's letters to queen £11^* 
zabeth^ pathetically recommends to her his pupil, Giles 
Ascham, the sou of our author, representing that be had 
lost his father, who should have taken care of his educa^ 
tion, and that he was left poor and without friends. , Besides 
. this son he had two others, Dudley and Sturmur, of whom 
we know little. Lord Burleigh took Giles Ascham under 
his protection, by whose interest he was recommended to 
a scholarship of St. John's, and afterwards by the queen's 
mandate, to a fellowship of Trinity college in Cambridge, 
and was celebrated, as well as his father, for his admirable 
Latin style in epistolary writings. 

" Whether," says Dr. Johnson,^ " Ascham was poor by 
his own fault, or the fault of others, cannot now be decided ; 
hut it is certain that many have beeq rich with less merit. 
His philological learning would have gained him honour in 
anyvcountry; and among us it may justly call for that re- 
verence which all nations owe to those who first rooj»e 
them from ignorance, and kindle among them the light. o£ 

Vol. UL D 

34 A S C H A M. 

The only works he published were, 1. "Toxophilus; 
the school of Shooting, in two books," London, 4to, 1545, 
by Whitchurch; 1571, by Thomas Marsh^; and 1589, by 
JefFes. It has already been noticed, that he was fond of 
archery, and that he was censured for a practice unsuitable 
to a man professing learning, and perhaps of bad example 
in a place of education. This treatise was written as a de- 
fence, but his design was not only to recommend the art of 
shooting, but to give an example of diction more n&tural 
and more truly English, than was used by the common 
writers of that age, whom he blames for mingling exotic 
terms with their iiative language. • 2. "A Report and Dis- 
course, written by Roger Ascham, of the affairs and state of 
Germany, and the emperor Charles his court, duryng cer- 
tain yeares, while the said Roger was there. At London^ 
printed by John Daye, dwelling over Aldersgate. Cum 
gratia et^privilegio regise majestatis per decennium ;" with- 
out a date. This treatise is written in the form of a letter, 
addressed to John Astley, in answer to one of his which is 
prefixed ; he was a domestic of the lady Elizabeth, and his 
letter bears date the 19th of October 1552. The answer 
must have been written the same year, since there is no 
mention therein of king Edward^s death, which happened 
the year following. In this work he describes the disposi- 
tions and interests of the German princes, like a man in- 
quisitive and judicious, and recounts many particularities 
%vhich are lost in the mass of general history, in a style 
which, to the ears of that age, was undoubtedly mellifluous, 
and which is now a very valuable specimen of genuine 
English. After his death were printed, 3. " The School- 
master; or, a plain and perfite way of teaching children to 
understand, write, and speak the Latin tongue; but espe- 
cially purposed for the private bringing up of youth in 
gentlemen and noblemen's houses; and commodious also 
for all such as have forgot the Latin tongue, and would by 
themselves, without a schole-master, in short time, and with 
small paines, recover a sufficient habilitie to understand, 
write, and speake Latin, by Roger Ascham, ann. 1570, At 
London, printed by John Daye, dwelling over Aldersgate;" 
inscribed by Margaret his widow to sir William Cecil, 
principal secretary of state. The design originated, as we 
are informed in the preface, in a conversation on educa- 
tion, which took place at secretary Cecil's apartments in 
Windsor castle, during the plague in 15^3.. This work^ 

A S C H A M. 85 

which contains the best advice ever given for the study of 
languages, was reprinted by Day, 1571 ; by JefFes, 1589; 
and by Upton, 1711. 4. ** Apologia doct. viri R. A. pro 
coena Dominica contra Missum et ejus prestigias ; in aca« 
demia olim Cantabrigiensi exercitationis gratia inchoata. 
Cui accesserunt themata quaedam Theologica, debita dis- 
pntandi ratiotie in Coliegio DrJoao. pronunciata. Exposi* 
tionis item antiquse in epistola Divi Pauli ad Titam et 
Philemonem, ex diversis sanctorum Patrum Greece scriptis 
commentariis ab CEcumeitio collects, et a R. A. Latine 
versae.'* Lond. by Coldock, 1577, 8vo, pp. 296. 

Ascham's epistles were published by Mr. Grant, master 
of Westminster school, in 1576, 1577, 1578, and 1590, 
London; and there were two editions at Hanau, 1602, 
1610; and one at Nuremberg, 1611. The last and best 
edition is that published by Mr. Elstob, Oxford, 1703, who 
has added many letters not in the former, but has omitted 
Ascham's poems. The elegance of these letters has been 
universally acknowledged, and the life prefixed by Grant 
is the foundation of all we know of him. Many particu* 
lars, however,' might yet be gleaned from his epistles. 
Aschanf s English works were published by the Rev. James 
Bennet, 1767, 4to, to which Dr. Johnson prefixed a life, 
written in his happiest manner, and since added to bis 
works. * 

ASCHARI, or ACHARI, a Mussulman doctor, and 
chief of the Ascharians, who weie the opponents of the 
Hanbalites ; the latter held the doctririe of particular pro- 
Tidence, while the Ascharians maintained tliat the supreme 
being acts by general laws. They also held absolute 
predestination. Aschari died at Bagdat, in the year 940, 
and was privately interred to prevent his body from being 
insulted by the Hanbalites. * 

ASCLEPIADES, an ancient physician, was a native 
of Prusa, in Bitfaynia, and contemporary with Mithridates 
(about the year 110 B. C), to whose court he refused to 
go, when invited by magnificent promises. He first went 
to Rome, to teach rhetoric; but not finding much encou- 
ragement, he began to practise physic, of which he had 
little knowledge, and to conceal his ignorance, affected to 

» Oen. Diet.— Biog. Brttannica.— Johnson's Works, — Ohurton's Life of 
Kowell^ — ^Strype*8 Granmer, p. 162-r-.170. appendix, p. 8^. — Strype's Annals, 
▼ol. I. p. 337, U. p. 23, 29. — Strype»8 Memorials, to?. I. p. 1 69.-^ Walton's 
Hist, of PoMry.— Lloyd's SUte Worthies.— Wood's Ath. Ox. vol. I, 

! X>'Herbetok,--Moreri. 

D 2 


condemn the medicinea and modes of practice then in usre. 
He confined himself to such remedies as were simple and 
palatable, and soon was considered as a favourite prac- 
titioner. He appears from Pliny's account to have beeq 
much of the quack, and occasionally sufficiently bold and 
adventurous in his prescriptions. He desired, among other 
boasts, that he might not be considered as a physician, if 
ever he were sick ; and his reputation perhaps was not 
lessened in this respect, by his being killed by a fall. He 
wrote several books quoted by Pliny, Celsus, and Galen, 
but fragments only remain, of which an edition was pub- 
lished by Jumpert, under the title " Malagmata hydropica, 
&c." Weimar, 1794, 8vo. * 

ASCONIUS (Pedianus), an ancient grammarian of 
Padua ; who, it is generally supposed, was acquainted 
with Virgil. Yet Jerome says, that he flourished under 
the Vespasians, which is rather at too great a distance for 
one and the same man 3 but Jerome's account is rejected 
by more recent writers, who think that he lived under the 
empire of Augustus, and died under that of Nero,, aged 
eighty-five. His "^Enarrationes in Ciceronis Orationes,'* 
.were first published at Venice, in 1477, which is a very 
scarce edition. They were afterwards published at Flo- 
rence, 8vo, 1513, and have since been incorporated in 
the editions of Cicero, by Gruter, Gronovius, andOliveU 
He had also written a life of Virgil, and another of Sallust, 
the loss of which may be regretted. ' 

ASELLI (Gaspar), a physician of Cremona, of the six- 
teenth century, was the first who discovered the lacteal 
veins in the mesentery, while he was dissecting for another 
purpose. He published a dissertation " De lacteis vents,'* 
wherein his discovery is displayed, with plates in three 
colours. The first edition of this curious work is of Mi- 
.]an, 1627 ; but it was afterwards reprinted at Basle in 
.1628, 4to, and at Leyden, 1640. The author professed 
.anatomy at Pavia, . about 1620^ with great success, and 
died there in 1626.* 

ASGILL (John), an ingenious English writer and law- 
yer, who lived about th6 end of the seventeenth, and be- 
, ginning of the eighteenth century. He was entered of 

' 1 Oen. Dict-^Biog. UniTerwlle.->-^Ha1Ier Bibl. Mecl.— MangretBibl. Script: 
. Med.<~See also a strange and inflated Life of him> published at Loodoii in I762f 
. Svo. said to be from the Italian of Cocchi. 

* Fabric. Bibl. Lat. — Mpreri.— Bjog. Universclle. 

3 Alanget Bibl. Script. Med. — Moreri.— Vaader Lindeo de Script* Med. 

A S G I L L. 3t 

tbe society of Lincoln's inn, and having been recom- 
mended to Mr. Eyre, a very great lawyer, and one of the 
judges of the king's bench, in the reign of king William, 
this gentleman gave him assistance in his studies. Under 
so able a master, he quickly ac(][uired a competent know-* 
ledge of the laws, and was soon noticed as a rising- man in 
his profession. He bad an uncommon vein of wit and 
humour, of which he afforded the world sufficient evidence 
in two pamphlets ; one intituled, ** Several assertions 
proved, in order to create another species of money than 
gold and silver ;" the second, *' An essay on a registry 
for titles of lands." Tbis last is written in a very hu- 
morous style. 

In the year 1698, Mr. Asgill published a treatise on the 
possibility of avoiding death, intitled " An argument^ 
proving that, according to the covenant of eternal life, 
revealed in the scriptures, man may be translated from 
hence into that eternal life without passing through death, 
although the human nature of Christ himself could not 
thus be translated till he had passed through death," printed 
originally in 1700, and reprinted several years since. 
This raised a considerable clamour, and Dr. Sacheverell 
mentioned it among other blasphemous writings, which 
induced him to think the church in danger. In 1699, an 
act being passed for resuming forfeited estates in Ireland, 
commissioners were appointed to settle claims ; and Mr* 
Asgill being at this time somewhat embarrassed in his cir* 
cumstances, resolved to go over to Ireland* On his ar- 
rival there, the favouir of the commissioners, and his own 
merit, procured him great practice, the whole nation almost 
being then engaged in iaw-suits, ^.nd among these there 
were fejv considerable, in which Mr. Asgill was not re- 
tained gn one side or other, so that in a very short space 
of time he acquired a considerable fortune. He puri> 
chased a large estate in Ireland ; and the influence this 
purchase gave him, occasioned his being elected a member 
of the House of Commons in that kingdom. He was in 
Munster when the session began ; and, before he could 
reach Dublin, he was informed, that, upon a complaint, 
the House had voted the last-mentioned book of bis to be 
a blasphemous libel, and had ordered it to be burnt ; howr 
ever, betook his seat in the, house, where he sat oqly 
four days, l?efore he was e^pejled for this performance, 

38 ^ A S G I L L. 

and being about the same time involved in a number of 
law-suits, his affairs soon grew much embarrassed in Ire- 
land, so that he resolved to return to England, where, in 
1705, he was chosen member for the borough of Braniber, 
in the county of Sussex, and sat for several years ; but in 
the interval of privilege in 1707, being taken in execution 
at the suit of Mr. Holland, he was committed to the Fleet. 
The houses meeting in November, Mr. Asgill applied ; 
and on the 16 th of December was demanded out of cus- 
tody by a seijeant at arms with the mace, and the next 
day took his seat in the house. Between his application 
and his discharge, complaint was made to the house of 
the treatise for which he had been expelled in Ireland, 
and a committee was appointed to examine it : of this 
committee, Edward Harley, esq. was chairman, who made 
a report, that the book contained several blasphemous ex- 
pressions, and seemed to be intended to ridicule the scrip- 
tures. Thursday, the 18th of September 1707, was ap- 
pointed for him to make his defence, which he did with 
considerable spirit, but as he still continued to main- 
tain the assertions he had laid down in that treatise, 
he was expelled. From this time, Mr. Asgiirs affairs 
grew more desperate, and he was obliged to retire, first 
to the Mint, and then became a prisoner in the King's 
Bench, but removed himself thence to the Fleet, and in 
the rules of one or other of these prisons continued 
thirty years, during which time he published a multitude of 
small political tracts, most of which were well received* 
He also drew bills and answers, and did other business iq 
his profession till his death, which happened some time in 
November 1738, when he was upwards of fourscore, or, 
as some thought, upwards of an hundred years of age. 
The mo^t considerable of his works are. K ^^^e jure 
divino; or, an assertion, that the title of the house of 
HanoVer to the succession of the British monarchy (oq 
failure of issue of her present majesty), is a title here- 
ditary, and of divine institution,'* 17 10^ 8vo. 2. His 
*^ Defence on his Expulsion ; to which is added, an Intro* 
duction and Postscript,'' 1712, 8vo. Of the first pamphlet 
there were several editions ; and, not long after it was 
published, he sent abroad another treatise, under the title 
pf ^^ Mr. Asgill's Apology for an omission in his late pub- 
Uc^tioD^ ill which s^e contained suipmaries of all the acts 

A S G I L L. 39 

made for strengthening the protestant succession.'' 3. " The 
Pretender's declaration abstracted from two anonymous 
pamphlets, the one entitled Jus sacrum ; the other. Me- 
moirs of the chevalier de St. George ; with memoirs of two 
other chevaliers in the reign of Henry VII." 1713, 8vO. 
4. " The succession of the house of Hanover vindicated, 
against the Pretender's second declaration, in folio, en- 
titled. The hereditary right of the crown of England asr 
serted, &c." 1714, 8vo. This was in answer to Mr. Bedford's 
£^mous book. 5. " The Pretender's declaration from 
Plombiers, 1714, Englished; with a postscript before it; 
in relation to Dr. Lesley's letter sent after it," 1715, 8vo, 
Besides these, he wrote an " Essay for the Press," the " Me- 
tamorphoses of Man," "A question upon Divorce," 1717, 
" A treatise against Woolston,*^ and several other pieces. ' 

ASH (John), LL. D. a dissenting minister at Pershore, 
in Worcestershire, of whom we hav^ not been able to re- 
cover any particulars, was the author of some useful works. 
The first was *^ The easiest introduction to Dr. Lowth's 
English Grammar," 12mo, 1766. His next, ** A new 
and complete Dictionary of .the English Language," 2 vols. 
8vo, 1773; the plan of which was extensive beyond any 
thing of the kind ever attempted, and perha^ embraced 
much more than was necessary or useful. It is valuable, 
however, as containing a very large proportion of obsolete 
words, and such provincial or cant words as have crept 
into general use. In 1777, he published ^* .Sentiments 
on Education, collected from die best writers, properly 
methodized, and interspersed with occasional observa-' 
tions," 2 vols. 12mo. In this there are few original re- 
marks, but those few shew an acquaintance with the best 
principles of tirtuous and useful education, in which, we 
have been informed, the author employed some part of 
his time. Dr. Ash died in the 55th year of his age, at 
Pershore, March 1779.* 

ASHBY (George), an English divine and antiquary, 
was born Dec. 5, 1724, in Red Lion street, Olerkenwell, 
and educated at Croydon, Westminster, and Eton schools. 
In October 1740, he was admitted of St. John's college, 
Cambridge, and took his degrees, B. A. 1744, M. A. 1748, 
B.D. 1756. He was presented by a relation to the rectory 
of Hungerton, and in 1759 to that of Twyford, both in 

1 Biog. Brit. * Gent, and London Mag. 1*779. 


iQ A S H B Y. 

ILeicestershire, but resigned tlie former in 1767, and the 
latter in 1769. In 1774 he was elected F. S. A. and the 
same year Accepted the college rectory of Barrow, in Suft 
folk, where he constantly resided for thirty-four years. 
In Oct. 1780^ he was inducted into the living of Stansfi^ld, 
in Suffolk, owing to the favour of Dr. Ross, bishop of 
Exeter, who, entirely unsolicited, gave him ^ valuablei 
portion of the vicarage of Bampton, in Oxfordshire ; but 
this being out of distance from his cpliege living, he pro^ 
cured an exchange of it for Stansfield. Dr. Ross's faendr 
ship for him began early in college, and continued uni-r 
formly steady through all changes of place and situation^ 
In 1793, he gradually lost his sight, but retained, amidst 
so severe a privation to a man of literary research, his ac-j 
customed chearfulness. In his latter days he had repeated 
paralytic attacks, of one of which he died, June 12, 1808^ 
in the eighty-fourth year of his age. Mr. Ashby published 
nothing himself, but was an able and obliging contributor 
to many literary undertakings. In the Archaeologia, vol. 
III. is a dissertation, from his pen, on a singular coin of 
Nerva, found at Colchester. The Historian of Leicester- 
shire has repeatedly acknowledged his obligations to Mr, 
Ashby, particularly for his dissertation on the Leicester 
milliary. His services have been also amply acknowledged 
by Mr. Nichols for assistance in the life of Bowyer ; by 
Mr. Harmer, in the preface to bis ** Observations on Scrip- 
ture"; and by Daines Barringtpn, in his work on the 
Statutes, p. 212 ; but both the last without mentioning hisf 
name. The late bishop Percy, Mr. Granger, and Mr, 
Gough, have acknowledged his contributions more 
pointedly. His valuable library and manuscripts were 
sold by Mr. Peck, bookseller at Bury, by a priced ca- 
talogue. * 

ASHE (Simkon), a Puritan ipinister, first settled ii^ 
Staffordshire, where he became known to Hildersham, 
pod, Ball, Langley, and other non-conformists of that 
time, was educated at Emanuel college, Cambridge, 
under Dn Stooker. He exercised his ministry in London 
twenty-three years. In the time of the civil wars, he was 
chaplain to the earl of Warwick. As he was a man of 
fortune and character, his influence was great among the 

1 Nichols's Life of Bowyef, vol. I.— Gent, Mag. vol. LXIIl. p. 9.77; and yol, 
LXXVIII. 566, 653.-rGraDgcr's Letters. 

ASHE. 41 

presbytcrians. He was some time chaplain to the earj of 
Manchester^ and fell under the displeasure of Cromwell's 
party, whom he had disobliged by his violent opposition 
to the engagement. He had a very considerable hand in 
restoring Charles H. and went to congratulate his majesty 
at Breda. Dr. Calamy speaks of him as a man of real 
sanctity, and a non- conformist of the old stamp. He 
died in 1662, and was buried the eve of Bartholomew day. 
Dr. Walker censures him for his zeal against the characters 
of th^ clergy in general, in which he shares with many of 
his brethren. He published several sermons preached 
before the parliament, or the miagistrates, on public occa- 
sions, ^nd funeral sermons for Jeremy Whitaker, Ralph 
Robinson, Robert Strange, Thomas Gataker, Richard 
Vines, and the countess of Manchester, a treatise on ** the 
power of Godliness," and prefaces to the works of John 
Ball, and others. ^ 

ASHLEY (Robert), a Wiltshire gentleman, descended 
irom the family of that name residing at Nashhill in that 
county, was born in 1565, and admitted a gentleman com- 
moner of Hart hall in Oxford, in i580. From the uni- 
versity he removed to the Middle Temple,* where he was 
called to the dignity of barrister at law. After some time 
he travelled into Holland, France, &c. conversing with the 
learned, and frequenting the public libraries. ' Being re- 
turned iiito England, he lived many years in the Middle 
Temple, and honoured the commonwealth of learning with 
several of his lucubrations. He died in a good old age, the 
beginning of October 1641, and was buried in the Temple 
church the 4th of the same month. He gave several books 
to that society. His principal works were, 1. " A Rela- 
tion of the kingdom of Cochin China," Lond. 1633, 4to, 
which is chiefly taken from an Italian work of Christopher 
Barri. 2. A Translation from French into Latin verse of 
Du Bartas's " Urania, or heavenly muse," London, 1589, 
4to. 3. A Translation from Spanish into English of ** A1-. 
manzor, the learned and victorious king that conquered 
Spain, his life and death," London, 1627, 4to. 4. A 
Translation from Italian into English of " II Davide per- 
seguitate," i. e. David persecuted, London, 1637, written 
originally by the marquis Virgilio Malvezzi. Wood tells 
yis, that part of the impression of this book had a new title 

} CftUmy.— Walker'! Suff<?riB^3 of the Clergy, Part I, p. 48, 113, 114, 117. 


put to it, bearing date 1650, with the picture before it of 
Charles L playing on a harp, like king David, purposely to 
carry off the remaining copies. * 

ASHMOlyE (EuAS), an eminent philosopher, chemist^ 
and antiquary, of the seventeenth century, and founder 
of the noble museum at Oxford, which still bears his name, 
was the only son of Mr. Simon Ashmole, of the city of 
Litchfield, in Staffordshire, sadler, by Anne, the daughter of 
Mr. Antl;^ony Boyer, of Coventry, in Warwickshire, wool- 
len-draper. He was born May 23, 1617, and during his 
early education in grammar, was taught music, in which 
he made such proficiency as to become a chorister iu the 
cathedral at Litchfield. When he had attained the age of 
sixteen he was taken into the family of James Paget, esq. 
a baron of the exchequer, who had married his mother's 
sister, and as his father died in 1634, leaving little pro- 
vision for him, he continued for some years in the Paget 
family, during which time he made considerable progress 
in the law, and spent hb leisure hours in perfecting him- 
self in music and other polite accomplishments. In March 
1633, he married Eleanor, daughter of Mr. Peter Man- 
waring, of Smallwood, in the county Palatine of Chester, 
and in Michaelmas term the same year, became a solicitor 
in Chancery. On February 11, 1641, he v^as sworn an 
attorney of the court of common pleas, and on December 
5th, in the same year, his wife died suddenly, of whom 
he has left us a very natural and affectionate memoriaL 
The rebellion coming on, he retired from London, being 
always a zealous and steady loyalist, and on May 9, 164i5, 
became one of the gentlemen of the ordnance in the gar- 
rison at Oxford, whence he removed to Worcester, where 
he was commissioner, receiver, and register of the excise, 
and soon after captain in the lord Ashley's regiment, and 
comptroller of tlie ordnance. In the midst of all this bu- 
siness he entered himself of Brazen-Nose college, in Ox- 
ford, and applied himself vigorously to the sciences, but 
especially natural philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy; 
and his intimate acquaintance with Mr. (afterwards sir 
George) Wharton, seduced him into the absurd mysteries 
of astrology, which was in those days in great credit. In 
the month ^f July, 1646, he lost his mother, who had 
always been a kind parent to him, and for whom he had a 

] Bioj. Brit,— Wood's Athcn», vol. Ih 

A S H M O L E. 43 

Tcry pious regard. On October 16th, the same year, he 
was elected a brother of the ancient and honourable society 
of Free and Accepted Masons, which he looked upon as a 
high honour, and has therefore given us a.particula^r ac^ 
count of the lodge established at Warrington in Lan- 
cashire; and in some of his manuscripts, there are very 
valuable collections relating to the history of the free 
masons. The king's affairs being now grown desperate, 
Mr. Ashmole withdrew himself, after the surrender of the 
garrison of Worcester, into Cheshire, where he continued 
till the end of October, and then came up to London, 
where he became acquainted with Mr. (afterwards sir Jonas) 
Moore, William Lilly, and John Booker, esteemed the 
greatest astrologers in the world, by whom he was ca- 
ressed, instructed, and deceived into their frateniity, which 
then made a very considerable figure, as appeared by the 
great resort of persons of distinction to their annual feast, 
of which Mr. Ashmole was aftervvarUs elected steward. In 
1647 he retired to Englefield, in Berkshire, where he pur-^ 
sued his studies very closely, and having so fair an op^ 
portunity, and the advantage, of some very able masters, 
he cultivated the science of botany. Here, as appears 
from his own remarks, he enjoyed in privacy the sweetest 
moments of his life, the sensation of which perhaps was 
quickened, by his just idea of the melancholy state of the 
times. It was in this retreat that he became acquainted 
with Mary, sole daughter of sir William Forster, of Alder- 
marston, in the county of Berks, bart. who was first niar- 
ried to sir Edward Stafford, then to one Mr. IJamlyn, and 
lastly to sir Thomas Mainwaring, knt. recorder of Reading, 
and one of the masters in chancery ; and an attachment 
took place ; but Mr. Humphrey Stafford, her second Son, 
had such a dislike to the measure, that when Mr. Ashmole 
happened to be very ill, he broke into his chamber, and if 
not prevented, would have murdered him. In the latter 
end of 1648, lady Main waring conveyed to him her estate 
at Bradfield, which was soon after sequestered on account 
of Mr. Ashmole's loyalty; but the interest he had with 
William Lilly, and some others of that party, enabled him 
to get that sequestration taken ofl'. On the sixteenth of 
November, 1649, he married lady Main waring, and settled 
in London, where his house became the receptacle of the 
most learned and ingenious persons that flourished at that 
time. It was by their conversation, that Mr. Ashmole, 

44 A S H M O L £. 

who had been more fortunate in worldly af&irs than most- 
scholars are^ and who had been always a curious collector 
of manuscripts, was induced to publish a treatise written 
by Dn Arthur Dee, relating to the- Philosopher's stone^ 
together with another tract on the same subject, by an un- 
known author. These accordingly appeared in the year 
following; but Mr. Ashmole was so cautious, or rather 
modesty as to publish them by a fictitious name. He at 
tlie same time addressed himself to a work of greater con- 
sequence, a complete collection of the works of such Eng- 
lish chemists, as had till then remained in MS. which cost 
him a great deal of labour, and for the embellishment of 
which be spared no expence, causing the cuts tliat were 
necessary, to be engraved at his own house in, Black-Friars, 
by Mr. Vaughan, who was then the most eminent artist in 
that department in England. He imbibed this affection for 
chemistry from his intimate acquaintance with Mr. William 
Backhouse, of Swallowfield in the county of Berks, who 
was reputed an adept, and whom, from his free commu- 
incation of chemical secrets, Mr. Ashmole was wont to call 
father, agreeably to the custom which had long prevailed 
among the lovers of that art, improperly, however, called 
chemistry for it really was the old superstition of al- 
chemy. He likewise employed a part of his time in ac- 
quiring the art of engraving seals, casting in sand, and 
the mystery of a working goldsmith. But all this time, 
bis great work of publishing the ancient English writers in 
chemistry went on; and finding that a competent know*? 
lege of the Hebrew was absolutely necessary for underr 
standing and explaining such authors as had written on the 
Hermetic science, he had recourse to rabbi Solomon Frank, 
by whom he was taught the rudiments of Hebrew, which 
he found very useful to him in his studies. At length, 
towards the close of the year 1652, his " Theatrum Chymi- 
cum Britannicum" appeared, which gained him great re- 
putation in the learned world, as it shewed him to be a. 
man of a most studious disposition, indefatigable applica- 
tion, and of wonderful accuracy in his compositions. It 
served also to extend his acquaintance considerably, and 
among others the celebrated Mr. Selden took notice of him 
in the year 1653, encouraged his studies, and lived in 
great friendship with him to the day of his death. He was 
likewise very intimate with Mr. Oughtred, the mathema- 
^tician, and with Dr. Wharton, a physician of great cb^T 

A S H M O L E. 45 


raster and experience; His marriage with lady Mainwa- 
rihg, however, involved him in abundance of law-suits 
with other people^ and at last produced a dispute between 
themselves, which came to a hearing on October 8, 1657, 
in the court of chancery, where serJeant Maynard having 
observed, that in eight hundred sheets of depositions taken 
on the part of the lady, there was not so much as a bad 
word proved against Mr. Ash mole, her bill was dismissed, 
and she delivered back to her husband. He had now for 
some time addicted himself to the study of antiquity and 
records, which recommended him to the intimate acquaint- 
ance of Mr. (afterwards sir William) Dugdale, whom about 
this time he attended in his survey of the Fens, and was 
very useful to him in that excellent undertaking. Mr. 
Ashmole himself soon after took the pains to trace the 
Roman road, which in Antoninus's Itinerary is called Ben«- 
nevanna, from Weeden to Litchfield, of which he gave 
Mr. Dugdale an account, in a letter addressed to him upon 
that subject. It is very probable, that after his studies 
had thus taken a new turn, he lost somewhat of his relish 
for chemistry, since he discontinued the Theatrum Chemi- 
cum, which, according to bis first design, was to have con- 
sisted of several volumes : yet he still retained such a re- 
membrance of it, as induced him to part civilly with the 
sons of art, by publishing a treatise in prose on the phi- 
losopher's stone, to which he prefixed an admirable pre- 
face, in which he wishes to apologize for taking leave of 
these fooleries. In the spring of the year 1658, our au- 
thor began to collect materials for his history of the order 
of the garter, which he afterwards lived to finish, and 
thereby rendered both the order and himself immortal, 
the just reward of the prodigious pains he tpok in searching 
records in the Tower, and elsewhere, comparing them with 
each other, and obtaining such lights as were requisite to 
render so perplexed a subject clear, and to reduce all the 
circumstances of such a vast body of history into their pro- 
per order. In September following he made a journey to 
Oxford, where he was extreniely well received, and where 
he undertook to make a full and distinct description of the 
coins given to the public library by archbishop Laud, which 
.was of great use to him in the works which he afterwards 
. composed. He had lodged and boarded sometimes at a house 
in South Lambeth, kept by Mr. John Tradescant, whose 
father and himself had been physic-gardeners there for 

46 A S. H M O L iE, 

many years, and had collected a vast number of curiositied, 
which, after mature deliberation, Mr. Tradescant and his 
wife determined to bestow on Mr. Ashmole, and accord- 
ingly sealed and delivered a deed of gift for that purpose, 
on December 16, 1659. On the restoration of king Charles 
II. Mr. Ashmole was early introduced into the presence 
and favour of his majesty, and on June 18, 1660, which was 
the second time he had the honour of discoursing with the 
king, he graciously bestowed upon him the place of Wind- 
sor herald. A few days after, he was appointed by the king 
to make a description of his medals, and had them deliver- 
ed into his hands, and king Henry Vlllth's closet assigned 
for his use, being also allowed his diet at court. On Au- 
^gust 21st, in the same year, she presented the three books 
which he had published, to his majesty, who, as he both 
loved and understood chemistry, received them very gra- 
ciously. On September 3, he had a warrartt signed for the 
office of commissioner of the excise, in consequence of a 
letter written by his majesty's express command, to the 
earl of Southampton, then lord high-treasurer, by Mr. Se- 
cretary Morris. About this time, a commission was granted 
to him as incidental to the care of the king's medals, to 
examine the famous, or rather infamous, Hugh Pejers, 
about the contents of the royal library which had fallen 
into his hands, and which was very carefully and punctually 
executed, but to very little purpose. On November 2a, 
he was called to the bar in Middle-Temple hall, and Ja- 
nuary 15, 1661, he was ^admitted a felloiv of the Royal So- 
ciety. On February 9th following, the king signed a war- 
rant for constituting him secretary of Surinam in the West 
Indies. In the beginning of . the year 1662, he was ap- 
pointed ^one of the commissioners for recovering the king*s 
go6ds, and about the same time he sent a set of services 
and anthems to the cathedral church of Litchfield, in me- 
mory of his having been once a chorister there, and he 
gave afterwards twenty pounds towards repairing the car 
thedral. On June 27, 1664, the White Office was opened, 
of which he was appointed a commissioner. On Feb. 17, 
1665, sir Edward Byshe sealed his deputation for visit- 
ing Berkshire, which visitation he begs^n on the llth 
of March ^following, and on June 9, 1668, he was ap- 
pointed by the lords commissioners of the treasury, ac- 
comptant-general, and country accomptant in the jexcise. 
His secona wife, lady Mainwaring, dying, April 1^ in the 

A S H M O L E. 47 

same year, he soon after married Mrs. Elizabeth Dugdaie^ 
daughter to his good friend sir William Dugdale, knt. gar- 
ter king at arms, in Lincoln*s-inn chapel, on November 3. 
The university of Oxford, in consideration of the many 
favours they had received from Mr. Ashmole, created him 
doctor of physic by diploma, July 19, 1669, which was 
presented to him on the 3d of November following, by 
Dr. Yates, principal of Brazen-Nose college, in the name 
of the university. He was now courted and esteeQied by 
the greatest people in the kingdom, both in point of title 
and merit, who frequently did him the honour to visit him 
at his chambers in the Temple, an^l whenever he went his 
summer progress, he had the same respect paid him in the 
country, especially at his native town of Litchfield, to which 
when he came, he was splendidly entertained by the cor- 
poration. On May 8, 1672, he presented his laborious 
work on the most noble order of the garter, to his most 
gracious master king Charles II. who not only received it 
with great civility and kindness, but soon after granted to 
our author, as a mark of his approbation of the work, and 
of his personal esteem for him, a privy seal for 400 pounds 
out of the custom of paper. This was his greatest under- 
taking, and had he published nothing else, would have 
preserved his memory, as it certainly is in its kind one of 
the most valuable books in our language. On Januaiy 
29, 1675, he resigned his office of Windsor herald, which 
by his procurement, was bestowed on his brother Dugdale. 
It was with great reluctancy that the earl marshal parted 
with him, and it was not long after, that he bestowed on 
him the character of being the best officer in his office. On 
the death of sir Edward Walker, garter king at arms, Feb. 
20, 1677, the king aiid the duke of Norfolk, as earl mar* 
shal, contested the right of disposing of his place, on which 
Mr. Ashmole was consulted, who declared in favour of the 
king, but with so much prudence and discretion as not to 
give any umbrage to the earl marshal. He afterwards him- 
self refused this high dffice, which was conferred on his 
father-in-law sir William Dugdale, for whom he employed 
his utmost interest. About the close of 1677, a proposal 
was made to Mr. Ashmole to become a candidate for the 
city of Litchfield, but finding himself poorly supported by 
the very persons who would have encouraged him to stand, 
he withdrew his pretensions. On the 26th of January, 
1679, about ten in the morning, a fire began in the Middle 


iZ A s ti M d L £. 


TJfuiple, in the next chambers to Mr. Ashmole's^ by whicli 
he lost a library he had been collecting thirty-three years ; 
but his MSS. escaped, by their being at his house in South 
Lambeth. He^ likewise lost a collection of 9000 coins^ 
ancient a'nd modern ; but his more valuable collection of 
gold medals were likewise preserved by being at Lambeth; 
his vast repository of seals, charters, and other antiquities 
and curiosities, perished also in the flames. In 1683, the 
university of Oxford having finished a noble repository 
near the theatre, Mr. Ashmole sent thither that great col- 
lection of rarities which he had received from the Tradesj^ 
cants before-mentioned, together with such additions as he 
had made to them; and to this valuable benefaction he 
afterwards added that of his MSS. and library, which still 
remain a monument of his generous love to learning in 
general, and to the university of Oxford in particular. lu 
the beginning of the year 1685, he was invited by the ma- 
gistrates, and by the dean of Litchfield, to represent that 
corporation in parliament ; but^upon king James's intimat- 
ing to him, by the lord Dartmoiith, that he woiild take it 
kindly if he would resign his interest to Mr. Lewson, he in- 
stantly complied. 

On the death of his father-in-law, sir William Dugdale, 
Jan. 10, 1686, Mr. Ashmole declined a second time the 
office of garter king at arms, and recommended his brother 
Dugdale, in which, though he did not fully succeed, yet 
he procured him the place of Norroy. This was one of 
the last public acts of his life, the remainder of which was 
spent in an honourable retirement to the day of his demise, 
which happened on May 18, 1692, in the seventy-sixth 
year of his age. He was undoubtedly a great benefactor 
to, and patron of, learning. His love of chemistry led him 
to preserve many valuable MSS. relating to that science, 
besides those that he caused to be printed and published. 
He was deeply skilled in history and antiquities, as suffi- 
ciently appears by his learned and laborious works, both 
printjed and manuscripts. He was likewise a generous en- 
courager and protector of such ingenious and learned men 
as were less fortunate in the world than himself, as appears 
by his kindness to sir George Wharton in the worst of times, 
his respect to the memory of his friend Mr. John Booker, 
and the care he took in the education of the late eminent 
Dr. George Smalridge. His corpse was interred in the 
church of Lambeth in Surrey, May 26, 1692; and a black 

A S H M d L C. 49 

tazrhlk ston0 laid over hts grave, with a Latin inscription^ 
in which, though there is much to his honour, there is no->' 
thing which exceeds the truth. He may be considered as 
one of the first and most useful collectors of documents 
respecting English antiquities, but the frequent applica-' 
tion of the epithet genius to him, in the Biographia Bri- 
tannia^, is surely gratuitous. His attachment to.theab- 
/ surdities of astrology and alchemy, and his associati9ii 
with Lilly, Booker, and other quacks and impostors of his 
age, must ever prevent his being ranked among the learned 
wise, although he never appears to have been a confede-' 
rate in the tricks of Lilly and his friends, and certainly 
accumulated a considerable portion of learning and infor* 
mation on various useful topics. His benefaction to the 
university of Oxford will ever secure respect for his me- 
mory. It was towards the latter end of October 1677, 
that he made an offer to that university, of bestowing on 
it all that valuable collection of theTradescants, which was 
so well known to the learned world, and which had been 
exceedingly improved since it came into his possession, 
together with all the coins, medals, and manuscripts of his 
own collecting, provided they would erect a building fit to 
receive them ; to which proposition the university willingly 
assented, i Accordingly, on Thursday the 1 5th of May 1679, 
the first stone of that stately fabric, afterwards called Ash- 
IHole's Museum, was laid on the west side of the theatre, and 
being finished by the beginning of March 1682, the collec- 
tion was depoisited and the articles arranged by Robert Plott, 
LL.D. who before had been intrusted with their custody. 
This museum was first publicly viewed, on the 2 1st of May 
following, by his royal highness James duke of York, his 
royal consort Josepha Maria, princess Anne, and their at- 
tendants, and on ^e 24th of the same month, by the doc- 
tors and masters of the university. In a convocation held 
on the 4th of' June following (1683) a Latin letter of thanks, 
penned by him who was then deputy orator, being pub- 
licly read, was sent to Mr. Ashmole at South Lambeth. 
In July 1690, he visited the university with his wife, and 
was received with all imaginable honour, and entertained 
at a noble dinner in his museum ; on which occasion Mr* 
Edward Hannes, A. M. the chemical professor, afterwards 
an eminent physician, made an elegant oration to him. His 
benefaction to the university was very considerably enlarged 
at his death, by the addition of his library, which consisted 
Vol. HL E 

50 A S H »f Q I. E- 

qf one 'thousand seven hundred iind fifty^eight books^ of 
vhif^b six hundred and tvirenty were maBuscript^) and of 
th^m three hundred and eleven fQlios, relating chieSy to 
£ngUsh }ii9tory> Heraldry^ Astronomy, and Chemistry^ 
with a great variety of pamphlets, part of which had been 
sorted by himself, and the rest are methodized since, and 
a double cfitalogue made ; one classical, according to their 
various subjects, and apother alpbabeticaL He bequeathed 
s^lso to the same place, two gold chains and a medal, tho 
que a filigreen chain of ninety links, weighing twenty«tw<i 
ounces, with a medal of die elector of Brandenburg, upon 
which is the effigies of that elector, and on the reverse, a 
view of Straelsund, stnicli: upon the surrender of that im- 
portant city; a collar of S, S. with a medal of the king of 
Denmark ; and a gold medal of the elector Palatine ; and 
Bf Qearge of the duke of Norfolk,, worn by his grandfather 
'y4en he was ambilssador in Germany. All these he had 
received as acknowledgments of the honour which he had 
done the garter, by his labours on that subject. This mu- 
seum has been since enriched by the MSS. of Anthony 
Wood, Aubrey, and others. It has been remarked as 
something extraordinary, that Mr. Ashmole was never 
knighted for his services as a herald. It is perhaps as ex- 
traordinary that the university of Oxford bestowed on him 
the degree of doctor of physic, who never regularly studied* 
qr practised, in that faculty, unless we conceive it as a com-» 
pliment to his chemical studies. 

Mr, Ashmole^s published and unpublished works are, 

1 . The work above mentioned, published under a fictitious 
name, ^^ Fasciculus Chemicus ; or, chymioal collection^ 
expressing the ingress, progress, and egress, of the secret 
Heripetick seience, out of the choicest and most fanu>us 
authors. Whereunto is added, the arcanum, or grand se* 
cret of Hermetick philosophy. Both made English by 
James Hasolle, esq. qui est Mercuriophilus Anglicus,^^ 
London, 1650, 12mo, with a hieroglyphical frontispiece^ 
representing the mystic absurdities of the alchymists. 

2. ^< Xheatrum Chen^icum firitannicum, containing several 
poetical pieces of our famous English philosophers, who 
h^ve written the Hermetique mysteries, in their own an- 
cient language. Faithfully collected into one volume, with 
annotations thereon, by Elias Ashmole, esq. qui est Mer- 
curiophilus Anglicus,'' London, 1652, 4to. The authors 
published in this collection are, Thomas Norton^s ordinal 

A S H M O L K* St 

«f Alcbearie ; George Ripley's compound of Alcheiaie ; 
Pater Sapientie, i. e, the &ther of wisdom^ by an anonym 
tnoos writer ; Hennes's Bird, written originally in Latin^ 
by Ra^mnnd Lidly, and done into English verse by Abbot 
Creoier, of Westminster; Sir Geoffrey Chaucer's ChaiUms 
Teoman's tale ; Dastin's Dream, which seems to be a Ter« 
sion of the Latin poem of John Dastin, entitled his Vision j 
Pearce, the black monk, on the Ehxir ; Richard Carpenter's 
work, which some think, and not witiiout reason, ought ra^ 
ther to be ascribed to John Carpenter, bishop of Worcester^ 
who was one of the best chemists of his time ; Hunting of 
die Green Lion, by Abraham Andrews ; but there is also a 
spurious piece with the same title ; Breviary of Natural 
Philosophy, by Thomas Chamock ; Enigmas, by the same 
person ; Bloomfield's Blossoms, which is likewise entitled 
the Camp of Philosophy, by William Bloomfield ; Sir Ed* 
ward Kelle's work ; his letter to G. S. Gent. (It is some* 
what strange that this gentleman's name, even by Mr* 
Ashmoie, is written Kelley, though sir Edward himself 
wrote it Kelle.) ; Dr. John Dee'sjTestament, which appears 
tD be an epistle to one John Gwin, written A. D. 1568, and 
a third letter, the first two being wanting; Thomas Robin* 
son, of the Philosopher's Stone ; Experience and Philo- 
sophy, by an anonymous author; the Magistery, by W. B* 
i e, William Bloomfield ; John Gower, on the Philosopher's 
Stone ;* George Ripley's Vision ; verses belonging to Rip* 
ley's Scrowie ; Mystery of Alchymists ; preface to the Me* 
duUa of George Ripley ; Secreta Secretorum, by Joha 
Lydg^te ; Hermit's Tale, anonymous ; description of th#* 
Stone ; the Standing of the Glass, for the time of the pu« 
trefaction and congelation of the medicine ; i£nigma Phi* 
losophicum, by William Bedman ; Fragments by various 
authors. 3. <* The Way to Bibs, in three books, made 
pmblic by Elias Ashmoie, esq; qui est Mercuriophilus 
Angtkus," London, 1658, 4to. This was the work in 
which he took his leave of the astrologers and alchymists^ 
and bestowed his attention on the studies which produced, 
4. ** The Institution, Laws, and Ceremonies of the most 
noble Order of the Garter. Collected and digested into 
one body by Elias Ashmoie, of the Middle Temple, esq. ; 
Windesore herald at arms. A work furnished with variety 
c^ matter relating to honour flind noblesse ;" London, 1^72^ 

• • • B 2- 

ss A S H M O L E. 

He was not only so happy as to receive those ekfs/kd/t^ 
dinary marks of the sovereign's favour, mentioned above, 
but was complimented in an obliging manner by his royal 
highness the duke of York; who,* though then at sea 
against the Dutch, sent for his book by the earl of Peter-* 
borough, and afterwards told our author he was extremely 
pleased with it. The rest of the knights-companions of the 
most noble order received him and bis book with much re* 
spect and civility, and the regard shown him abroad was 
more singular. It was reposited, b^y the then pope, in the 
library of the Vatican. King Christiern of Denmark, sent 
him, in 1674, a gold chain and medal, which, with the 
king's leave, he wore on certain high festivals. Frederic- 
William, elector of Brandenburgh, sent him the like pre- 
sent, and ordered his book to be translated into High 
Dutch* He was afterwards visited by the elector Palatine's, 
the grand duke of Tuscany's, and other foreign princes' 
ministers, to return him thanks for this book, which he 
took care should be presented them, and thereby spread 
the fame of the garter, the nation, and himself, all over 
Europe. Yet it does not appear that this laborious and 
exquisite performance advanced at all the design he had 
formed some years before, of being appointed historio- 
grapher to the order, to which proposal some objections 
were made, and by our author fully answered, although 
we find no mention of this circumstance in any memoirs of 
Mr. Ashmole hitherto extant 5. " The Arras, Epitaphs^ 
Fenestral Inscriptions, with the draughts of the Tombs, &c» 
in all the churches in Berkshire." It was penned in 1666, 
and the original visitation taken in the two preceding 
years, in virtue of his deputation from sir Edward Byshe, - 
clariencieux king at arms, and published under thetitle of 
<* The Antiquities of Berkshire," 3 vols. 8vo, 1717, 1723, 
and at Reading in 1736, fol. 6. ^^ Familiarum illustrium 
Imperatorumque Romaporum Numismata Oxoniae in Bod- 
leianae Bibliothecae Archivis descripta et explanata.'* 
This work was finished by the author in 1659, and given 
by him to the public library in Oxford, in 1666, in 3 vols* 
folio, as it was fitted for the press. 7. ^^ A description and 
explanation of the Coins and Medals belonging to king 
Charles II.'* a folio MS. in the king's cabinet. 8, "A 
brief ceremonial of the Feast of St. George, held at White- 
hall 1661, with other papers relating to the Order.**, 
9. ^ Remarkable Passages in the year 166Q, set down by 



Mr. Eiias AshmoW* 10. " An account of the Coronation 
of our Kings, transcribed from a MS. in the king's private 
closet.*' 11.** The proceedings on the day of the Coro- 
nation of king. Charles 11." mentioned by Anthony Wood, 
as printed in 1672, but he owns he never saw it 12. ** The 
Arms, Epitaphs, &c. in some churches and houses in 
Staffordshire,^' taken when he accompanied sir William 
Dugdale in his visitation. 13. " The Arms, Epitaphs, 
Inscriptions, &c« in Cheshire, Shropshire, Derbyshire, 
Nottinghamshire, &c." taken at the same time. Bishop 
Nicolson mentions his intentioil to write the history and 
antiquities of his native town of Litchfield. 14. ** Answers 
to the objections urged against Mr. Asbmole's being made 
historiographer to the order of the Garter,'* A. D. 1662. 
15. <^ A Translation of John Francis Spina's book of the 
Catastrophe of the World; to which was subjoined, Am- 
brose Merlin's Prophecy." It is doubtful whether this was 
ever published. What, indeed, he printed, was but a very 
small part of what he wrote, there being scarcely any 
branch of our English history and antiquities, on which he 
has not left us something valuable, of his own confiposing^ 
in that vast repository of papers, which make several fo- 
lios in his collection of MSS. under the title of, 16. Col- 
lections^ Remarks, Notes on Books, and MSS. a wonderful 
proof of industry and application. 17. ^^The Diary of 
bis Life," written by himself, which was published at Lon- 
don, 1717, in 12mo, with the following title : ^^ Memoirs 
of the life of that learned antiquary, Elias Ashmole, esq. 
drawn up by himself by way of diary, with an appendix of 
original letters. Published by Charles Burman, esquire.'* 
The copy from whence these papers were published, was in 
the hand-writing of Dr. Robert Plott, chief keeper of the 
Ashmoleap museum at Oxford, and secretary of the Royal 
Society, and was transcribed by him for the use of a nea» 
relation of lV(r« Ashmole's, a private gentleman in Stafford- 
shire. They had been collated a few years before, by 
David P^rry, M. A. of Jesus' college in Oxford. The ap- 
pendix contains a letter of thanks, dated January 26, 1666^ 
from the corporation at Litchfield, upon the receipt of a 
silver bowl presented to them by Mr. Ashmole ; a preface 
to the catalogue of archbishop Laud's medals, drawn up by 
Mr. Ashmole, and preserved in the public library at Ox- 
ford; a letter from Dr. Thomas Barlow, afterwards bishop 
of Lincoln, to Mr. Ashmole^ dated December 2a, 1668, on 



the present of bis books, describing archbishop Laud*s 
cabinet of medals ; a letter from John Evelyn, esq. to re^^ 
commend Dr. Plott to him for reader in natural philosophy, 
and another from Mr. Joshua Barnes, dated from Emanuel 
college^ Cambridge, October 15, 1688, wherein he desires 
Mr. Ashmole's pardon, for having reflected upon his Order 
of the Garter, in his own history of king Edward III. with 
Mr. Ashmole's answer to that letter, dated October 23 
following. It is from this diary, which abounds in whimsi- 
cal and absurd memoranda,^ that the dates and facts in his 
Jife have been principally taken. * 

; ASHTON (Charles), one of the most learned critics 
of his age, was a native, of Derbyshire, where he was born 
about 1665. He was admitted of Queen's college. Cam* 
bridge. May 18, 1682, and having taken his degree of B. A. 
was elected fellow of that college, April 30, 1687, to be 
admitted to profits upon a future vacancy, which did not 
happen till April 9, 1690. He became chaplain to bishop 
iPatriek, by whom he was presented to the rectory of Rat- 
tenden in Essex, March 10, 1698-9, which living he ex- 
changed, in June folbwing, for a chaplainship of Chelsea* 
college or hospital ; and that preferment also he soon after 
quitted, on being collated by his patron to a prebendal 
qftall in the cathedral of Ely, July 3, 1701, and the next 
day to the mastership of Jesus' college, Cambridge, both 
vacant by the death, of Dr. Say well ; the same year he pre- 
ceded to hi^ degree of D« D. and was elected vice-^chan- 
cellor of the university in 1702. His mastership and 
prebend (both of which he was in possession of above fifty 
years) were the only preferments he held afterwurds, not 
i^hoosing to accept of any parochial benefice, but leading a 
very retired and studious lifie in his college, except when 
statutable residence, and attendance at chapters, required 
his presence at Ely, on which occasions he seldom er never 
failed to be present^ till the latter part of his life. He died! 
in March 1752, in the eighty-seventh year of bis age, and 
was buried in Jesus' college chapel. He had great know-^ 
ledge in most branches of literature, but particularly in^ 
ecclesiastical antiquities and in chronology. In the clas-* 
sics he wa^ critically skilled. Dr. Taylor always spoke 
with rapture of his correction of the inscription to Jupiter 
UrioS| which he considered as uncommonly felicitous ; and 

< Biograpliia BritaQiiica.<-Atb. Ox. vol. 11.— Koble's CoU^e of Arms. 

A S H T O N. Si 

Mr. OhishuU on the same occlisioti calls him *^ Aristarcfaus 
Cantabrigiensis summS eraditus." There were many va- 
luable pieces of his published in his life-time^ but without 
his name^ among which are '* Locus Jui^tjiri Martyris ernen* 
datus in Apol. I. p. 11. ed. Thirlby/' in the BibliothecK 
Literaria, published by the learned Mr. Wasse of Aynho, 
Northamptonshire, 1744^ No. VIII. « Tully and Hirtiui 
reconciled as to the time of Gsesar^s goiAg to the African 
War, with an account of the old. Boman yeiac' made by 
Caesai^,'* ib. No. III. p. 29. " Origen de Oratione^" 4to, 
published by the Rev. Mr. Reading, keeper of Sion col- 
lege library; and he is also supposed to have cohtributec( 
fiotes to Reading^ edition of the Ecclesiastical Historians, 
$ vols. fol. ^* Hieroclis in Aurea Carolina Pytha^orei 
Comment*' Lond. 1742, S^vO, published with k preface by 
Dr. Richard Warren, archdeacon of SnfFolk. Dr. Harwood 
pronounces this to be the best edition of a most excellent 
work that abounds with moral and devotional senthnents. 
After his death a correct edition of Justin Martyris Apo-i 
logi^ was published from his MSS. by the Rev. Mr. Keller, 
fellow of Jesns' college, Cambridge, and rector of Kelshall 
in Herefordshire. It ii» too honourable for the parties noi 
to be mentioned, that it used to be observed, thit dll thd 
itber colleges, where the fellows ohuse their master, could 
not show thr^ such heads, as the only three collegeij 
where the masters are put in upon them: viz. Bentldy 
of Trinity, by the crown ; Ashti^ of Jesus, by the bishop 
of Ely J and Waiterland of Magdalen, by the eari of Suf* 

ASHTON (Thomas)^ a clergyman in the time^ of thd 
usurpation, was the son of Tbonlias Ashton, and Ijdrn zt 
Teuerdly in Lancluihire, in 1631. At sixteen years of age, 
he was admitted a servitor of Bra2en*-iK)se college in Ox-^ 
ford, and took the degree of B. A. February 7^ 1650. He 
was chosen fellow of his college, and took holy orders. 
Mr. Wood tells us, he was a ** forward and conceited scho-*^ 
lar," and ** became a malapert preacher in and near Ox-^ 

> Bentham'9 Hist, of Ely.—- Whiston's Life; wtio says, <' This ]>r. Ashtoir 
published himself, many years ago, an excelltnt edition c^ Origen IL^i cv^^^f* 
After which I asked Br. Benfcley, then master of TriuHy colfege, and regius pro-, 
fessor of divinity, wl^y they did not banish I2r. Ashtfin, af Cb6y had done me, for 
Arianism ? since he. had published the grossest Arian hook exUnt in al) an|»« 
qnity, « thid treMiffd of Crigen's is known to' be. tie replied, But the notes are 
orthodox. To which I answeredi will orthodox notes make an ^rian book other 
than Arian?" 


p§ A S H T O N. 

ford.'* Being appointed to preach at St. Mary% oi^ 
Tuesday (a lecture-day) July 25, 1654, he gave so great 
offence by a. very indecent sermon, that he was in a fair 
way of expulsion ; but, by the intercession of friends, the 
matter was compromised ; yet he was obliged, about two 
years after, to quit his fellowship upon some quarrel which 
he had with Dr. Greenwood, principal pf * his house,* In 
1656, he was intrusted with a commission from the protec-' 
tor to be chaplain to the English forces in the island of 
Jersey, but was soon after displaced upon the arrival of a 
new governor. After the. king's restoration, be was bene- 
ficed somewhere near Hertford in Hertfordshire; where, 
Mr. Wood says, "he soon after finished his restless c.ourse.'* 
He published, 1. " Blood-thirsty Cyrus unsatisfied with 
bloody or, the boundless cruelty of. an Anabaptist's ty-» 
ranny, manifested in a letter of colonel John Mason, go-* 
vvernor of Jersey, 3d Nov. 1659; wherein he e,xhibits seven 
false, ridiculous, and scandalous articles against quarter** 
master William Swan," &c. London, 1659, in one sheet 
4to. 2. " Satan in Samuel's M^tle, or, the cruelty of 
Germany, acted in Jersey ; containing the arbitrary, bloody, 
and tyrannical proceedings of John Mason, of a baptised 
church} commissionated to be a colonel, and sent over inittk 
the island of Jersey, gpvernpr, in. July 1656, ^gain^t several 
officers aud soldiers in that small place," &c. London, V659^ 
in four sheets in 4to. * . , » 

ASHTON (Thomas)^ ,.an English divine, the son of Dr. 
Ashton, usher of the ^ran^mar school at Lancaster (a place 
of only thirty- two pounds per annum, which he held for 
near fifty years), was born in 1716, educated at Eton, and 
elected thence to King'^ college, Cambridge^ 1733. He 
was the. person to wboo) Mr. Horace Walpole addressed his 
epistle from Florence, in I740,*uuder thetitle of '^ Thomas 
Ashton, esq. tutor to th^ earl pf Plymouth," About that 
time, or sQon after* he was presented to the rectory of 
Aldingham in Lancashire, which be resigned in March 
1749 f and on the 34 of May following wa^ presented by 
the provost and fellows of Eton to the rectory of Sturmin- 
ster Marshall in Dorsetshire. He was then M, A. and had 
been chosen a fellow of Eton in December 1745. In 1752 
he was collated to the rectory of St. Botolph^ Bishopsgatei 
in 1759 took the degree of D. D. ; and in Itfay 1762^^ w^^ 

1 iiop, Brit.— WoQd'ji Ath» .... 

A S H T O N, 91 



i^ted preacher at Lincoln's Inn, which he resigned ia 
1764. In 1770 he published, in 8yOy a volume of sermons 
on several occasions ; to which was prefisced an excellent 
metzotinto by Sptlsbury, from an original by sir Jo^ui^ 
Beynolds, and this mottOi ^* Insto praepositis, obUtus prss<> 
t^ritorum/' Pr. Ashton died March 1, I77^> at the age 
of fifiy-niney after having fbr some years survived a seirre 
attack of the palsy. His discourses, in a style of greater 
elegance than purity, were rendered still more striking by 
the excellence of his delivery. Hence he was frequently 
prevailed on to preach on public and popular occasions. 
He printed a sermop on the rebellion in 1745, 4 to, and a 
thanksgiving sermon on the close of it in 1746^ 4to. In 
1756, he preached before the governors of the Middlesex 
hospital, at St. Anne's, Westminster; a commencement 
sermon at Cambridge in 1759; a sermon at the annual 
meeting of the charity schools in 1760; one before the 
House of Commons on the 30th of January 1762; and a 
spital sermon at St. Bride's on the Easter Wednesday in 
that year. All these, with several others preached at Eton, 
Lincoln's inn, Bishopsgate, &c. were collected by himself 
in the volume above mentioned, which is closed by a 
^' Concio ad Clerum habita Cantabrigise in templo beatae 
Marise, 1759, pro gradu DoctoratCU in sacr& theologii." 
His other publications were, 1. ^' A dissertation on 2 Pe-^ 
teri 19,^* 1750* 8vo. 2. In 1754, the Rev. Mr. Jones 
of St. Saviour's, delivered a sermon at Bishopsgate-church, 
which being offensive to Dr. Ashton, he preached against 
it ; and an altercation happening between the two divines, 
some pamphlets were published on the occasion, one of 
which, entitled ^^ A letter to the Rev. Mr. Thomas Jones, 
intended asi a rational and candid answer to his sermon 
preached at St. Botolpb, Bishopsgate," 4to, was probably 
by Dr. jLshton. 3. ^^ An extract from the case of the 
obligation of th^ electors of Eton college to supply all va- 
cancies in that {society with those who are or have been 
fellows of King's college, Cambridge, so long as persona 
properly qyalified are to be had within that description," 
ILondon, 1771, 4to, prpving that aliens have no right at all 
to Eton fellowships, either by the foundation, statutes, or 
archbishop i^aud's deteripination in 1636. This is further 
proved in, 4. " A letter to the Rev. Dr. M. (Morell) on 
the questiqii of electing aliens into the vacant places in 
^{on college* B^ the author of the Extract," 177 1^ 4 to. 


§. ** A second letter to Dt. MJ* The three list tfefe s66n 
after re-publi&hed under the titfe of ** The efl^ction of 
alieiis into the vacancies in Etotii college ati iinwaffafttabi^ 
praictiee. To which are now added, two letters to the Rer. 
Dr. Morell, in which the cavils of a writer in the General 
Evening Post, and others, are considered and i'efuted* 
Part I. By a late fellow of King's college,- Oimbridge**^ 
London, 1771, 4to# Part 11. wafi never publislKid. H6 
lived long in babks of intimacy with Horace Walpole> 
afterwards earl erf Orford^ who, Mr. Cote informs i*s*, pro-* 
cmred him the Eton fellowship ; hat a tiipttire separd^ed 
diem. Mr. Cole adds, what we have sondes difflctilty in 
believing, that the " Sermon on Painting/* in kwrd Or-* 
ford's works, was preached by jyr. Ashtofi at HMgfeton, 
before the earl of Orford (sir Robert Walpole) in 1?#2!. * 
. ASH WELL (George), rector of Hanwell^'neaf Ban-' 
bnry in Oxfordshire, w'as the son of Robert Askweil ,of 
Harrow on the Hill, in Middleteic, aiid wafs born in the 
parifsh of St. Martin, Ludgate, London, Nov, 18, 16'1'2. 
He was admitted a- scholar pf Wadham college, Oicfoiti, int 
1627, took the degrees in arts, was elected fellow, ttttd be- 
came a celebrafted tutor in that hofftse. In the timfe of the 
great rebetlidft he continued in Oxford^ and preached se« 
^eral tiroes before the king, cdurt,- Sittd parliament. A 
little before the surrender of the garrison of Oxford, he 
had the degree of B. D. ctlnferred upon him ; and aboiit 
the latter end of 1658 he was presented to the living of 
Hanwell, having been before,- as Mr. Wood thkik's, chaplain 
in the family of sir Anthony Cope, lord of the manor of 
Hanwell. He bad the character of a very peaceable and 
religioifs man, and was well versed in logic, the schooimenj, 
and fathers. He wrote, 1 . " Fides Apostolica, or, a dis-* 
course asserting the received authors and authority of the 
Apostles* Creed/' Oxon, 1653, 8vo; to which wa» added st 
double appendix, the first touching the Athanasiany the 
second the Niceiie creed. Baxter^ whc/, in his '* Reformed 
Pastor," had advanced some things against thia work, ex-* 
|)res9ed his regret afterwards, in his " Catholic Theology,'^ 
for having said any thing against it. S. ** Gestns^ Eucha- 
risticus, concerning the Gesture to be used at the receiving 
die Sacrament," Oxon. 1663, 8vo. 3. << De Socino ct 

1 Nichols's A'ife of Bowyer.— Cole's MS Ath^si in Brie. l£o8.-^£^d *Or< 
ford's Works, toI. I. p* 4 ^ vol. IV. p. 414, 415, 463, 

A S H W I L L. M9 

So^mianismo ; a treatise on the Socinian heresy/* said to 
he {M»t of a greater trork in manuscripts 4. ** De Eccle* 
na, &c<r a dissertation concerning the church of Ronie ;^ 
ako a part of his great work on Controversies^ published at 
Oxford, 1688^ 4to. 5. ^'An Answer to Plato Redivivus,^ 
in manuscript. He also translated, frooi PococVs edition, 
** Fbilosophos Autodidactus, sive Epistola Abi Gioaphar 
£bn Topbailde Hai Ebn Yokdan/^ &c. Lond. 1686, Svo. 
Our audior died at Han well, Feb. 8, 169S, and was buried 
in the church of that place, of which he had been thirty* 
five years rector. * 

ASHWORTH (Caleb), a dissenting minister, was borh 
in Northamptonshire 1709, and served an apprenticeship 
to a carpenter ; but having a taste for learning, he was 
entered a student in the academy kept by Dr. Doddridge, 
where he made great proficiency in all sorts of useful know* 
ledge. He was afiberwaards ordained minister of a dissent* 
ing congregation at Daventry; and became master of the 
academy kept by the excellent Dr. Doddridge, by the doc« 
tor^s express desire in his will. He died much respected at 
Dairentry, 1 774, aged stx'ty-five. His principles are sakl 
to have been those of moderate Calvinism. He published 
three ^ funeral Sermons,*^ on the deaths of Dr. Watt^, 
Mr. Floyd, and Mr. Clark ; a << Collection of Tunes and 
Anthema;'' a ^* H^ebrew Grammar;*' and an *^ Introduc- 
tion to ^lane Trigonometry.'' * 

AStNARI (Fredbkic), count de Camerano, a nobleman 
af Asti m- Piedmont, flourished about 1550. In his youth 
he fdiowed the professiott of arms, and was sent by the 
duke of Savoy, with four hundred men, to assist Maximi- 
lian II. when be held a diet to oppose the army of Soliman, 
an event which i^ siaid to have been commemorated by a 
aiedal, with the inscription, '< Fredericus Asinarius co« 
Camerani." Asinari amused his leisure hours with poetry, 
and submitted his compositions to the Celebrated Annibal 
Caro ; and they were afterwards published in various coU 
leetioiis. 1. ** Two Sonnets," in the second part^^of the 
« Scelta di Rime di diversi excellenti Poeti," b^ ^libata, 
1579, 13mo. 2. **Four Canzoni^ and a Sonnet," iff the 
** Muse Toscane" of Gherard Borgogni, '1 594, Site. 
J. *• Bighty«4;wo pieces, sonnets, canzoni, hnadxigals,^ 

1 Bi«f . Brit—Ath. Ox. to]. IT. 

* Letters to DissentiDg Minutefs^ by Orton.<-«E:ippis'i Liie of Doddri<IfOt 
p. 143. 

69 A.SINARt. 

Ac. in Borgognrs *^ Rimfe di diversi illustri Poeti," Ve- 
jiice/ 1599, 12mo« Among his other works, which remain 
in manuscript, there are, in the library of Turin, ** Vari 
Sonetti e Canzoni;" " II Tancredi," a tragedy; " Tre 
libri delle transformazioni ;'• and " Tre libri delP via 
d^Orlando." Copies of these are ako in the library of St^ 
Mark at Venice. . The tragedy of Tancred was printed at 
'^^ Paris, 1587, 8vo, under the title of " Gismonda," one of 
the dramatis, persomey and attributed to Torquato Tasso. 
Kext year an edition wa^ printed at Bergamo, 4to, in which 
this error was corrected, but another substituted by stat-» 
ing, that it was the performance of Ottavio Asinari, the fa-* 
ther of our author ; and the editor, Gherard Borgogni, 
either was, or aifected to be ignorant of the edition pre^ 
Tiously printed at P^-ris,* 

ASKEW (Anne), daughter of sir William Askew, of 
ICelsay, in (.ipcolnsbire, knight, was born in 1529.. She 
received a liberal and learned education, and manifested 
in early life a predilection for theological studies. Her 
eldest sister, after having been contracted in marriage to 
the son of Mr. Kyme, of Lincolnshire, died before the 
nuptials were cgpipleted. Her father, on this event, un-t 
willing to lose a, connection which promised pecuniary 
fidvantages, compelled his second daughter Atine, not«^ 
withstanding . h^r reluctance, to become the wife of Mr. 
Kyme, a marriage which probably laid the foundation of 
her future misfortunes* Her husband was a bigoted Ro*- 
man Catholic, while she, by studying the scriptures and 
the opinions of the reformers, i^ecame a convert, which so 
disgusted him that he turned her out of doors. Conceiv- 
ing herself, by this. treatment, at liberty to sue for a sepa* 
ration^ she came to London, where she was favourably 
received by some of the ladies of the court, ^.nd by the 
queen, who secretly favoured the reformed religion. But 
at length she was accused, by her husband and the priests, 
of hol(||ng heretical opinions respecting the sacrament j 
and* h^ 1545, was apprehended, and repeate41y es^amined 
by CJfristdpher Dare, the lord mayor, the bishops, chancel- 
ior^;^nd others, to whose questions she replied in a firm, 
eaisy, and ^^constrained manner, and even with some de<w 
^ree of wit aid ridicule. She was then committed to prison 
for^ tieyea cays^ and prohibited from any commiinicatioa 

^ » ^Piog. UaiversellCf ^ 

ASKEW. «i 

Mfh her friends. During this confinement, she employe^l 
herself in composing prayers and meditations, and in forti* 
fying her resolution to endure the trial of her principles. 

On the 23d of March, a relation, who had obtained per«» 
mission to visit her, endeavoured to bail her, and his 
earnest application to the mayor, to the chancellor, and 
to Bonner, the bishop of London, was at length success- 
ful. On this occasion she was brought before the bishop/*" 
who affected concern for what she had suffered, while he 
endeavoured to entrap her by ensnaring questions. Mr* 
Britagne, her relation, and Mr. Spilman, of Gray's iun» 
became h^ sureties. But a short time after, she was again 
apprehended, and summoned before the^ing's council, at 
Greenwich, when Wriothesely the chancellor, Gardiner 
bishop of Winchester, and other prelates, once more ques- 
tioned her on the doctrines of the church of Rome. She 
replied with firmness, and without prevarication, and on 
finding her impracticable, her judges determined on other 
measures, and remanded her to Newgate, though she was at 
the time suffering under a severe indisposition. Having 
entreated, in vain, to be allowed a visit from Dr. Latimer, 
she addresseda letter to the king himself, declaring — ^^ That 
respecting the Lord's supper, she believed as much as had 
b^n taught by Christ himself, or as the Catholic church . 
required." — But still refusing her assent to the popish 
meaning, her letter served only to aggravate her crime. 
She then wrote to the chancellor, inclosing her address to 
the king, but with no better success. From Newgate she 
was conveyed to the Tower, where she was interrogated 
respecting her patrons at court with several ladies of which 
she held a correspondeuce, but, heroically maintaining her 
fidelity,* she refused to make any discoveries of tliat kind. 
This magnanimity, so worthy of admiration, so incensed 
her bsurbarous persecutors, that they endeavoured by the 
lack to. extort &om her what she had refused to their de-- 
mauds,. but idie sustained the torture with unshaken forti* 
tode and meek resignation. Wriothesely, with unmanly 
and infernal rage, commanded, with menaces, the lieute* 
nant of the Tower to strain the instrument of his vengeance, 
and when he refused, he himself became executioner, and 
every limb of the innocent victim was dislocated. When 
recovered f^om a swoon into which she fell, she remained 
sitting two hours on the bare ground, calmly reasoning with 
her tormentors^ who were confounded by her courage and 


fe^oItitioB. Ps^rdoi!! w$^ afterwardU offered if Hhe woiAl 
recant, but having rejected every offer of the kmd^ the 
was condemned to be burnt at thie stake, wbi^b was-aC'^ 
cordingly executed, July 16, 1546. She bore this infaiMiian 
punishment with amazing courage and firmness, adhering 
(o the last to the principles of her faith* ^ 

ASKEW (Anthony), M. D. an excellent scholar and 
promoter o( literature, was born at.Kendal in Westaiore^^ 
land, in 1729. His father. Dr. Adam Askew, waa in such 
high estimation at Newcastle, tha4: he was considered as 
another Radcliffe, and consulted by all ifche families c€ 
i^onsequence for many miles round. . Anthony was edu^ 
cated at Sedburgh school, and from thenee removed to 
Emanuel college, in Cambridge, where he continued ua^ 
til he took bis degree of B. A« in December 1745. He 
then went to Leyden, and resided there twelve months^ 
with the view of being initiated into the science of medi*» 
eine. In the following year we find him in the suite of 
his majesty's ambassador at Constantinople. Returning 
from thence through Italy, he came to Paris in 1749, and 
was admitted a member of the aeademiy of belles lettres* 
He had here an opportunity of purchasing a ccnsiderabls 
number of rare and valuable MSS. and printed books in 
the classics, and in various branches of science, and of.lay« 
ing the foundation of an elegant and extensive library^ 
which soon after his death was sold by Baker and Leigfa, 
Tavistock-streeV for upwards of 5000^. 

Having finished his travels, be returned to Cambridge, 
and in the year 1750 commenced M. D. He was soon after 
admitted fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and 
dT the Royal Society, in London. What time conld hn 
afterwards spared from attending bis professional engage«i» 
xnents was dedicated to the conversation of literary meui 
and to increasing and arranging his collection of booka^ 
He died at Hampstead, in the neighbourhood of London, 
Feb. 27, 1774. Amongst his bboks and MSS. was a com^ 
plete collection of the editions of w£schylus, some iUotfi* 
trated with MS notes, and likewise one or two, if not 
more, MSS. of the same author; which were collected 
purposely for the intention of publishing at some future 
period an edition of iEscbylus. In 1746, he printed a 
specimen of this intended edition in a small quarto pam-* 

^ Fox^s AqU and MonaDieDts.«-*BaUiir4'J lIeiiioiri» 


ASKEW. tf5 

phlet attder the following title : ** Novae Editioiiis Tragoe* 
dianim £schyli Specimen, curante Antonio Askew, M. B. 
ColL Emman. apud Cantabrigienses hand ita pridem socio 
C(»mnensali, Lugduni Bat^voruoi, 1746/' This pamphiet, 
which is now become extremely scarce, was dedicated ta 
Dr. Mead, and consisted only of twenty-nine lines, namely, 
from V. 563 to v. 596 of the Eumenides (edit, Scbultz): It 
contained various readings from his MSS. and printed 
books, and the Notse Variorum. Dr. Askew was indeed 
reckoned one of th& best Grecians in England. Dr. Tay« 
lor, usually called Demosthenes Taylor, was his great 
friend, from a similarity of taste and study, and left him 
his executor, and heir to bis noble collection of books^and 

ASPEIt (Hans), a Swiss painter, was born 1499, at* 
Zurich, and painted portraits with so much life, nature, 
and character, that his reputation was littje inferior to that 
of Holbeiu« His drawings in water-colours, of birds, fishes, 
dead game, and flowers, though done with great simplicity 
and freedom, are nearly deceptions. He is said to ba?e 
furnished the designs for Conrad Gesner's ^' Historia Ant- 
maliuin;*' nor was he ignorant of historic composition. 
Many of Rodolph Meyer's etchings for Murer's •* Helvetia 
Sancta" were drawn from his originals. To record his me- 
rit, a medal was struck, with his head, name, and age, 
in front ; and on the reverse, a death's skull, with a moral 
sentence itt rhyme. That he should have been suffered, 
after such a pledge of public esteem, to live and die in 
iadigence, is not easily accoitnted for. He died in 1571.* 

ASSELIN (Giles Thomas), doctor of the Sorbonne, and 
provisor of the college of Hareourt, wa» bom at Vire in 
1682. He was the scholar of Thomas Comeille, and the 
friend of la Motte-Houdar, and appointed principal of the 
college of Hareourt. He died at Issy^ October 11, 1767, 
at the age of eighty<^five. He had borne off the prize of 
poetry at the French academy in 1709, and those of the 
idyllium and the poem at the floral games in 1711. The 
ode on the existence of God, and the immortality of the 
soul, is his best performance; His poems crowned at the 
a^ademie Fran^oise, and at that of the jeux floreau, add less 
lustre lo his name, as hi^ verification is low, and his 

1 Gent. Mag. vol. LXXIII.— Cole's MSS Atkens Cantab, in Brit. Mm.-* 
Bttm'i History of Westraoreiand. 
* PAking ton's Diet,— Biog. Uoirersellc 


style d^Gierit in force and ornament* Bat Asselin Wilii' 
cli&tinguished for his zeal in behalf of letters^ and his ad^ 
berence to integrity. His poetiqai works, and an address 
to the deists in behalf of truths were published at Paris, 
1725, 8vo.* 

ASSELYN (John), a Flemish painter, was born at Ant«» 
werp in 1610, and was a disciple of Esaias Vandervelde^ 
and under the guidance of so able a master^ he became an 
excellent painter of landscape. His companions nicknamed 
lum Crabbe^e, from a crooked turn in his fingers and his 
bandy which caused him to hold his pallet with some de-^ 
gree of awkwardness. And yet, by the lightness, freedom^ 
and spirit of his touch, it could not be supposed that his 
hand had the smallest imperfection. He was one of the 
first Flemish painters who adopted the clean and 1>right 
manner of landscape painting. He studied after nature in 
the country about Rome, improving his taste by the de* 
lightful situations of towns, villas, antiquities, figures, and 
animals, which he sketched upon paper, to make a proper 
use of them in his designs. In the style of Ifis landscape 
he chose particularly to imitate Claude Lorraine ; but in 
other parts of his painting he seemed fond of making Bam- 
boccio his model. He enriched his landscapes with the 
vestiges of noble buildings, and the views of such seats as 
he observed to be beautiful, by their situation or c<Histruc- 
tion. His colouring is extremely bright and clear; his 
skies are warm ; his touch is free and firm ; his figures and 
animals are well drawn, and judiciously disposed ; and his 
pictures justly merit the approbation which they have always 

Of the personal history of this artist very little is known. 
He married at Lyons in 1645, the daughter of a merchant 
of Antwerp, who happened accidentally to be in that place, 
and died at Amsterdam in 1660, in the fiftieth year of bis 
age. ^ Perelle has engraved some of his landscapes, and of 
bis Italian ruins. * 

ASSEMANI (Joseph Simon), keeper of the Vatican, 
and archbishop of Tyre, who died at Rome in his eightieth 
year, Jan. 14, 1768, was a v^ry able scholar in the lan» 
guages of the East. During the years from 17 19 to 1728, 
he published a work of great importance to the collectors 

.* Biop. Unirerselle. 

* Pilkiogton's Diet. — Abregi de la Vie des plus fftOMo^ Paintres, t^I. IIU 
p. 132.— Sandrart, p. 304. 


ASS E M A N f. ■ €S' 

^ Oriental manuscripts, in th^ mafincr<1>f Herfeelot) en- 
titled " BiUiotbeca Orientalit, Ctementino-Vatieana, re- 
eenseivs, mamisoriptos oodices, Syriaco», Arabicos, &c. 
jtBflu et mumiioenti& Clem* XL" Rome, 17)9—1728, 4 vols. 
foL He published also, 2. An edition of the works df 
Ephrem Syrus, Rome, 1732 — 1734, 6 vols. fol. 3. *^De 
Sanctis Ferentinis in Tascia Bonifecio ae Redempto epis- 
copisy &€. dissertatio," Rome, 1745. 4. ^^Italicse histories 
scriptores ex Bibl. Vatic.' &c. eoltegit et preefat. notisque 
]lin€itravit J. S. Assemanus,** Rome, 1751 — 1753, 4 vols. 
4to. 5. <^ Kalendaria ecelesiaB universsBj" Rome, 1755---^ 
1757, 6 vols. 4to. His edition of Ephrem is by far the 

ASSEMANI (Stei^en Evooius), nephew of the pre- 
eeding, tod archbishop of Apamea, succeeded his uncle 
in the charge of the Vatican library, and became equally 
celebrated as an eastern scholar and a man of general learn-» 
ing. His works are, 1. ** Bibliothecse Mediceo-Lauren- 
tiansB et Palatine codicum manuscr. Orientalium catailo- 
gus/' Flor^ce, 1742, 2 vols. fol. with notes by Gori. 2. 
♦* Acta sanctorum martyrum Orientalium et Occidentalium^ 
&c. Rome^ 1748, 2 vols. fol. In conjunction with his uncle^ 
he published " Bibl. Apoist. Vatic, codic. MS8. Catal.'* 
Rome, 1756 — ►1769. This was to have consisted of 4 vols, 
and he had printed some sheets of the fourth, when an ac-- 
cidental fire destroyed the manuscript. The time of his 
death is not mentioned^' 

ASSER, a celebrated rabbi, in the year 476, in con- 
junction with Hammai, another rabbi, composed the Tal- 
mud of Babylon, so called from the place of their resi- 
dence. This collection of visions has had the honour of 
two commentators, the rabbi Mah* in the year 547, and 
another Asser, who died in 1328, and was printed by El- 
«ivir at Leyden^ -in 1630, 4to, and again with all its com- 
mentators at Amsterdam in 1 644, in 1 2 vols, folio. ' 

ASSERIUS (Menevensis), or ASSER,orASKER(calU 
ed, by Pitts, John,) a learned monk of St. DavidTs, atiA 
historian, wis of British extraction, probably of that part 
of South Wales called Pembrokeshire, and was bred up ill 
the learning of those times, in the monastery of St. David's 
(in Latin Menevia), whence he derived his surname of 
Menevensis. There he is said to have had for his tutor 

. ^ Bio(.Univei^}4.--«JSlni»On<miaft< . 9^ Ibid, »$si)g.UDi«ersdla^'^ 

Vol.111. F ' 


Johannes Patriciui^y one of the most celebrated seholftrs of 
his age^ and had i^lso the countenance of Nobis, or Novis^ 
archbishop of that see, who was his relation ; but it does 
not appear that he was either his secretary or his chan« 
cellor, as some writeris would have us believe. From St, 
David's he was invited to the court of Alfred the Great,' 
merely from the reputation of his learning, probably about 
the year 880, or somewhat earlier. Those who had the charge 
of bringing him to court, conducted him from St. David's 
to the town of Dene (Dean) in WiltshirCj where the king- 
received him with great civility, and shewed him in a little 
time the strongest marks of favour and affection, insomuch' 
that he condescended to persuade him not to think any 
more of returning to St. David's, but rather to continue 
with him as his domestic chaplain and assistant in his studies; 
Asserius, however, modestly declined this proposal, al- 
ledging, that it did not become him to desert that holy 
place where he had been educated, and received the order 
of priesthood, for the sake of any otlier preferment. King 
Alfred then desired that he would divide his time between 
the court and the monastery, spending six months at court,* 
and six at St. David's. Asserius would not lightly comply 
even with this request, but desired leave to return to St; 
David's, to ask the advice of his brethren, which he ob« 
tained, but in his journey falling ill at Winchester of a fe- 
ver, he lay there sick about a year ; and as soon as he re* 
covered he went to St. David's, where, consulting with his 
brethren on the king's proposal, they unanimously agreed 
that he should accept it, promising themselves great ad- 
vantages from his favour with the king, of which, at that 
time, they appear to have had need, to relieve them from 
the oppressions, of one Hemeid^ a petty prince of South 
'Wale3. But they requested of Asserius, that he would 
prevail on the lung to allow him to reside quarterly at 
court and at St. David's, rather than that he should remain 
dt>sent six months together. When he came back he found 
the king at Leoneforde, who received him with every mark 
of distinction. He remained with him then eight months 
at once, reading and explaining to him whatever books 
were in his library, and grew into so great credit with that 
•generous prince, that on Christmas-eve following, he gave 
him the monasteries of Amgresbyri, and Banuwille, that 
is, Ambrosbury in Wiltshire, and Banwell in Somersetshire, 
with a silk pall of great value, an4 as much incense as a 

A s s £ R I u & er 

strong man. could carry^ aending together with them this 
compliment, <^ That these were but small things, and by 
way of earnest of better which should follow them/* Sooa 
after, he had Exeter bestowed upon him, and not long 
after that, the bishopric of Sherburn, which, however, he 
seems- to have quitted in the year 883, though he always 
retained the title, as Wilfred archbishop of York was con- 
stantly so styled, though he accepted of another bishopric* 
Thenceforward he constantly attended the court, in the 
manner before stipulated, and is named as a person, in 
whom he had particular confidence, by king Alfred, in his 
testament, which must have been written some time be- 
fore the year 885; since mentioii is made thereof Esna 
bishop of Hereford, who died that year. He is also men- 
tioned by the king, in his prefatory epistle placed before 
his translation of Gregory's Pastoral, addressed to Wulfsig 
bishop of London ; and there the king does not call him 
bishop of Sherburn, but ** my bishop," acknowledging the 
help. receiyed from him and others in that translation. It 
appears to have been the near resemblance, which the 
genius of Asserius' bore to that of the king, that gained 
him so great a share iu his confidence ; and very probably, 
it was on this account, that Asserius drew up those me** 
moirs of the life of Alfred which we still have, and which 
be dedicated and presented to the king in the year 893. In 
this work we have a curious account of the manner in 
which that prince and our author spent their time together. 
Asserius tells us, that having one day, being the feast of 
St. Martin, cited in conversation a passage of some famous 
author, the king was mightily pleased with it, and would 
have him write it down in the margin of a book he carried 
in his breast ; but Asserius finding no room to write it 
there, and yet being desirous to gratify his master, he 
asked king Alfred whether he should not provide a few 
ieaves, in which to set down such remarkable things as 
occurred either in reading or conversation : the king was 
delighted with this hint, and directed Asserius to put it 
immediately in execution. Pursuing this method con- 
stantly, th^ir collection began to swell, till at length it 
became of the size of an ordinary Psalter ; and this was 
what the king called his ^' Hand-book, or Manual." As- 
serius, bkowever, calls, it Enchiridion. In all probability, 
Asserius continued at court during the whole reign of Al- 
fred, and, probably^ several years after : but where, or 

F 2 


rw)iie|ibe died is doubtful, though the Saxon Chronicle pt)^ 
sitively fixes it to the year 910. The editor of his life in 
the Biog, Brit, tdkes Asser the monk, and Asser bishop of 
ShQi'burn, for one and the same person, which somehow-^ 
c^ver have denied, and asserts him to have been also arch-*- 
^sliOp of St. David* s, upon very plausibly authority. He 
admits, however, that if there was such a reader in the 
public $eh{>o)9 at Oxford as Asser the monk, be must have 
Jbieen some other person of the same name, and not our au- 
thor : but this point rests almost wholly on the authority 
of Harj^sfield ;, nor is the account consistent with itself ia 
A^veral other respects, as sir John Spelman has justly ob« 
$erved. There is no less controversy about the works of 
Asserius, than about his pi-eferments : for some alledge 
^hat he never wrote any thing but the Annals of king Al« 
fired : wbereas, Pitts gives us the titles of no less than five 
Qtber hooks of his writing, and adds, that he wrote many 
more. The first of these is a *' Commentary on Boetius,'* 
which is mentioned by Leland, on the authority of the 
Chronicle of St. Neot's : but he probably only explaihed 
tliis author to king Alfred when he made his Saxon ti*ans- 
lation. The second piece mentioned by Pitts, is the An* 
Dais of Alfred's life and reign. The third he styles ** An- 
nates Britannia?,*' or the Annals of Britain, in one book, 
' meutioned also by Leland and Bale, and which has been 
ftinee published by the learned Dr. Gale. The fourth piece, 
he calls ^^ Aurearum Sententiarum Enchiridion, lib. 1.'* 
Vhi^h is without question the Manual or common-place- 
\m>k made for king Alfred, and reckoned among bis works 
by Pitts himself. Leland has also spoken of this Enchiri- 
dion, as an instance of the learning and diligence of Asser^ 
which it certainly was : and though the collections he made 
f^oncerning this author, are much better and larger than 
those of Bale and Pitts, yet he modestly, upon this subject^ 
apologizes for speaking so little and so obscurely of so great 
a msLU. The next in Pitts's catalogue, is a "Book of Ho- 
lailies,'' and the last, " A Book of Epistles :** but the ex- 
ifijleoce of these seems unsupported by any authority ; nop 
in it known where be was interred. He appears to bare 
been one of the most pious and learned prelates of the age 
ia Which he lived. . 

, His " Life of Alfred" was first published by archbishop 
Flb^ker at the end of M Walsinghami Hist" London, 1574^ 
fol. and it vfs» reprinted by Camden in kW ^ Auglia, Nor«* 

ASSERius e^r 

ijdanica^ &c/' Francfort, 1603. It was again reprititi^, \A 
a very elegant octavo volume, by Mr. Wise^ at Otfotdj 

ASSHETON (Dr. William), son of Mr. A^sheton, rectof 
of Middleton in Lancashire, was born in 1641 ; and bein^ 
instructed in granunar-learning at a private country-scbooii 
was removed to Brazen-Nose college at Oxford, in 1658.; 
and elected a fellow in 1663. After taking bothhii^d^^ 
grees in arts, he wenl into orders, became chaplain to thd 
duke of Ormond, chancellor of that university, and wal 
admitted doctor of divinity in January 1673. In the foU 
lowing month he was nominated to the prebend of Knares-^ 
burgh, in the church of York ; and whilst he attended hii 
patron at London, obtained the living of St. Aritholin. M 
1670, by the duke's interest with the family of the St. Johtis^ 
he was presented to the rectory of Beckenham, in Keiit} 
and was often unanimously ehosen proctor for Rochester iti 

He was the projector of the scheme for providing d 
maintenance for clergymen's widows and others, by a join- 
ture payable by the Mercers' company. The bfiiigitlg thil^ 
project to perfection took up his thoughts for many years ; 
for, though (Encouraged by many judicious persons to pro^ 
secute it, he found much difficulty in providing such a fund 
as might be a proper security to the subscribers. He fir^ 
addressed himself to the corpotation of the tslergy, whe 
declared they Were not in a capacity to accept the prdpd^ 
sal. Meeting with no better success in bis next application 
to the Bdnk of England, he applied himself to the Met^ 
ters' company^ who agreed with him upon certain tules 
and orders, of which the following ar6 the chief : 

1. " That the Company will take iri subscriptiotis at ^xkf 
time, till the sum of 100,000/. be subscribed, but wiH 
never exceed that sum. 2. Thait all married men, at the 
age of thirty years or under, may subscribe, any sum tick 
exceeding 1000/. That all married men, not exceeding 
the age of forty years, may subscribe any sum not exceed- 
ing 500/. And that all married tnen, not exceeding the 
age of sixty years, may subscribe any sum, not exceeding 
300/. And that die widows of all persons, Vub^riblifig 
according to tliese limitations, ^k^W i^eceive the benefit of 

1 Biog. Brit, in Aj^'serius.-^WhiUker's Life of/ St. Neot, who enters largely iato 
Asserts bistory, ictid proves the forgery of the celebrated passage respecting Ui9 
•lomidfltioa of t!ie tiAivefsity of Oxford. 


70 A S S H E T O N. 

30 per ^ent. per annum, according to the former proposal, 
free of all taxes and charges, at the two usual feasts of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and St. Michael 
the Archangel ; and that the first of these payments shall 
be made at the first of the said feast days, which shall hap- 
pen four months or more after the decease of the person or 
persons so subscribing ; excepting such as shall voluntarily 
jnake away with themselves, or by any act of theirs occa- 
sion their own death ; either by duelling or committing 
.any crime, whereby they shall be sentenced, and put to 
death by justice : in any, or either of these cases, the 
inridows to receive no annuity ; but, upon delivering up the 
company's bond, to have the subscription money paid to 
them. 3. That no sea-faring men may subscribe, who fol<- 
low it as their business or vocation; nor others, who go 
farther than Holland, Ireland, or the coasts of England; 
and that any person may subscribe for any others, whom 
be shall nominate in bis last will, during the natural life 
of his wife, if she survive, and his intention be declareil 
in his subscription.'' The company had several meetings 
in committees with, the doctor, about settling a sufficient 
security; in which they satisfied him that their estates, 
being, clear rents, amounted to 28S8/. 8^. lOd. besides the 
payments of the benefactors, to be paid out of the same ; 
which, by a moderate calculation, would yield, when the 
Jeases came out, above 13,500/. per aiinum. All things 
being agreed upon, the deed of settlement was executed 
by the company and trustees, at a general court of the 
said company, held on Wednesday the 4th of October, 1699* 
Thi^ deed is enrolled in the high court of chancery, and 
an authentic copy of it kept by the company ; but owing 
to some miscalculations, the scheme did not ultimately 
succeed, as originally planned. 

A few years before his death, he was invited to accept 
the headship of the college, then vacant, but modestly 
declined it. He died at Beckenham, Sept. 1711, in the 
seventieth year of his age, and was buried in the chancel 
of that church. The writer of his life gives him the highest 
character/ for piety, probity, and infiexible adheirence to 
the doctrines and interests of the church of England. His 
general sentiments and turn of mind may be discovered in 
the titles of his various works : 1. '^ Toleration disapproved 
and condemned by the authority and convincing reasons 
of, I. That wise and learned king James, and his privy- 



A S S H E T O N. Tl 

council. Anno Reg. II*»®. II. The honourable Commons as- 
sembled in this present parliam^ent, in their Votes, &c. 
Feb. 25, 1662. III. The Presbyterian ministers in the city 
©f London, met at Sion College, December 18, 1645. 
IV. Twenty eminent divines, most (if not all) of them mem- 
bers of the late assembly; in their Sermons before the two 
houses of parliament on solemn occasions. Faithfully col- 
lected by a very moderate hand, and humbly presented to the 
serious consideration of all dissenting parties," Oxford, 1 670. 
He published a second edition of this book, the same year, 
with his name, and the pro- vice-chancel lor of Oxford's 
imprimatur, prefixed to it. 2. ** The Cases of Scandal and 
Persecution -, being a seasonable inquiry into these two 
things: I.'Whether the Nonconformists, who otherwise 
think subscription lawful, are therefore obliged to forbear 
it, because the weak brethren do judge it unlawful? II. 
Whether the execution of penal laws upon Dissenters, for 
non-communion with the Church of England, be persecu- 
tion ? Wherein they are pathetically exhorted to return 
into the bosom of the church, the likeliest expedient, to 
stop the growth of Popery," London, 1674. 3. "The 
Royal Apology: or. An Answer to the Rebel's Plea; 
wherein are the most noted anti-monarchical tenets, first 
published by Doleman the Jesuit, to promote a bill of ex- 
clusion against king James I. ; secondly, practised by Brad- 
shaw, and the regicides, in the actual murder of king 
Charles I.; thirdly, republished by Sidney, and the asso- 
ciates to depose and murder his present majesty,'^ London^ 
1685, the second edition. 4. ^^ A seasonable Vindication 
of their present Majesties," London. 5. ** The Country 
Parson^s Admonition to his Parishioners against Popery ; 
with directions how to behave themselves, when any one 
designs to seduce them from the Church of England,*' 
London, 1686. 6. " A full Defence of the former Dis- 
course against the Missionaries Answer : being a farther 
examination of the pretended Infallibility of the Church of 
Rome :" or, as it is intitled in the first impression, ** A 
Defeiice of the Plain Man's Reply to' the Catholic Mis- 
sionaries,'* &c. 1688. 7. ** A short Discourse against Blas- 
phemy,'' 1691. 8. "A Discourse against Drunkenness,'* 
1692. 9. "A Discourse against Swearing and Cursing," 
1692. 10. "Directions in order to the "suppressing of 
Debauchery and Prophaneness," 1693. 1 1 .** A Confer- 
ence with an Anabaptist ; Part I. Concerning the subject 

7» A S 8 H E T O N. 

of Baptism : being a Defence of Infant-Baptistti,^ i^9h 
It was occasioned by a separate congregation of Anabaptist* 
being set up in Dr. Assheton^s parish *, but the meeting 
soon breaking up, the author never published a second 
part. 12. " A Discourse concerning a Death*bed Repent* 
ance." 13. "A Thedlogical Discourse of last Wills and 
TestamentSji" London, 1696. 14. << A seasonable Vindica^ 
ticm of the blessed Trinity ; being an answer to this ques-« 
tion, Why do you believe the doctrine of the Trinity? 
Collected from the works of the most reverend doctof 
•^ohn Tillotson, late lord archbishop of Canterbury, and 
the right reverend doctor ^ward StillingiEl^et, now lord 
bishop of Worcester," Lond<H), ) 679. 15. <* A brief state 
of the Secinian Controversy, concerning a Trinity in Vni- 
tv ;" collected from' the Works of Dr. Isaac Barrow, Lon- 
dDO, 1698. 16. " The Plain Man's Devotion, Part I. In 
a method of daily Devotion ; and, a method of Devotion 
for the Iiord's Day. Both fitted to the meanest capacities/* 
)698. 17. ^^ A full Account of the rise, progress, and 
^vantages of Dr. Assheton's Proposal (a's now improved 
and managed by the worshipful company of Mercers, Lpn« 
don,) for the benefit of Widows of Clergymen, and others^ 
by settled Jointures and Annuities, at the rate of thirty per 
cent. With. directions for the widow how to receive her 
annuity, without any delay, charges, or deductions. ^ Plead 
for the widow/ Isa. i. 17. 1713. 18. "A Vindication of 
the Immortality of the Soul, and a Future State,'' London, 
1703p 19. ''A brief exhortation to the Holy Communion, 
with the nature and measures of Preparation concerning it ; 
fitted to ^e meanest capacities,'* 1705. 20. "A Mtethod 
of Devotion for sick and dying persons : with particular 
4ire.c4^ions from the beginning of Sickness to the hour of 
Death," London, 1706. 21. "The 'Possibility of Appari- 
tions : being an answer to this question ; ^ Whether can 
departed souls (souls separated from their bodies) so ap- 
pear, as to be visibly seen, and converse here on earth ?' 
This book was occasioned by the remarkable story of one 
dying at Dover, and appearing to her friend at Canterbury. 
22. •* Occasional Prayers from bishop Taylor, bishop Co- 
sins, bishop Kenn," &c. and ** A devout collection of 
Divine Hymns and Poems, on several occasions," Lon-» 
don, 170S. 23. ^* A seasonable Vindication of the Clergy ; 
being ai» answer to some reflections in a late box^k, entitled 
The Bights of the Christian Church asserted, ;&c. Humbly^ 

A 6 « H E T O .JST- T> 

gul^mitted to the serious <:oDsideFatioiv pf the QObilUy and 

f entry of Gres^t Britain. By a Divine of the Oburch of 
.ondon/' 1709. 24. ^^ Directions for the Converaattoa of 
the Clergy : collected from the Visitatiop Charges of the 
right reverend father in Cod| Edward StillingBeet? D. D« 
late lord bishop of Worcester," London, 1710* $25. <' Two 
Sermons : onp preached before the Sons of the Clergy, at 
St. Paul's, December 6^ 1699 ; the other before the Ho^^ 
nourable Society of the Natives of the County of Keqt, at 
St. Mary le Bow, Nov. 21, 1700. Mr. Wood mentions 
9.nother Sermon on the Danger of Hypocrisy, preached al; 
Guildhall chapel, Aug, 3, 1673.* 

J ASSOUCI (Charlies Coypeaf;, sieue d') called the Apz 
of ScARRO^, was born at Paris in 1604» the son of an avo-* 
cat of parlement. At eight years old he ran away from hia 
father^s bouse, stopped at Calais, where he gave himself 
out for the son of Caesar Nostradamus ; and having set i;ip 
for a q^uack, he succeeded in restoring to health a patient 
who fancied himself sick. The people of Calais, thinking 
that he derived his medical skill from magic, were upoa 
the point of throwing him into the sea, and it was ivith dif^ 
ficulty that he saved himself from their fury by flight. 
After many more adv^tures at London, at Turin, and in 
various other places, he came to Montpellier, where some 
irregular amours drew upon hioi the noticeof the magistrate. 
He then strolled about from one country to another, and 
at length arrived at Rome, where his satires upon the court 
procured him to be imprisoned in the in^quisiitioD* Beings 
returned to France, he was sent to the Bastille ; and after^ 
wards was conducted to the Chatelet for the same crime 
for which he had been arrested at Montpellier. But, find* 
ing protectors, he was liberated at the end of six months. 
He died in 1679. His poetry was collected into three vols.' 
12mo, 1678. Among these pieces is a part of the Meta«» 
morphoses of Ovid translated, under the title of " Ovid in- 
good humour.'^ It is a burlesque version, iii which, Nas in 
all works of that nature, there are a thousand instances of 
dullness, and a thousand nK>re of indecency, for one lively 
and ingenious turn of wit We find also the rape of Pro- 
serpine^ from Claudian, whom, he makes harangue in the 
manner of declaimers. Assouci published also his adv^i^ 
tures in a style of buffoonery, 3 vols« I^mp, 167S. Upon; 

» Life of Pr. Assheton, by MTatts, 8w, 1714.-^Biog. Brit.— Wood'* Atlu 


n A s s o u c r. 

the whole he appears to have been one of those writer^ 
that may be passed over with very slight notice, a man^ 
with sometaleiTt for Humour, but destitute of principle. ' 

ASTELL (Mary), a learned and ingenious lady, was 
the daughter of Mr. Astell, a merchant at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, where she was born about 1668. Her uncle, who 
was a* clergyman, having discovered her superior capacity, 
generously undertook to be her preceptor ; and, under bis 
tuition,, she learned Italian and French, and made a con- 
siderable progress in logic, philosophy, and the mathe- 
matics. At the age of twenty, she left Newcastle and 
went to London, where, and at Chelsea, she spent the 
temaining part pf her life. Here she assiduously prose- 
cuted her studies, and acquired very considerable attain- 
meats in all the branches of polite literature. When the 
Rev. John Norris published his " Practical Discourses 
upon divine subjects," several excellent letters passed 
between him and Mrs. Astell upon the love of God, which, 
at the- request of Mr. Nortis, she suffered him to publish 
in 1695, without her name> a precaution which their me- 
rit rendered useless. Having often observed and lamented 
the defects in the education of her sex, which, she said, 
were the principal cavises of tbeif running into so many 
follies and improprieties, she published in 1696, an inge- 
nious treatise, entitled, ^^ A serious Proposal to the Ladies, 
for the advancement of their true and greatest interest,'* 
&c.. and, some time after, a second part, under the same 
title, with this addition: *' wherein a Method is offered 
for . the Improvement of their Minds.'* Both these per* 
formances were published together in 1696, and had, in 
some measure, the desired effect The scheme, indeed, 
in her proposal, seemed so rational, that a certain opulent 
lady, supposed to be the queen, intended to have given 
10,000/. towards the erecting a sort of college for the edu- 
cation and . improvement of the female sex ; aud as a re- 
treat to those ladies who preferred retirement and study to 
the noise and hurry of the world. Bishop Burnet, hearing 
of the design, went to the lady, and powerfully remon- 
strated against it,- telling her it would look like paving the 
way for popish orders, and that it would be reputed a nun- 
nery; in .consequence of which the design was relin- 
quished.. About seven years after, she printed "An Essay 

I Gen. Diet, in art- D'Assonci, written in Bay]e^$ worst style of impertinent 
reUuiidancy.— Biog. Universelle. 

A S T E L L. IS 

in Defence of the Female Sex. In a Letter to a Lady, 
Written by a Lady." These publications did not prevent 
her from being as intent on her studies as ever ; and when 
she accidentally saw needless visitors coming, whom she 
kaew to be incapable of conversing on useful subjects, in« 
stead of ordering herself to be denied, she used to look out 
at the window, and jestingly tell them, *^ Mrs. Astell was 
not at home." In the course of her studies she became 
intimately acquainted with many classic authors. Those 
she admired most were Xenophon, Plato, Hierocles, Tuliy, 
Seneca, £pictetus, and M. Antoninus^ In 1700, she pub- 
lished a book entitled ** Reflections on Marriage," occa*' 
sioned, as it is said, by a disappointment she experienced 
io a marriage«contract with an eminent clergyman. How* 
ever that might be, in the next edition of her book, 1705, 
she added a preface, in answer to some objections, which 
perhaps is the strongest defence that ever appeared in 
print, of the rights and abilities of her own sex. 

When Dr.D'Avenant published his " Moderation a Vir- 
tue," and his ^* Essay on Peace and War," she answered 
him in 1704, in a tract entitled " Moderation truly stated.*' 
The same year D'Avenant published a new edition of his 
works, with remarks on hers, to which she immediately 
replied in a postscript, and although without her name, she 
was soon discovered, and distinguished with public appro- 
bation. Some eminent men of the time bear testimony to 
the merit of her works, as Hickes, Walker, Norris, Dod- 
well, Evelyn, and bishop Atterbury, who praises her con- 
troversial powers, but with a hint that a little more urbanity 
of manner would not have weakened her arguments* 
Among her other works was '^ An impartial Inquiry into 
the Causes of Rebellion and Civil Wars in this kingdom, in 
an examination of Dr. Kenneths Sermon, Jan. 30, 1703-4." 
** A fair way with Dissenters and their Patrons, not writ by 
Mr. Lindsay, or any other furious jacobite, whether a cler- 

Syman or a layman ; but by a very moderate person and 
utiful subject of the queen," 1 704. " The Christian Re- 
ligion, as practised by a daughter of the Church of Eng* 
land," 1705. This was suspected to be the work of Atter- 
bury. << Six familiar Essays upon Marriage, Crosses in 
Love, and Friendship," 1706. "Bart'lemy Fair, or an 
Inquiry after Wit," 1700, occasioned by colonel Hunter's 
celebrated Letter on Enthusiasm. It was republished in 
1722, without the words * Bart'lemy Fair.' Although iiv- 

T* A S T E L L. 

ing and converfing with the fashionable world, she led d 
pious life, generally calm and serene, and her deportment 
and conversation were highly entertaining and social. She 
used to say, the good. Christian only has reason^ and he 
' always ought to be cheerful ; and that cjejected looks and 
melancholy airs were very unseemly in a Christian. But 
though she was easy and affable to others, she was severe 
towards herself. She was abstemious in a very great de- 
gree ; frequently living many days together on bread and 
water : and at other times, when at home, rarely eat any 
dinner till night, and j;hen sparingly. She would fre- 
quently say, abstinence was her ^best physic ; and that 
those who indulge themselves in eating and drinking, could 
not be so well disposed or prepared, either for study, or 
^e regular and devout service of their Creator. 

She enjoyed an uninterrupted state of health, till a few 
years before her death, when a cancer in her breast, which 
she concealed, except from a few of her most intimate ao« 
quaintance, impaired her constitution very much. She 
managed it .herself, till it was absolutely necessary to sab«' 
mit to amputation, which she did without discovering the 
least timidity or impatience, without a groan or a sigh; 
and shewed the same resolution and resignation during ^er 
whole illness. When she was confined to her bed by a 
gradual decay, and the time of her dissolution drew near, 
she ordered her shrowd and coffin to be made, add brought 
to her bed-side, and there to remain in her view, as a con* 
stant memento of her approaching fate, and to keep ber 
mind fixed on proper contemplations. She died May 24, 
1731, in the 63d year of her age, and was buried at 
Chelsea. ^ 

ASTERIUS, an Arian writer, in the fourth century, 
was a sophist of Cappadocia, who forsook Gentilism, and 
embraced Christianity'. He afterwards published some 
works in favour of Arianism, which were extant in th0 
time of Socrates, the ecclesiastical historian, who also in*- 
forms us that Asterius, although he was very much witk 
the Arian bishops, was refused admission into their order, 
because he had once sacrificed to the heathen gods. 
This lapse of Asterius is supposed to have happened about 
the year 304, and probably in Maximian*s piersecution, 

^ Biog. Brit — Ballafd's Memoirs of l4eanied Ladies.— Atterbury's Corre- 
spondence, vol. I. 396, vol. V. p. 287.— Tatler, 8vo, 1806, fol. I. 346, 34<>„ 
IlL 364, IV. 44S. 


A S T E R I U S. .7t 

Jerom says lie wrote commentaries on the epistle to the 
Komaos, and upon the gospels, psalms, &c, which were 
much read by the men of his party. None of these re- 
main, however, unless as quoted by Eusebius, and Athana* 
sius, who caMs him ^^ a cunning sophist, and a patron of 
heresy/' ■ 

ASTERIUS, a native of Antioch, and bishop of Amasea 
m Pontus^ in the fourth century, was the author of many 
homilies, part of which were published by Rubenius, and 
part by the fathers Combesis and Richer. They were 
translated into French by Maucroix in 1695, and have 
been admired for their eloquence. I'he first fourteen are 
evidently by Asterius, but the others appear doubtful, 
among which are those on Daniel and Susannah, St Peter 
and ^. Paul. In the last the supremacy of the church of 
Rome is maintained against the pretensions of all the 
pburches in the East and West. * 

. ASTLE (Thomas), an eminent English antiquary, wa» 
descended from an ancient family of the same name, 
resident at, and lords of the manor of Fauld in Stafford- 
9bire. His father, Daniel Astle, who was keeper of Need- 
wood forest, died in 1774, and was buried in Yoxal church, 
where is a neat mural monument erected to his memory^ 
His eldest son, the subject of this article, imbibed an 
early taste for the study of antiquities, particularly that 
abstruse and laborious part of it, the decyphering of an-* 
cient records, in which the profession of an attorney, to 
which he was brought up at Yoxal, gave him an oppoirtu-- 
nity of excelling, far beyond any of his contemporaries^ 
His father was about to fix him in a good country situa- 
tion, to practise in the profession he had so aptly learnt ; 
but his genius and enthusiasm, fortunately for himself and 
the public at large, frustrated that design, and induced 
him to come to London, where alone his taste could be 
indulged' and bis talents i;ewarded. About 1763, he ob^ 
t,ain€(d the patronage of Mr. Grehville, then first lord of 
the treasury a^d chancellor of the exchequer, who em- 
{ployed him as well in his pubUc as private afiairs, and 
joined him in a commission with the late sir Joseph Ay-» 
loiFe, bart. and Dr. Ducarel, for superintending the regu-i^ 
lation .of the public records at Westminster. On the 
death of his colleague, Mr. Topham was substituted, an4 

. . . - •« 

* Dupin.— Lardner's works. 

* D«pin.-— liioreri. — Cave^ toI. I,~»Saxii Onomasticon. 

78 A S f L % 

koth were removed by Mr. Pitt during his administratioit« 
Previously, however, to this, if we mistake not, he had 
cujoyed the patronage of lord Townshend, and soon aftet 
he was introduced to the rev. Philip Morant, author of the 
History of Essex, a gentleman of good property iti that 
country, whose daughter and heiress he soon after mar- 
xied, and by that means^ at her father's death, possessed 
bis estate* 

In 1765, he was appointed receiver-general of sixpence 
in tl»3 pound on the civil list. In 1766 he was consulted 
by the committee of the House of Lords^ concerning the 
printing of the ancient records of parliament. To the su- 
perintendance of this work he introduced his fether-in-law^ 
Mr. Morant ; and on his death in 1770, was himself ap->- 
pointed by the House of Lords to carry on the work, a 
service in which he was employed till its completion five 
years afterwards. He was then appointed, on the death 
of Henry Kooke, esq. his majesty's chief clerk in the re- 
cord-office in the Tower of London ; and on the decease 
of sir John Shelly, he succeeded to the office of keeper of 
the records. He likewise bebame a member of the Royal 
and Antiquary societies, and of several learned bodies on 
^e continent, and was one of the trustees of the British 
Museum. Of the Antiquary Society, he was long a use- 
ful and distinguished member, s^nd contributed several' 
vahiable articles to the Archaeologia, in vols. IV*. VII. X^ 
XII. and XIIL He published also "The Will of king 
Henry VIL" 1775, 4to. "A Catalogue of the MSS. in 
the Cottonian Library ; to which are added, many emen-' 
dations and additions : with an appendix, containing an 
account of the damage sustained by the fire in 1731; 
and also a catalogue of the charters preserved in the 
same library,** which was communicated by him to S. 
Hooper^ who published them in 1777, 8vo. ** The 
Origin and Progress of Writing, as well hieroglyphic 
as elementary; illustrated - by engravings taken frem 
marbles, MSS. and charters, ancient and modern': al$o» 
^ome account of the origin and progress of Printing, 
178 V 4to. A new edition was published in 1803, with, 
one additional plate from a MS. in the British Museum^ 
marked Nero, D. IV. ; and a portrait of Mr. A. painted- 
by Howard, and engraved by Sbelton, in which the ^ 
accidental loss of an eye when at scWol is concealed. 

A STL E. T9: 

^* The Will of king Alfred/' found in a register of New^ 
minster^ Winchester^ in the possession of the rev. George 
North, and given by Dr. Lort, his executor, to Mr. AsUe^ 
1769, was printed at Oxford, with the illustrations of Mr. 
Manning, under the superintendance of sir H. Croft, 1788, 
4to. *^ An account of the Seals of the King^s Royal Burghs 
and Magnates of Scotland, with five plates, 1793-," foU 
The Calendar to the Patent Rolls in the Tower of Lon« 
don, reaching from 3 John to 23 Edward IV. contain* 
ing grants of ofEces and lands, restitutions of temporalities 
to bishops, abbots, and other ecclesiastical persons ; con-* 
firmations of grants made to bodies corporate, as well ec- 
clesiastical as civil ; grants in fee farm ; special licences ; 
grants of offices ; special and general patents of creations 
of peers; and licences of all kinds which pass the great 
seal: and on the backs ^of these rolls are commissions to 
justices of the peace, of sewers, and all commissions which 
pass the great seal. The Calendar of these Rolls, published 
by his Majesty's command, in pursuance of an address of 
the House of Commons, on the report of the Commission* 
ers for inquiring into the stalJe of the Publid Record^, is 
printed from four MS volumes procured, in 1775, by Mr, 
Astle, for public use, from the executors of Henry Rooke^ 
esq. his predecessor in the office of keeper of the Tower 
records, collated with two MSS. in the Cottonian library, 
marked Titus C. II. and III. which appear to have been 
compiled in the reign of James I. by some experienced 
clerk, who seems to have selected from the records them- 
selves what appeared to him most useful and interesting* 
They supply many omissibns apd deficiencies in the Tower 
copy; and, after all, this Calendar, though entitled to 
great merit, is only a selection, various entries appearing 
on the Patent Rolls not entered here; and therefore, 
though this work will be found to yield abundant informa- 
tion, no one is to be deterred from an examination of any 
record mentioned elsewhere as being on the Patent Roll 
^because it is not mentioned here. Mr. A's report on the 
state, of the records under his care will be fo^nd in the re- 
port of the Committee abovementioned. 

His principal residence for some years before his death 

was at Battersea-rise, a beautiful eminence adjoining tp 

Clapham common, where his house was richly furnished 

jrith ot^ec4;s to instruct and delight an antiquary, particjit- 

$a A S f L E» 

krly bis library, Which contained a largift anct ctioice c(rf-i^ 
lection of books and manuscripts ; amongst the latter wa»' 
B series of original Saxon charters^ hitherto unequalled in 
number, beauty, and preservation. Here he departed thi» 
life, Dec. 1, 1803, in the 69th year of his age, after having^ 
been for dome time afflicted with a dropsical complaint/ 
lie left eight sons and dau^hters« 

By the direction of his will, his library was to be sold 
by public auction ; but it was purchased by the Royal In- 
stitution for 1000^. His manuscripts were to be ofFer'ed 
on certain terms to the marquis of Buckingham ; and ont 
his declining the purchase, to the British Museum. 
Those who know the value of the latter national repository 
will wish he had bequeathed them unconditionally. It was 
here he first obtained employment in the preparation of 
the Harleian catalogue of MSS. and he had long enjoyed 
the honour of being one of the trustees. Mr. Astle was^ 
however, a valuable contributor to the history and antiqui- 
ties of his country, and very liberal in giving assistance to 
gentlemen employed in any species of historical investiga- 
tion. His principal work is nis " Origin and Progress" of 
Writing,** some very acute remarks on which may be seen 
in the Monthly Review for October, 1784. His " Preface 
and Index to the Catalogue of the Harleian CoUectioa of 
HSS."- was published in 1763.* 

ASTLEY (John), an artist, more indebted to fortune 
than genius, for the distinction he obtained, was bom at 
Wemm in Shropshire, where his father practised phy^. 
When of an age to assume a profession, he was sent to 
London, and placed as a pupu under Mr^ Hudson. He 
afterwards visited Rome, and was there about the same 
time with sir Joshua Reynolds. After returning to Ei!^gland, 
he resided some months at a friend's house in London, and 
went thence to Dublin, where he practised as a painter 
for three years, and with such success as to acquire 3000/. 
On his return, he accidentally bemame acquainted with 
the opulent widow of sir William Daniel, whom he mar- 
ried, and eventually got possession of the Duckenfield 
estate, valued at 500G/. per annum. He then bought 
Schomberg house in Pall-mall, which he divided into 
three houses, inhabiting the centre house himself^ now 

-^ i SbaWs Hist.- of Stafibrdskire, voK I. p. 6T.-«GeDt, Miif . vol. •£XXIII.<^ 

Nichols's Bowyer, voL III. 202«t 

ASTLE.t. 81 

Mr. Payne's. iTdwards his latter days, he began to repent 
t{ having passed much of his life in dissipation ; and by a 
transition not Vety tincomman, dreaded being reduced to 
want. He died at his house', Duckenfield-lodge^ Cheshire, 
Not. 14, llSiy and was buried at the chureh of that vil- 
Isige. As an artist, his talents were by no Itieans of an in-» 
feriox class, particularly in pd'rtrait pointing ; but he had 
i^ot much dehght in bis profession, and when he obtained 
a fortune, practised no longer. * 

ASTON (Sir Arthur), an officer of note in king 
Charles L's army, was son of sir Arthur Aston of FuVham 
ih Middlesex, who was the second son of sir Thomas Aston, 
of Aston, of Bucklow-hundred in Cheshire ; " an ancient 
and knightly family of that county.'* He was a great tra- 
▼ellei*, and made several campaigns in foreign countries. 
Being returned into England about the beginning of the 
grand rebellion, with as many soldiers of note sis he could 
bring with him, he took part with the king against the 
parliament. He commanded the dragoons in the battle of 
Edge-hill, and with them 4id his majesty considerable 
service. The king, having a great opinion of his valour 
and Conduct, made him governoi^ of the garrison of Read- 
ing in Berkshire, and commissary-general of the horse: 
in which post he three, times repulsed the earl of Essex, 
who, at the he&d of the parliament army, laid siege to 
that place. But sir Arthur being dangerously wounded, 
the command" was devolved on .colonel Richard Fielding, 
the eldest colonel in the garrison. Sir Arthur was suspect- 
ed of taking this opportunity to get rid of a dangerous 
command. Some time after, he was appointed governor 
of the garrison of Oxford, in the room of sir William Pen- 
nyman deceased. In September following, he had the 
fiiisfortune to break his leg by a fall from his horse, and 
was obliged to have it cut off, and on the twenty-fifth of 
December, he was discharged from his command, which 
vras conferred on colonel Gage* After the king's death, 
sir Arthur was employed in the service of king Charles II, 
and went with the flower of the English veterans into Ire- 
land, where he was appointed governor of Drogheda^ 
commonly called Tredagh ; ** af which time (Mr. Wood 
tells us) he laid an excellent plot to tire and break the 
English army.'* But at length Cromwell having taken the 

> JEdwards'8 Aneedutes ot Paintert^ 4to, 1808. 

Vot. III. G 


S2 A S T O U 

tow.n, about the tenth of August 1649, and piit the inba* 
bitants to the sword, sir Arthur the governor was cut to 
pieces, and his brains beateu out with his wooden-leg. 
Wood says, that he was created doctor of physic, May 1, 
1641, and that he left behind him a daughter, Elizabeth 
Thompon, alias Aston. According to Clarendon's ac- 
count, sir Arthur's conduct was not upon the whole favour* 
able to the royal cause, and as a commaqder he seems 
never to have been popular. * 

ASTON (Sir Thomas), a brave and loyal gentleman, 
was the son of John Aston, of Aston in Cheshire, esq. by 
his wife Maud, daughter of Robert Needham, of Shenton 
in Shropshire. He was entered a gentleman commoner, 
of Brazen-nose college in Oxford, in 1 62^-7, but was 
sooh called home by his relations, and, being married, 
was created a baronet in July 1628. In 1635 he was 
high-sheriff of Cheshire, and firmly attached to the cause 
of Charles I., Upon the approach of the rebellion, he 
wrote some pieces against the Presbyterians, and was 
afterwards the first man in his county that took part with 
the king. During the civil war, he raised a party of horse 
for his majesty's service, which was defeated by a party of 
rebels under sir William Breerton of Honford, near Nant- 
wich in Cheshire, July 28, 1642; but sir Thomas escaped 
with a slight wound. Some time after, he was taken in a 
skirmish in Staffordshire, and carried prisoner to Stafford, 
where endeavouring to make his escape, a soldier gave 
him a blow on the head, which, with other wounds he had 
a little before received, threw him into a fever, of which 
he died March 24, 1645.. His body was carried to Aston,^ 
and interred in the chapel belonging to his own house. 
His writings were, " A Remonstrance against Presbytery,'* 
Lond. 1641, 4to. "A short survey of the Presbyterian 
discipline." " A brief review of the Institution, Succes- 
sion, and Jurisdiction of the ancient and venerable order 
pf the Bishops." These two last were printed with the 
" Remonstrance." ' He also made " A collection of sun- 
dry Petitions presented to the King and Parliament," 4to, 

ASTORI (John Anthony), a learned Italian antiquary, 
was born at Venice, Jan. 16, 1672, and soon made very 
extraordinary proficiency in classical and polite literature. 

» Biog. Brit.— Clarendon's History.— Wo6d's Ath, Ox. vol. II. 
* Biojp. Brit.— Ath. Ox. vol. II. 

A S T o R r. «s 

In 1698, h& lost bis parents, and went into the churchy 
where his merit procured him the offer of preferment, 
which his love of a literary life induced him for the pre- 
sent to decline. He became member and secretary of 
the academy of the Animosi at Venice, and was likewise a 
member of that of the Arcades of Rome, under the name 
of Demade Olimpico. He likewise carried on an eicten- 
sire correspondence with the most eminent scholars of his 
age, both Italians and foreigners, particularly Alexander 
Burgos, bishop of Catania ; father Guglielmini, Fardella, 
Lazzarini, Apostolo Zeno, Scipio Maffei, Poleni, Mor« 
gagni, &c. In his latter days he was master of the choir^ 
and canon of the dacal church of St. Mark ; and died in 
Venice, June 23^ 1743. He wrote, 1. *' Commentariolum 
in antiquum Alcmanis poets Laconis monumentum,'' Ve- 
nice, 1697, fol. reprinted in the "Galleriadi Minerva,*' 
and by Sallengre in the ^^ Novus Thesaurus antiquitatum 
Romanarum,*' Hague, 1718, foL 2. *^ De Deo Brotonte 
Epistola,*' reprinted in both the above collections. 3* 
Many letters and dissertations on Medals, &c. in various 
collections. 4. ** Mantui, tragoedia sacra musice recitan- 
da,'* Venice, 1713. 5. ** Supplices, tragcedia sacra," ibid. 
1713; besides many lesser pieces in Greek, Latin, and 
Italian, in the collections. ^ 

ASTORINI (Elus), born in the province of Cosenza 
in the kingdom of Naples in 1651, was first a Carmelite, 
and afterwards professor of mathematics and natural philo* 
sophy. He died in 1702, leaving the following publica-* 
tions, I. f* A dissertation on the life of the Fcetus in uteroy^ 
1686. 2. "A translation of the Elements of Euclid,'* 
1691. 3. <* A treatise on the power of the Holy See,'* 
1693. 4. << A translation of ApoUonius on ^onic Sec« 
tions," 1702, 4to.* ' * 

ASTRONOME (L'), the name, or assumed name of a 
person who lived in the ninth century, and uTote *^ The 
life of the emperor Lewis le Debonnaire," at whose court 
he is supposed to have enjoyed some office. He is said to 
have had many conferences with that prince on astronomical 
subjects. The life was written in Latin, and has been 
translated into French by^e president Cousin. The ori- 
ginal is in Du Chesne's Collection of Historians. ' 

1 Biog. VnivcneUe.-^Mazzuchelli.-^Saxii Onomasticoo. 

^ Diet. Historique. > Ibid.^Biof, Uoirenelle.— Moreru 

Q 2 


i« A S T R U C* 

ASTRUC (John), a very celebrated Freiicii pby^kianff 
was born in 1684, at Sauve in the diocese of Alais. His 
father, who was a Protestant clergyman, bestowed great 
pains upon bis early education, after which* be was sent to 
the university of Montpelier, where he was created M. A^ 
in 1700. He then began the study of medicine; and in 
two years obtained tbe degree of bachelor, having upor> 
that occasion written a dissertation on the cause of fer^* 
mentation, which he defended in a very able manner. On 
Jan. 25, 1703, he was created doctor of physdc, after which^ 
before arriving at extensive practice, he applied to the 
atudy of medical authors, both ancient atid modern, widi 
uncommon assiduity. Thet good effects of this study soon 
Appeared; for in 1710 he published a treatise concerning 
inuscular motion, from which he acquired very high reputa- 
tion. In 17 17 he was appointed to teach mediciue at Mont-* ' 
pelier, which he did with such perspicuity and eloquence, 
that his fame soon rose to a very great height ; the king, 
assigned him an annual salary, and he was at tbe same time 
appointed to superintend the mineral waters in the province 
of Languedoc. But as Montpelier did not afford sufficientr 
scope for one of his celebrity, he went to Paris with a gr^at 
number of manuscripts, which be designed for the presft^ 
Soon afterwards, however, he left it, having in 1729 ac- 
cepted the office of first physician to the king of Poland^ 
which was then offered to him ; but here his stay was very 
abort, as he disliked v^ ceremonious restrauit of a couvt* 
He again therefore returned to Paris, and upon the death' 
cf the celebrated G^offroy, in 1731, he was appointed r^* 
gius professon The duties of this office he discharged in 
^uch a manner as to answer tbe most sanguine expecta- 
tions; and he drew, from the otjier universities to that of 
Paris, a great concourse of medical students, foreigners a» 
well as natives. At tbe same time he was not more cele- 
brated as a professor than as a practitioner, ajfid his private 
character was in all respects truly .amiable. He reached a 
very advanced age, and died May 5, 1766* Of his works^ 
which are very numerous^ the following are tbe principal i 
1. '' Origine de la Peste," 1721, 8vo. 2. " De la Coi|ta- 
gion de la Peste," 1724, 8vo. 51 " De Motu Musculari,'* 
1710, 12mo. 4. " Memoires pour servir a I'Histoire na* 
turelle de Languedoc," 1737, 4to. 5. " De Morbis Ve- 
nereis, libri sex," 1736, 4to, afterwards enlarged to tvr® 
vols, and translated into French by Jault, 4 vols. 12mo. 

A S T R U C. 85 

f- <<TraItedes maladies desFemmes,'* 1761 — 1765, 6 vols. 
420)0. 7. " L*Art dlAccoucher reduk & ses principles,'* 
1766, 12ino. 8. "Theses de Phantasia," &c. 9. « De 
motus Fermentativi causa,** 1702, 12mo. 10. "Memoir© 
• sur la Digestion," 1714, 8va IK " Tractatus Pathologi- 
c«is," 1766, 6vo. ^sides these, in 1759 he published 
*^ Traite des Tumeurs," 2 vols. 12mo; and one or two 
treati^ies not connected with medicine, one with the singu- 
lar title of " Conjectures sur les Memoires originaux qui 
ont servi a Moise pour eorire la Genese;** Paris, 1753, 
|2mo, and a dissertation on the immateriality and immor- 
tality of the Soul, Paris, 1755. His work on the venereal 
disease, and those on the diseases of women, and on mid* 
wifery, have been translated into English. ' 

ATANAGI (Dennis), a native of Cagli, in the duchy 
of Urbino, came, to Rome in 1532, where he was dis- 
tinguished f(Mr his taste and eloquence; but having a reluc- 
)3ace to any regular profession Vhich might have afforded 
bim an opportunity and means to cultivate literature, he 
soon fell into extreme poverty. In 1560, however, he be<» 
came corrector of the press at Venice, and there had like 
to have been sacrificed to the rage of a student belonging 
to the univei^ity of Padua, who having committed a work 
to his correctioo, Atanagi adopted it and published it un* 
4et bis pwQ name. This is the only incident recorded of 
this eccentric genius, whom the Italians consider as a very 
pure writer, and one of their best critics. He published^ 

1. ^ Rhetoricorum Aristotelis, necnon paraphrasis Her- 
mogenis tabuls, ft D. A. collectss,^' Venice, 1553, 4to* 

2. ** Lettere famigliari di XIII. uomini illustri,** Home, 
1554, 8vo. 3. " Rime di M. Bernardo Cappello," Venice^ 
J 560, 4to^ with a long dedication by the editor. 4. " So- 
netti, Canzoni, rime ed eglogbe pescatorie di Berardino 
Rota," Venice, 1567, 8vo. He also published Rota's La-r 
tiib poetry, with a Latin preface, very elegantly written. 
5.^" Rime e versi Latini di diversi, in morte d' Irene di 
Spilimbergo,'' Venice, 1561, 8vo. 6. " Delle Lettere fa- 
cete e piacevoli di diversi uomini gtandi e chiari e begrin** 
gegni, raccolte, &c. libro prime/* Venice, 1561, 8vo. Th^ 
second volume, in 1574, was published after Atanagi'a 
death. 7. " II libro degli uomini illustri di Caio PUpio 
iJecilio, ridotto in. lingua volgare, &c.'* Venice, 1562, ivo. 

1 Diet Hist— Bio(, yfii7«nwU^.-*Eiicycilop. Brit.*-rHalter BlU. Med^^Sa^ii 

. I 


3. '* De Ic rime di diversi nobili poeti Toscani," Venice, 
1565, 2 vols. 8vo, one of the best collections of the kind* 
The time of Atanagi's death has not been ascertained, but 
it is supposed to have hiappened about 1 574, ^ 

ATHANASIUS (St.), an eminent father of the Christ- 
ian church, of the fourth century, was born at Alexandria, 
of heathen parents. He was noticed, when very young, 
by Alexander, bishop of that see, who took care to have him 
educated ip all good learnings and when of age, ordained 
him deacon, ^e took him in his company when he at- 
tended the council of Nice, where Athanasius distingui^^d 
himself as an able and zealous opposer of the Arians. Soon 
after, the dissolution of the council, Alexander died, and 
Athanasius was appointed to succeed him in the govern- 
ment 'of the church of Alexandria. This was in the year 
S26, when Athanasius is supposed to have been about 
twenty-eight years of age. 

Arius and. some of the principal of . his followers re« 
nounced their opinions, and subscribed to the Nicene 
fSaith, by which means they obtained the countenance and 
&vour c^ the emperor Constantine^ who wrote letters to 
Athanasius, insisting upon his re-admitting Arius into the 
church, and receiving him into communion ; but this he 
peremptorily and inflexibly refused to do, though urged 
warmly by sovereign authority, and menaced with the rod 
of imperial vengeance. While thus he lay under the em« 
{>eror*s displeasure, his enemies took the opportunity of 
bringing against him many grievous accusations, which, 
however, appeared in the end to be false and groundless. 
Among others, they charged him with threatening that he 
would take care no corn should be carried from Alexandria 
to Constantinople ; and said, that there were four prelates 
' ready tq, testify that they had heard such words from 
bis own mouth. This so much incensed the emperor, 
that he exiled him into France; though some writers 
intimate, that this sentence was not the effect of his re- 
sentment, but his policy, which indeed is more pro- 
bable. It was the desire of the emperor to remove all 
frivolous disputes about words, to allay the heats and ani^ 
mosities among Christians, and to restore peace and una- 
nimity to the church, and perhaps he looked upon Atha- 
nasius as a great obstacle to his favourite design, aa he 

> Biog. UiUFenell«^«-]>ict. Histbrique* 

A T H A N A S I^ U S- 87 

could by no means be brought to communicate with the 

After the death of the emperor, he was recalled by his 
successor Constantine the younger, and restored to his see, 
and received by his people with great joy. This emperor's 
reign was short, and his enemies soon found means to 
draw down upon him the displeasure of Constantius ; so 
that, being terrified with his threats, he sought his safety 
by flight, and by hiding himself in a secret and obscure 
place. Julius, at this time bishop of Rome, being greatly 
affected with the injurious treatment of Athanasius, sought 
him out in his obscurity, and took him under his protec- 
tion. He summoned a general council at Sardis, where 
the Nicene creed was ratified, and where it was determined^ 
that Athanasius, with some others, should be restored to 
their churches. This decree the emperor shewed great 
unwillingness to comply with, till he was influenced by the 
warm interposition of his brother in the west ; for at this 
time the empire was divided between the two surviving 
brothers. Being thus prevailed upon, or rather indeed 
constrained by necessity, he wrote several letters with his 
own hand, which are still extant, to Athanasius, to invite 
him to Constantinople, and to assure him of a safe conduct. 
He restored him, by an edict, to his bishopric ; wrote let- 
ters both to the clergy and laity of Alexandria to give him 
a welcome reception ; and commanded that such acts ^s 
were recorded against him in their courts and synods^ 
should be erased. 

When the emperor restored Athanasius, he .told him, 
that there were several people in Alexandria who differed 
in opinion from him, and separated themselves from his 
communion ; and he requested of him, that he would per- 
mit them to have one church for themselves. The' bishop 
replied, the emperor's commands should be obeyed; but 
he humbly presumed to beg one favour in return, viz. that 
he would be pleased to grant one church in every city for 
such as did not communicate with the Arians. The pro- 
"posal was made at the suit, and through the insinuations, of 
the Arians ; who, when they heard the reply, and had no- 
thing either reasonable or plausible to object to it, thought 
proper to desist from their suit, and make no more mention 
of it. This is one proof among many others, that the Ari- 
ans had no reason to reproach Athanasius with intolerant 


«« A T H A N A S I U S. 

At the death of Constans, which happened soon aft^^r* 
wards, he was again deposed, and Constantiusgave orders 
that be should be executed wherever he was taken. He 
was re-instated by Julian ; but, before the end of that 
apostate's reign, was again obliged to have recourse to 
flight for safety. When orthodoxy found a patron in Jo* 
yian, and the Nicene creed became again the standard of 
catholic faith, Athanasius recovered his credit and his see^ 
which he enjoyed unmolested in the time of Valentinian ; 
and even Valens, that furious and persecuting Arian, 
thought it expedient to let him exercise his function un-> 
molested, because he found there was a great multitude of 
people in Egypt and Alexandria, who were determined to 
live and die with Athanasius. He died in peace and 
tranquillity in the year 373, after having been bishop 
forty-six years. His works were published in Greek and 
Latin, at Heidelberg, 1601; at Paris, 16i^7; at Cologne, 
1686; but the best edition is that given by Montfaucon, 
at Paris, 1698, in 3 vols, folio. There has been a reprint 
of this, however, at Padua, in 1777, 4 vols, folio, which 
some prefer as being more complete and more, elegantly 

Photius greatly extols Athanasius as an elegant, clear« 
and excellent writer. It is controverted among learned, 
jpen, whether Athanasius composed the creed commonly- 
received under his name. Baronius is of opinion that it 
was composed by Athanasius when he was at Rome, and 
offered to pope Julius as a confession of his faith ; which 
circumstance is pot at all likely, for Julius never questioned 
his faith. However, a great many learned men havc^ 
ascribed it to Athanasius; as cardinal Bona, Petavius, 
Bellarmine, and Rivet, with many others of both commu* 
pions. Scultetus leaves the matter in doubt ; but the best 
and latest critics make no question but that it is to be 
ascribed to a Latin author, Vigilius Tapsensis, an African 
bishop, who lived in the latter end of the fifth century, in 
the time of the Vandalic Arian persecution. Vossiqs and 
Quesnel have written particular dissertations in fayouy of 
this opinion. Their arguments are, 1. Because this cree4 
is wanting in almost all the manuscripts of Athana$ius*s 
works. 2. Because the style and contexture of i% do not 
bespealc a Greek but a Lathi author. 3. Because neither 
Cyril of Alexandria! nor the council of Ephesus, nor pope 
Leo, nor the council of Chalcedon, have ever mentioned it 

A T HA N A S I U «• ft 

in ftH th^kt diey say against the Nestorians or Eutychians. 
4. Because this Yigilius Tapsensis is known to have pub*- 
lished others of his writings under the borrowed name of 
Athanasius, with which this creed is commonly joined* 
These reasons have persuaded Pearson, Usher, Cave, and 
Dupin, :critics of the first rank, to come into the opinion^ 
that this ereed was not composed by Athanasius, but by a 
later and a Latin writer. 

. With respect to the writings of Athanasius, it has been 
justly observed, that there is little important in them, but 
what relates to the Arian controversy, in which he was oc- 
cupied during the greater part of his life. What Photius 
asserts of his style .may be allowed ; but in his life of An- 
thony the monk, and some other of his pieces, we iihd him 
giving too much support to the superstitions and follies of 
the monastic system* In other respects, he is one of the 
ablest supporters of the Trinitarian doctrine, and in his 
private conduct, although occasionally exasperated by op- 
|>ression, he was in general consisteut and upright. * 

ATHELARD, or ADELARD,was a learned monk of Bath 
in England, who flourished about 1 1 50, as appears by some 
manuscripts of his in the libraries of Corpus Christi and 
Trinity colleges, Oxford. Vossius says, he was universally 
le^^roed in all the sciences of his time, and that, to increase 
Ills knowleclge, he travelled into France, Germany, Italy, 
$pain, Egypt, and Arabia He wrote many books himself, 
9ud translated others from different languages ; among the 
latter, he translated froni Arabic into Latin, EucIid^s Ele* , 
iR^nts, at a time before any Greek copies had been dis* 
covered, and ^^ Eriqhiafarim^' upon the seven planets. 
He wrote a treatise on the several liberal arts, another* on 
the astrolobe, another on the causes of natural composi-* 
tipns, besides several on physics and on medicine. Some 
Uianuscripts of bis referred to by Vossius remain in thecoU 
leges in Oxford ; as ii) Oriel, ** De decisionibus natural!- 
bus,'* and " De philosophia Danielis,'' in Corpus Christi, 
^f De pausis naturalium Gompositionum,** and in Trinity- 
college, bis trs^nslation of Euclid, besides several in ther 
]^odleian.; but others appear to have been taken away. * 

* Dupin. — Cave. — Mosheim and Milqer's Eccl. Histories. — ^W^terland^g Hi8t» 
«f the Athanasian Creed.*-Saxii Onomasticon. 

> Button's Math. Oict.-^ Vossius de Scient, Math.— -Catalog^. MSS. An^L ef 
'|l)benua^.r-0ruci(er. % 

90 ATH£N^US. 

ATHEN-SUS, a Greek grammarian, bom at Naucratis 
in Egypt, flourished in the third cetitury. He was one of 
the most learned men in his time, and had read so much, 
and had such an, uncommon memory, that he might be 
styled the .Varro of the Greeks. Of all his writings none 
remain but the work entitled " The Deipnosophists," or, 
the Sophists discoursing at Table* Here an infinite variety 
of facts and quotations are preserved, which are to be met 
^th no where else ; and hence, as Bayle truly observes, it 
is probable that this author is more valued by us than he 
was by his contemporaries, who could consult the originals 
from which thes6 facts and quotations were taken. Athe« 
HSBUS is supposed to have been injured by transcribers ; 
the omissions, transpositions, and false readings in him be- 
ing extremely numerous. The work consists of fifteen 
books, the two first and beginning of the third of which are 
wanting, but, with many hiatuses in the rest, have been 
supplied from an abridgment which is extant. It was first 
printed in 1514, by Aldus Manutius, Venice, folio, and rie-* 
printed Under the inspection of Casaubon, Leyden^ 1600, 
folio. The last edition is that of Shweighaeuser, Stras-* 
burgh, 1801 — 1807, 14 vols. 8vo, which Mr. Dibdin has 
copiously described, and highly praised. The French cri- 
tics, and perhaps others, have, however, objected that thid 
editor was not sufficiently versed in the rules of Greek ver- 
sification, and that he neglected to consult some modern 
critics, in whose works he might have found many pas^ 
sages of AthensBUs correqted. ' 

ATHEN-ffiUS, of Byssantium, an engineer under the 
emperor Gallienus, about the year 200 before the Christ- 
ian era, was employed by that prince to fortify such parts 
of Thrace and lUyricum, as were exposed to the incursions 
of the Scythians. He is the reputed author of a treatise 
on '^ The Machines for War," which was piinted in the 
collection of the works of the ancient Mathematicians, Pa- 
ris, 1693, fol Gr. and Lat.* 

ATHEN-ZEUS, a physician, born at Attalia, a city of 
Cilicia, was contemporary with Pliny, in the first century, 
and was the founder of the Pneumatic sect. His doctrine 
was, that the fire, air, water, and earth, are not the true 
elements, as is generally supposed, but that their qualities 

1 Gen. Diet.— Moreri.— Saxii Onomasticon.— Biog. Univeraelle.— Dibdin's 
Classics. t j{iog, UiiiYerseUe.---Saxii Onomasticon. 

A T H E N -«: u a 9r 

»re so, namely^ heat, cold, moisture, and dryness. T6 
these he added a fifth element, which he called spirit 
(«vEv/btfi), whence his sect had its name. He thought that 
this spirit penetrated all bodies, and kept them in tt^ir 
natural state ; this he borrowed from the Stoics, whence 

. Galen calls Chrysippu^, one of the most famous of those 
philosophers, the Father of the Pneumatic sect ; but Athe- 
nsBUS was the first who applied it to physic. He thought 

. that, in the greatest part of diseases^ this spirit was the first 
that suffered ; and that the pulse was only a miction caused 
by the natural and involuntary dilatation of the heat in the 
arteries and heart. We have but very little of this famous 
author remaining, and must look for a further account of 
the doctrines of his sect in the writings of Aretaeus. ^ 

ATHENAGORAS, an Athenian philosopher, who be-» 
came a convert to Christianity. He was remarkable for 
his zeal, and also for his great learning, as appears from 
the Apology which he addressed to the emperors Aurelius 
and Commodus, about the year 180. Bayle thinks that 
this Apology wais not actually presented, but only pub- 
lished. Besides the Apology, there is also remaining of 
Ath^iagoras, a piece upon the Resurrection, both written 
in a style truly Attic. They have been printed often, but 
the best edition is that of Dechair, Gr. and Lat. OxoUi 
1706, 8vo. His works are also to be found in the Biblio* 
theca Patrum. Dr. Waterland gives an account of him in 
his '* Importance of the doctrine of the Trinity," which 
Athenagoras held. In 1 599, a romance, pretendedly trans* 
lated from Athenagoras, was printed at Paris by Daniel 
Guillemot in 1612, with the following title: ^< Du vrai et 
parfait Amour, escrit eii Grec par Athenagoras, philosophe 
Athenien, contenant les Amours honestes de Theogone et 
de Charide, de Pherecides et de Melahgenie :" «V e. " Of 
true and perfect Love, written in Greek by Athenagoras, 
an Athenian philosopher; containing the chaste loves of 
Theogbnus and Charidea, of Pherecides and Melangenia.** 
Martin Fum^e, lord of Genille, had made this translation, 
and sent it, in 1569, to Mr. de Laman6, secretary to car- 
dinal d' Armagnac. It was found in the papers of Bernard 
de San-Jorry, who published it in 1612. Huetius speaks 
very largely of this book, and conjectures that Philander 

was the real author of it. He tells us that this Fum^e 

<> * 

* Gen. Dict<^Moreri. 


boasted that be bad the original Greek by means of Lt-i^ 
ipan£, protonotary to cardinal d^Artnagnac. There is no 
doubt, however, that it was not th^ firoduction of Athena^ 
goras; but Cave, from whom we borrow the preceding 
account, does not appear to have seen the first edition, 
which was published at Paris, 159^.* 

ATHENODORUS (surnamed CoRDYUO), a Stoic phi-: 
losopher, was probably of Pergamus, where he lived till be 
was very much advanced in years. He constantly refused 
to accept the favours which kings and generals would have* 
bestowed upon him. Cato the younger, being in Asia at 
thehe^ad of an army, and knowing the merit of this eminent 
character, was very desirous of having him with him ; but 
thinking that a letter would not prevail upon him to leave 
his retirement, he resolved to go himself to Pergamus, and - 
by bis intreaties and prayers he prevailed upon Atbenodo-* . 
rus to follow him to the camp, whither he returned in a tri« 
umphant manner, being more remarkable for his newE 
acquisition than LucuUus or Pompey cpuld be for the 
conquests they had made. Athenodorus contiuued with 
Cato till bis death, which happened about fifty before tfa^ 
Christian era. He is perhaps the same who is mentioned - 
by Diogenes Laertius, in the life of Zeno Citticus. * 

ATHENODORUS, the son of Sandon, was another ce- . 
leb rated Stoic philosopher. He was born at Tarsus, or ■ 
perhaps at Cana, a, village near it, whence he was surnamed • 
Cananita. He lived at Rome i and on account of bis - 
learning, wisdom, and moderation, was highly esteemed by , 
Augustus. His opinion and advice bad great weight witli . 
the emperor, and are said to ha>ve led him into a milder . 
plan of government than he had at first adopted. He ob-^ 
tained, for his fellow-citizens, the inhabitants of Tarsus, . 
relief from a part of the burthen of taxes which had been 
imposed upon them, and was on this account honoured with 
an annual festival. Athenodorus wiuf intrusted by Augus«* . 
tus with the education of the young prince Claudius; rand 
that he might the more successfully execute his charge, hia 
illustrious pupil became for a while resident in his house* - 
This philosopher retired in his old age to Tarsus, where he 
died in bis eighty-second yean Other particuls^rs of him • / 
are given in the General Dictionary, and in the auUxori- 

1 G«n, Dict.»i«Bnicker«-*I^rc|nQf's Wpr1cs.-«oCftVey rol, L-*-rSaxii Onomafttp 
*6«B. Diet, . - 



^es cited by Brucker, but there appear to have been two 
of the name (besides the one of whom we have before 
given an account), oi^ there is much confusion in all the 
writers we have had an opportunity of consulting respect- 
ing this one. ^ 

ATHIAS (Joseph), a Jew rabbi, and printer at Amster- 
dam, to whom we owe one of the most correct editions of 
the Hebrew bible. It was printed twice, in 1661 and 
1667, 2 vols. 8vo, and has been followed by most of the ' 
modem editors, particularly Clodius, Magus, Jablonski, . 
J. H. Michaelis, Opitius, Van der Hooght, Houbigant, and 
Simon, It is also the basis of the edition of Reineccius, 
reprinted, in 1793, by the learned Dorderlein. The, 
states-general entertained such a sense of the merit of 
Athias, in this useful undertaking, that in 1667 they voted 
him a chain of gold. He is said to have died in 1700. 
•" His father, Tobias Athias published a Spanish bible for the 
use of the Jews, in 1555, according to the Diet, Hist. ; but 
the above dates seem to render this doubtful. ' 

ATKINS or ETKINS (James), bishop of Galloway in 
Scotland, was the son of Henry Atkins, sheriff and commis- 
sary of Orkney, and was born in the town of Kirkwall, in 
the stewartry of Orkney. He was educated in the college 
of Edinburgh, where he commenced M. A. and from 
thence went to Oxford in 1637-8, to finish his studies 
under the tuition of Dr. Prideaux, the regius p'rofessor of 
divinity; Soon after he was appointed chaplain to James ■ 
marquis of Hamilton, his majesty's high-commissioner for 
Scotland) in which station he acquitted himself so well, 
that, by the application of his noble patron upon his re- 
turn to England, he obtained from the king a presentation 
to the church of Birsa, in the stewartry of Orkney. Here - 
he continued some years, and his prudence, diligence, and 
&ithfulness in the discharge of his office, procured him 
' much.veneration and respect from all persons, especially 
from bis ordinary, who conferred upon him the dignity of 
Moderator of the presbytery. In the beginning of 1650, 
when James marquis of Montrose landed Jn Orkney, Dr. 
Atkins %vas nominated by the unanimous votes of the said 
presbytety, to draw up a declaration in their names, con- 

' Gen. Diet — Brooker.— -Moreru 

• MurttTi.-^Biog. Univcnwlle,— tc Lom^, Bibl. Sacra.-r-D>ct. Hittorlque.*^ 
ftiokhoro'i Introduction, 1803, aad Ws History •£ Mudera Pbilology, IS07.-« 

94 ATKINS.., 

taining the strongest expressions of loyalty and allegiance 
to king Charles II., for which the whole presbytery being 
deposed by the assembly of the kirk at that time sitting at 
Edinburgh, Dn Atkins was likewise excommunicated as 
one who held a correspondence with the said marquis* 
At the same time the council passed an act for the appre- 
hending and bringing him to his trial ; but upon private 
notice from his kinsman sir Archibald Primrose, then clerk 
of the council, he fled into Holland, where he lay concealed 
till 16.53, and then returning into Scotland, he. settled with 
his family at Edinburgh, quietly and obscurely, till 1660. 
Upon the restoration of the king, he accompanied Dr. Tho- 
mas Sydserf, bishop of Galloway (the only Scotch bishop 
who survived the calamities of the usurpation) to London, 
where the bishop of Winchester presented him to the rec- 
tory of Winfrith in Dorsetshire. In 1677, he was elected 
and consecrated bishop of Murray in Scotland, to the great 
joy of the episcopal party; and, in 1680, he was translated 
to the see of Galloway, with a dispensation to reside at 
Edinburgh, on account of his age, and the disaffection of 
the people to episcopacy. At. this distance, however, he 
continued to govern his diocese seven years, and died at 
Edinburgh of an apoplexy, October 2dth, 1687, aged 
seventy -four years. His body was decently interred m 
the church of the Grey -friars, apd his death was extremely 
regretted by all good and pious men. ^ 

ATKYNS (Sir Robert), lord chief baron of the ex- 
chequer^ was descended of a very ancient family in Gloces- 
tershire, and son of sir Edward Atkyns, one of the, barons 
of the exchequer, by Ursula, daughter of sir Thomas 
Dacres of Cheshunt in Hertfordshire. He was born in 
1621, and, after being instructed in grammar-learning in 
his father's housf, was sent to Baliol college, Oxford. 
Removing thence to one of the inns of court, he applied 
himself very closely to the istudy of the law. In April 
1661, at the coronation of king Charles II. he was made a 
knight of the bath ; and in September the ^ame year cre-<^ 
ated M. A. in full convocation at Oxford. In 1671 he was 
appointed a king's serjeant at law; and in 1672, a judge 
of the court of common pleas. In 1679, from an appre* 
hension of very troublesome times, he resigned his office, 
and retired into the country. In July 1683^ when lord 

I Atb. Ot. Yol. Il—BIog. Brit. 

A T K Y N S. 95 

Russel was first imprisoned, on account of that conspiracy 
for which he afterwards suffered, sir Robert Atkyns, being 
applied to for his advice, gave it in the following letter, 
probably addressed to some of the friends of that noble* 
man, which manifests his courage and integrity, as well as 
his prudence and learning : 

^* Sir, I am not without the apprehensions of danger 
that may arise by advising in, or so much as discoursing of, 
public affairs ; yet no fear of danger shall hinder me from 
performing the duty we owe one to another, to counsel 
those that need our advice, how to make their just defence 
when they are called in question for their lives ; especially 
if they are persons that have, by their general carriage and 
conversation, appeared to be men of worth, and lovers of 
their king and country, and of the religion established 
among us. I will follow the method you use, and answer 
what you ask in the order I find it in your letters* 

'^ I cannot see any disadvantage or hazard, by pleading 
the general plea of Not Guilty. If it fall out upon the 
proofs, that the crime is only misprision of treason, and 
not the very crime of treason, the jury must find the 
prisoner not guilty of treason; and cannot, upon an in- 
dictmejit of treason, find the party guilty of misprision, 
because he was not indicted for the offence of misprision; 
and treason ai>d misprision of treason, are offences that the 
law hath distinguished the one from the other ; and there* 
fore, if the proofs reach no farther than to prove a mispri- 
sion, and amount not to treason, the prisoner may urge- it 
for himself, and say, that the proofs do not reach to the 
crimes charged in the indictment ; and if the truth be so, 
the caurt ought so to direct the jury not to find it. Now 
being in company with others, where those others do con- 
sult and conspire to do some treasonable act, does not 
make a man guilty of treason, unless by some words or 
actions he signify his consent to it, and approbation of it ; 
but his being privy to it, and not discovering of it, makes 
him guilty of misprision of treason, which consists in the 
concealing it ; but it makes him not guilty of treaison ; and 
if the same person be present a second time, or oftener, 
this neither does not make him guilty of trieason, only it 
raises a strong suspicion that he likes, and consents to it, 
and approves of it, or else he would have forborne after 
being once amongst them. But the strongest suspicion 
does not sufficiently provQ a guilt in treason, nor can it go 

96 A T K Y N S. 

Yor any evidence, and that upon two accounts : — first, the 
proo£» in case of treason must be plain, and clear,'and po-» 
jitive, and not by inference or argument, or the strongest 
suspicion imaginable. Thus said sir Edward Coke, in 
' many places in his ThirJ Institutes, in the chapter of High 
Treason. Secondly, in an indictment of high treason 
there must not only be a general charge of treason, nor is 
it enough to set forth of what sort or species the treason is, 
as killing the king, or levying war against him, or coining 
money, or the like ; but there must be also set forth some 
overt or open act^ as the statute of the 25th of Edward III. 
calls it, or some instance given by the party or offender, 
whereby it may appear he did consent to it, and consult it, 
and approve of it ; and if the barely being present shoulcl 
be taken and construed to be a sufficient overt or open act, 
or instance, then there is no difference between treason 
and misprision of treason ; for the being present without 
consenting makes no more than misprision ; therefore there 
must be something more than being barely present, to 
xxiake a man guilty of treason, especially since the law re- 
quires an overt or open act to be proved against the prisoner 
accused. Se^ sir Edward Coke's Third Institutes, fol. 12* 
upon those words of the statute. Per overt fact. And 
that there ought to be direct and manifest proofs,, and 
not bare suspicions or presumptions, be they never so 
strong and violent ; see the same fol. in the upper part of 
il, upon the word Proveablement. And the statute of the 
Mb of Edward VI. cap. 2, requires that there should be 
two witnesses to prove the crime : so that if tliere be but 
one witness, let him be never so credible a person, and 
never so positive, yet if there be no other proof, the party 
ought to be found not guilty; and those two witnesses must 
prove the person guilty of the same sort or species of trea- 
son. As for example, if the indictment be for that species 
of treason, of conspiring the king's death, both witnesses 
must prove some fact, or words tending to that very sort 
of treason ; but if there be two witnesses, and one prove* 
the prisoner conspired the death of the king, and the other 
witness proves the conspiring to do some other sort of trea- 
son, this comes not home to prove the prisoner guilty upon 
that indictment ; for the law will not take away a man^s life 
in treason, upon the testimony and credit of one witness j 
it is so tender of a man^s life, the crime and the forfeitures 
are so great and heavy. And as there, must be two wit- 

A T K Y N S. 91 

Jkesses, so by the statute made in the thirteenth year of his 
>resent Majesty, cap. i. (entitled for the safety of his Ma- 
jest's person) those two ivitnesses must not only be lawful^ 
)ut also credible persons. See that statute in the fifth 
paragraph ; and the prisoner must be allowed to object 
against the credit of all, or any of the witnesses ; and if 
there be but one witness of clear and good credit, and the 
rest not credible, then the testimony of those that are no£ 
credible must go for nothing, by the words and meaning 
of this statute : See the statute. Now were I a juryman, I 
should think no such witness a credible witness, as should 
appear, either by his own testimony, or upon proof made 
by others against him, to have been particeps criminisj for 
that proves him to be a bad, and consequently not so cre- 
dible, a man ; especially if it can appear the witness has 
trepanned the prisoner into the committing of the crime : 
Then the witness will s^ppear to be guilty of a far higher 
crime than the prisoner, and therefore ought not to be be- 
lieved as a credible witness against the prisoner ; for he is 
a credible witness that has the cre£t of being a good and 
honest man, which a trepanner cannot have ; and this tre« 
panning proves withal, that the trepanner did bear a spite 
and maUce against the person trepanned, and intended to 
do him a mischief, and designed to take away, his life* 
' Shall such a one be a credible witness, and believed against 
him? God forbid! Then again, it cannot but be be- 
lieved, that such persons as have been guilty of the same 
crime, will, out of a natural self-love, be very forward and 
willing to swear heartily, and to the purpose, in order to 
the convicting of oth^s, that they may, by this service^ 
merit their pardon ana save their own lives ; and for this 
reason are not so credible witnesses, such as the statute of 
13 Car. II. does require. Read over the whole chapters of 
sir Edward Coke, of high treason, and of petty treason ; for 
in this latter, of petty treason, there is much matter that 
concerns high treason. 

. << I wish with all my soul, and I humbly and heartily 
pray to almighty God, that these, gentlemen who have 
given so great proof of their love to the true religion, and 
of the just rights and liberties of their country, and of 
th^ir zeal against popery, may upon their trial appear in-« 
nocent. I am so satisfied of their great wortb, that I can- 
not easily believe them guilty of so hdrrid a crime. J pray 
God stand by them in the time of theiic distress. I wish I 
Vol. III. H 

»» A T K Y N S;. 

might baT« the liberty fairly to give them nrfaat isststance I 
could in that wberein I might be any way capable of doing 
^t. I beseech almighty God to heal oat divisioas^and 
establish us upon the sure foundation of peace and right-* 
eousness. I thank you for the favour you have done me 
by impai^ting some pubiiq affairs, which might perhaps 
have been unknown to me, or not known till after a long 
lime, for I keep no correspondence. When there is any 
occasion, pray oblige me by a farther account, especially 
what concerns these gentlemen ; and though I have written 
nothing here but what is innocent and justifiable, yet that 
I may be the surer against any disadvantage or miscon- 
Btruction, pray take the pains to transcribe what notes you 
think fit, out of this large paper, but send me this paper 
back again, inclosed in another, by the same hand that 
brings it. 

' " There is, nor ought to be, no such thing as construc- 
tive treason : this defeats the very scope and design qf the 
statute of the 2dth of Edward III. which is to make a plaiu 
declaration, what shall be adjudged treason by the ordinary 
courts of justice. The conspiring any thing against the 
king's person is most justly taken to be, to conspire against 
his life ; but conspiring to levy war, or to seize the guards, 
is not conspiring against the king's life ; for these are trea* 
sons of a different species.'' 

In 1684 he appeans to have given a fresh proof of his^ 
deep learning, in the case between the king and sif Wil* 
liam Williams. An information was exhibited against 
Williani Williams, esq. late speaker of the House of Com«» 
xnons, for endeavouring to stir up sedition, and procure 
ilUwill between the king and his subjects, by appointing a 
certain seditious and infamous libel, entided ^^ The inf<Mr« 
mation of Thomas Dangerfield," to be printed and pub- 
j^isheci. The defendant pleaded to the jurisdiction of the 
court, setting forth that he was speaker of the House o£ 
Commons, and that, in obedience to their order, he had 
appointed that narri^ive to be printed ; wherefore he tie- 
nanded the judgment of the court of king's bench, whe>^ 
Iher it ought to take farther cognizance of the matter. Sir 
Kobert Adcyns undertakes, in his argument in support of 
this plea, to prove three propositions r-i—First, that what waa 
done in this case was done in a course of justice, and thait 
in. the highest court of the hation, and according to the Item 
and custom of parliaiaent. Secondly^ tbat^ bovre^r)^^ tbs^ 

A T K y N i 9f 

wbich was done in this case was not to be imputed to the 
pendant, who acted in it but as a servant or minister of 
the parliament, though in a very honourable station. Third- 
ly, that these, being matters transacted in parliament, and 
by the parliament, the court of king's bench ought not to 
take cognizance of them, nor had any jurisdiction to judge 
Or determine them. 

An action was brought in Easter-term, in the second 
year of king James II. against sir £dward Hales, for act* 
ing as a colonel of foot without receiving the sacramQut, 
or taking certain oaths appointed by an act of parliament 
to be taken within a certain time; whereupon being legally 
indicted in the county of Kent, and omvicted, the plaintiff 
became entitled to the forfeiture of five hundred pounds. 
To this the defendant pleaded, that the king, by his letters 
patent, had dispensed with his taking the sacrament or the 
oaths, and therefore demurred generally; the plaintiff 
joined in demurrer, and judgment was given in the king's 
bench for the defendant This gave occasion to sir Ro« 
berths excellent inquiry into the power of dispensing with 
penal statutes, wharein the doctrine of dispensations is 
largely handled. 

At the revolution, which sir Robert zealously promoted, 
he was received with great marks of distinction by king 
William, who, in May 1689, made him lord chief baron *of 
the exchequer. In October following, the marquis of Ha- 
li&x, whom the Lords had chosen for their speaker, desire 
ing to be excused from discharging that office any longer^ 
the lord chief baron Atkjms was immediately eleoted in his 
Yoom^ and was speaker till the great seal was given to sic 
John Sommersj in the beginning of 1693. 

October 30, 1693, when the lord mayor of London elect 
was sworn in before sir Robert, in the exchequer, he made 
a famous speech, wherein, after drawing a terrible picture 
of the designs of Lewis XIV. and of the means employed 
to accompUsh them^ he has the following passage, which 
will assist our readers in judging of the baron's character : 
** There is one piece of policy of his, wherein he outdoeth 
jsll other princes whatsoever ; and that is, the great thing of 
maintaining and fnanaging intelligence. He can tell when 
your merchant- ships set out, and by what time they shall 
return ; nay, perhaps, he docs take upon him to know, by 
the help of some confederacy with him that is prince of the 
power of the air^ that the wind shail not serve in suoh or 


100 A T K Y N S. 

such a comer till such a time : he knowetb when our royal 
navy is to be divided, and when it is united. 

*^ And shall I guess how he comes to have such intelli- 
gence? That were well worth the hearing. I would hut 
guess at it ; and I would in my guesses forbear saying any 
thing that is dishonourable to any among ourselves. We 
all know the scripture tells us, that the good angels are 
ministers of God for good to the elect : it is the comfort of 
all good men that they are so. It is said, He will give his 
angels charge over thee, to preserve thee in thy way ; and, 
I hope, we are every one of us in our way. But we have? 
reason to believe that the wicked angels are very instru- 
mental in carrying on such designs as this great man hath 

. *^ It is a vulgar error that hath obtained among some of 
us, that these wicked spirits are now confined under chains 
of darkness in the place of torment. I remember that ex- 
pression of some of them to our Saviour, Art thou come to 
torment us before the time ? It was not then the time of their 
being tormented : it is rather to he believed that they are 
wandering about in the air, and there fleeting to and fro, 
driving on such wicked purposes as this our enemy is en- 
gaged in. We know grave and serious historians give us 
instances of correspondences held both by good and badi 
spirits here ; the wicked by God's permission, the good by 
his command and particular good providence. So th^ 
death of Julian the apostate heathen' emperor, who was 
filled in his wars in Persia, was known in the very moment 
of it at the city of Rome, at a great distance from the place 
of battle, to the no little joy of the Christians. And this, 
I suppose, was by the ministry of a good angel. 

** We have instances of another nature, of what has 
been done by evil angels. In the instant of our Saviour*s 
passion, if we may believe credible historians, it was known 
at a vast distance from Jerusalem, at sea among some wh« 
were then on a voyage : they heard a voice in the air, cry- 
ing out of the death of the great god Pan : after which fol- 
lowed great bowlings and screechings. Whence we may 
suppose by the expression, that this was by some wicked 
spirits that were then hovering in the air, and did commu- 
nicate this piece of intelligence.'' 

In June 1695, being then in his 74th year, he resigned 
his office, and retired to his seat at Saperton-hall in Glo- 
x^estershire, where he spent the last fourteen years of his 

A T K Y N a. 101 

life in ease and quiet. He died in the beginning of the 
year 1709, aged eighty-eight. He was a man of great 
probity as well as of great skill in his profession, and a 
warm friend to the constitution. . He was twice married^^ 
first to Mary daughter of sir George Clerk, of Welford in 
Northamptonshire, and afterwards to Anne daughter of sir 
Thomas Daeres. He left behind him an only son, the 
subject of theiUext art^le. His writings are collected into 
one volume, 8vo, under the title of Parliamentary and Po- 
litical Tracts, 1734, containing, !• "The power, juris- 
diction, and privilege of Parliament, and the antiquity of 
the House of Commons asserted : occasioned by an infor- 
mation in the king's bench, by the attorney-general, 
against the speaker of the House of Commons.'* 2. " An 
Argument in the great case concerning the Election of 
Members to Parliament, between sir Samuel Barnardiston, 
plaintiff, and sir William Soame, sheriff of Suffolk, defen- 
dant, in the court of king's bench, in an action upon the 
case, and afterwards by error sued in the exchequer cham- 
ber." 3. ^^ An inquiry into the power of dispensing with 
Penal Statutes. Together with some animadversions upon- 
a book writ by sir Edward Herbert, lord chief justice of 
the court of common pleas, eiUitled, A short account of 
the Authorities in law upon which judgment was given in 
sir Edward Hale's case." 4. " A Defence concerning the 
Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in the realm of England." 5.n^^ A 
Defenci^ of the* late lord Russel's Innocency, by way of 
confutation of a libellous pamphlet, entitled, An Antidote 
against Poison ; with two letters of the author of this book, 
upon the subject of his lordship^s trial." The first and 
chief of these letters we have given above. 6. " The lord 
fiussel's Innocency further defended, by way of reply to 
an Answer, entitled, The Magistracy and Government of 
England vindicated." 7. *^ The lord chief baron Atkyns's 
Speech to »ir William Ashurst, lord ma3H>r elect for the 
city of London, at the time of his being sworn in their ma- 
jesties court of exchequer." Besides these tracts, he wrote 
a treatise against the exorbitant power of the court of Chan- 
ceiy, pubUshed in 1695, entitled ** An inquiry into the 
Jurisdiction of the Chancery in causes of Equity,'^ and an- 
nexed to it ^^ The case of Sir Robert Atkyns about .a Se- 
parate Maintenance," fbl. He was also the author of a 
tract, << The true and ancient jurisdiction of the House 

10« A T K Y N S. 

ef Peers," foL 1699, but neither are in the above vo« 
lume. ' 

ATKYNS (Sir Robert), son of the preceding, by Anne, 
daughter of sir Thomas Dacres of Hertfordshire, was born 
in 1646, and educated with great care under the eye of 
his father. He became early attached to the study of an-* 
tiquities, and as he had a very considerable estate settled 
upon him, he lived chiefly upon it, pursuing his studies 
and exercising old English hospitality. He was elected 
to represent his county in parliament as. often as he 
chose to accept that honour, and his knowledge and in- 
tegrity induced many of his neighbours to make him the 
arbitrator of their differences, which he readily undertook, 
and generally executed to the satisfaction of both parties^ 
He married Louisa, daughter to sir John Carteret, o£ 
Hawnes in Bedfordshire ; but having by her no issue male, 
his father settled his estate on the male issue of sir Edward 
Atkyns, which settlement was the unfortunate cause of a 
law-suit between the father and son. Sir Robert differed 
in other respects from his father's opinions, being mor<b at* 
tached to the house of Stuart, yet he inherited both bis pru"^ 
deuce and his probity, and was equally esteemed and be« 
loved by men of all parties. His design of writing '^ The 
History of Gloucestershire,*' took its rise from an intention 
of the same sort in Dr. Parsons, chancellor of the diocese 
of Gloucester, who had been at great pains and trouble to 
collect the materials for such a work, in the compiling of 
which he was hindered by the infirm and declining state 
of his health. Sir Robert, however, did not live to see i% 
published, which was done by his e^equtors* It appeared 
in 1712, in one volume folio. It was very expensive to 
the undertaker, who printed it in a pompous manner, 
adorning it with variety of views and prospects of the seats 
of the gentry and nobility, with thiir arms ; and be has 
inserted some, which, in Mr. Gough's opinion, very littl<» 
deserve it. It were to be wished, says the same excellent 
anti(|uary, that more authorities had been given, and the 
charters and grants published in the original language^ 
The transcripts of all these were collected by Parsops. The 
price of this work, which was five guineas, has been greatly 
yaised by an accidental fire, Jan. 30, 17|2-13, which 

> Sio|^ Britaiiiiici^ 

A T K Y N S. 


destroyed ihost of the copies in the house of Mr. Bowyer, 
printer, in White Fryars. All the plates, except two or 
three, falling into tbe haud&of Mn Herbert, engravc^r of 
charts, he caused the lost ones to be supplied, and repub« 
lisbed this book in 1768, correctiog the literal errors, but 
without so much as restoring in their pcoper place several 
particulars pointed out iu the original errata. Great part 
of this second edition was also destroyed by fire. 

Sir Robert resided usually at Pinbnry park in Gloucester* 
shire during the summer,, and at.hia house in Westminster, 
daring the winter season, where, in 1711, he was seized 
with a dysentery, of which he died Oct. 2d, in the ^xty-> 
fifth year of his age. He waa interred in the parish church 
of Sapecton, whefie a noble monument was erected to his 
memory by Louisa lady Atkyns, his widow ; and a good 
tnsiny years after a neat monument was erected in West* 
minster abbeys neaiiy opposite Sfaakspeare\ to tbe me- 
mory of sir Robert Atkyns senior, his brother sir Edward 
Atkyns, and sir Robert Atkyns^ jun. ^ 

ATKYNS (Richard), a typographical author, bom in 
Gloucestershire, in 1615;, studied at Baliol college. Ox* 
ford, in 1629, whene he was a gentleman commoner, aad 
remored afterwards to Lincohi*s inn. He riaited France 
with a young nobleman^ and at his return frequented the 
court ; but the oiTil wars breaking oat, he suffered miudi 
on account of his loyalty. After the restoratioh he was a 
deputy-lieutenant of Gloucestershire. Having been at the 
expence of above a thousand, pounds in law-isuits for near 
twenty- four years, tp prove the right of the king's grant in 
printing law boolus;, he had some hopes gf repairing his fi* 
nances by his pen ; and published his ^< Original and 
growth of Plrinting in England,^' 4to,. 1664. Fire years 
aficar he pnUished his ^^ Vindication," &c. containing a 
relation of several passages in the western wars of EngUnd^ 
wherein he was coooeroed. To which are added his *' Sighs 
and Ejaculations,^' 4ito,. 1 669. He was married, but it seemns 
unfortunately, for it is said, that it proved his ruin towards 
the end of his days. He died a prisoner, for debt, in the 
Marahalsea, Sept. 14, 1677, and was buried in St. George^s^ 
Southwark, at the expence ol baron Atkyns, to whom he 
was related. ' 

1 Biog. Britannica. — Gongh's British Topography, rol. f. 
* Biog. Brit,— Alhu Os, voi. U.«*^raa^> vok lY,p. 13. 


ATTAIGNANT (Gabriel Charles de l'), a French 
poet, was born at Paris in 1697, educated for the churchy 
and ndade a canon of Rheinis. He passed his life, however^ 
in Paris, keeping all sorts of company, good and bad, and 
rendering himself universally agreeable by his impromptus, 
his songs, and madrigals, some of which were of the satirical 
kind, and occasionally iuTolved him in quarrels. Towards 
the close of his life, he renounced the world, and was made 
a convert to piety by the abb6 Gautier, who was after* 
wards the confessor of Voltaire. The Parisian wits ob- 
served that such an attempt was worthy of Gautier, as he 
was chaplain to the hospital of incurables^^ The abb^ At* 
taignant died at Paris Jan. 10, 1779. He published 
1. ^^ Pieces d^rob^es a un ami,'' 1750, 2 vols. 12mo, pub- 
lished by Meunier de Querlon, who dedicated them to the 
author himself. All the pieces which form this collection 
were reprinted in his next publication. $^ ^^ Poesies de 
J'abb6 de I'Attaignant,'* 1757, 4 vols. l2roo. In 1779 a 
fifth volume appeared under the title of ^^ Chansons et 
poesies fugitives dePabb^ de TAttaignant.'* 3. ^^ Epitre a 
^ M. L. P. sur ma retraite," 1 769, 8vo. 4. ** Reflexions noc- 
turnes," 1679, 8vo. It would appear that this abb£ lost 
the reputation lie gained as au extempore composer and. 
singer, by turning author, his countrymen being of ppinion. 
that very few of his printed works will bear the test of 
criticism. * 

ATTARDI (Bonaventure), an Augustin monk, was 
born at St. Philip of Agire, or Argire, an ancient town of 
Sicily, and became professor of church history in the uni** 
versity of Catania, *and in 1758. provincial of his order in 
Sicily and Malta. He wrote, 1. *^ Bilancia dell^ Verita,'* 
Palermo, 1738, 4to. JThis was an answer to a book entitle^ 
^^ Paulus apostolus in Mari, quod hunc Venetus sinus dici* 
tar, naufragus,", by P. Ignatius Qidrgi, a Benedictine of 
Bagusa. The dispute respected the name of the island on 
which St. P^ul was shipwrecked, called hi Latin Melita, 
Giorgi was of opinion idiat it was an island in Dalmatia, 
now called * Melada, while Attardi maintained the more 
iBOmmon opinion that it was the well known islapd of Malta, 
5S* '^ Lettera scritta ad un suo amico, in prova che San . 
Filippo d'Argira fu mandato dal principe degli apostoli 
San Piqtro," Palermo, 1738, 4to. ?. " LaRiposta senz8^ 

} Wiogf UiU¥enelte.>f--Dict. Hut. is airt. L'Attaignantf 

A T T A R D I. i05 

maschera al sig. Lodovico AntxDuio Muratori," Palermo, 
1742. This is one of the many attacks on Muratori, for 
publishing, under the name of Antonio Lampridip, ^* that 
it was not necessary to defend the immaculate conception 
by force of arms." The time of Attardi*s death is not 
mentioned. ^ 

ATTAVANTI (Paul), generally known in Italy by the 
name of Father Paul of Florence, was born in that city in 
141^. He entered early in life into the religious order of 
the Servites, that is, the Servants of the Blessed Virgin, 
instituted first in 1223, in Tuscany, by some Florentine 
merchants. To great piety he is said to have added a por« 
tion of learning, not very common in his time, and Marsi- 
lius Ficinus compared his eloquence to the charms of Or^* 
pheus. He was intimate with the most learned men of his 
time, and was often present at the Platonic academy which 
met in the palace of Lorenzo de Medici. He contributed 
much to the extent of his order in Piedmont, Savoy, and 
Switzerland, and became provincial in Tuscany. He died 
at Florence, in May 1499. His works were, l.**Vita 
beati Joachimi," inserted in Bollandus's Acts of the Saints. 
2. ** Quadragesimale de reditu peccatoris ad Deum," Mi- 
Jan, 1479, 4to. 3. ** Breviarium totius juris canonici,'* 
Milan« 1478, 1479, fol. Meinmingen, 1486, Basil. 1487, 4to. 

4. *^ Expositio in Psalmos poenitentiales,*' Milan, 1479, 4to, 

5. " De origine prdinis Servorum beatae Marias dialogus." 
This work, which was written in 1456, and dedicated to 
Peter de Medici, the son of Cosmo and the father of Lo- 
renzo, was not printed until 1727, Parma, 4to, and Lamt 
published a second edition^ more correct, at Florence in 
]74], 8vo^ with a Life of the author. Attavanti left also 
many work« in manuscript * 

• ATTENDOLO (DARiiJs), a military character, and a 
man of letters, was born at Bagnacvallo in the kingdom of 
Naples, about the year 1 530, and accompanied the prince 
of Salerno, general to Charles V. in his expedition against 
Piedmont. He diverted the fatigues of his campaigns bj 
the study of polite literature, and the cultivation of a 
poetical taste. His works were, <* II Duello,'* Venice, 1560, 
which is a history of celebrated duels, and the laws respect- 
ifig that remnaat of barbarity. *^ A Discourse on Honour, 

} Bio|^. UpiTeneUie, f Ibtd.^MazzuchtUi.— Life^ ubi supra. 


loe A 'P T E N D O L O. 

1562, and various poems which have been inserted in coU 

ATTENDOLO (John Baptist), a learned writer of the 
sixteenth century, was the son of an able engineer of the 
same name,, s^nd born at Capua. He became a secular 
priest, and was distinguished not only for his knowledge of 
modern languages, to which he added the Hebrew, Arabic, 
and Greek, l^ut for his poetry, and the active part he tool^ 
in the famous dispute between the academy of La Crijaca 
and C^n^ille Pelegrino, on the subject of Tasso's ^^ Jera^ 
salem delivered.'* Attendolo espoused the cause of Tasao^ 
sdthojugh himself a member of the academy,, smd highly 
r^spect^d by his brethren. He was killed by the overturn- 
ing of a carriage, the wheels of which went over his body, 
an,d injared hiip so much that he died in a few hours, Thia 
accident happened in 1592, or 1,593. His works are^ 
J, ^^ Orazione neir essequie di Carlo d' Austria principe di 
Spagiia,'* Naples, 1571, 4to^ 2« '^ Orazione militare, all* 
altiezza del serenissimp D. Giovanni d' Austria, per la vit« 
|;Qria navale ottenuta dalla Santa Lega nelP Echinadi,*' 
Kaples, 1573, 4to. 3. ^^ J^imey con un breve discorso dell* 
epica poesia,'' Florence^ 1584, Svo, Naples, 158S, 4tOy 
with additions. 4. ^^ Bo^zo di XIL Lezioni sopra la can- 
zone di M. Francesco Petrarca : Vergine Bella, &c," Na* 
pies, 1^04, 4to, a work left imperfect by the death of the 
ftuthor. 5. " Unita della materia poetica sotto died pre« 
llicamenti e ^entimenti ne^. due principi della Toscaua e 
JLatina poesia, Petrarca e Virgilio,^' Naples, 1724^ Svo, thi^ 
feqond edition ; the firs(. is uncommonly rare* He also, 
fifter the death of Tansillo, corrected and published hia 
poemj^ *^ La Lacrime di S. Pietrq,'' which the author had 
left imperfect, but the friends of Tansillo were of opinion 
behad takep too great liberties, which in the subsequent 
editions they endeavoured to obviate by restoring the poem 
inore nearly to the state in which Tansillo left it. ^ 
. ATTERBURY (LEyris), born about the year 163h H# 
igras the son of Francis Atterbury, rector of ]Middletoa 
Ms^ser^ or Milton, ii^ Northamptonshire, who amoiDtg other 
ininisrters subscribed the solemn league and covenant in 
1648. He was entered a fU;udent of Christ«churcl;i, Oxford* 
16^79 took the degree of B. A* Feb. 83, l$49, and wa« 

^ Bioj^i ViuvfrseUe. ; 

A T T E N D O L O. 19» 

created M. A. by dispensation from Oliver Crbmwdll the 
chaQcellor, March 1, 1651. He was ooe of those who bad 
submitted to the authority of the visitors appointed by the 
parliament. In 1654 he became rector of Great or Broad 
Bissington, in Gloucestershire ; and after the restoration^ 
took a presentation for that benefice under the great seal^ 
and was instituted again to confirm his title to it. Sept. II , 
1657, he was admitted rector of Milton, or Middleton^ 
Keynes, in Bucks; and at the return of Charles II. took 
the same prudent method to corroborate his title to thi« 
living. July 25, 1660, he was made chaplain extraordinary 
to Henry duke of Gloucester; and D. D. Dec. 1, the same 
year. Returning from London, whither the law-suits ha 
was frequently involved in had brought him, he hadtha 
misfortune to be drowned near his own house, Dec. 7,1693^ 
He published three occasional Sermons, entitled " The 
good old Subject ; or the right Test of Religion and Loy^i 
alty," London, 1684, 4to. "Tha Ground of Christina 
Feasts," 1686, 4to, and " Babylon'u DownfalVM^^l, 4to, 

ATTERBURY (Lewi6)> eldest son of the preceding, 

was bom at Caldecot, in the parish of Newport Pa^el^ ia 

Bucks, on May 3, 1 656. He was educated at Westminster-^ 

school under Dr. Busby, and sent to Christ-church, Ox«« 

ford, at the age of eighteen. He was ordained deacon in 

Sept. 1679, being then B* A- stnd priest the year following, 

when also be commenced M. A. In 1683, he served the 

office of chaplain to sir William Pritchard, lord mayor of 

London. In Feb. 1684 he was instituted rector of S}rtnel 

in Northamptonshire, which living he afterwards refiigned 

upon his accepting of other preferments, July 8, 1687, bo 

accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor of civil iaw« 

In 1691 we find him lecturer of St. Mary Hill in London* 

§oon after his marriage he settled at Highgate, where ho 

supplied the pulpit of the reverend Mr. Daniel Latbom^ 

who was v^ry old and infirm, and had lost his sight ; and, 

iipon the death of this gentleman, was in June 1695 elected 

by the trustees of Highgate chapel to be their preacher4 

He had a little before been appointed one of the sisc preach-4 

iug chaplains to the princess Anne of Denmark at White<« 

ball and St. James's, which place he continued to supply 

after she qslvoq to the crown, and likewise during part of 

} Biog. Brit.»^W«od>8 Atb. vol. H.-i^Nicbols's Atterburj, vol. J, p. 1^17. 489» 


the reign of George I. When he first resided at Highgate, 
observing what difficulties the poor in the neighbourhood 
Tinderwent tor want of a good physician or apothecary, he 
studied physic ; and acquiring considerable skill, practised 
it gratis among his poor neighbours. In 1707, the queen pre- 
sented him to the rectory of Shepperton in Middlesex ; and 
in March 1719, the bishop of London collated him to the 
rectory of H&rnsey, which was the more agreeable to him, 
because the chapel of Highgate being situate in that parish, 
many of his constant hearers became now his parishioners. 
In 1720, on a report of the death of Dr. Sprat, arch- 
deacon of Rochester, he applied to his brother, the cele- 
brated bishop, in whose gift this preferment was, to be ap- 
pointed to succeed him. The bishop giving his brother 
some reasons why he thought it improper to make him his 
archdeacon ; the doctor replied, " Your lordj^hip very well 
knows that Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, had a 
brother for his archdeacon ; and that sir Thomas Morels 
father was a puisne judge when he was lord chancellor. 
And thus, in the sacred history, did God himself appoint 
that the safety and advanciement of the patriarchs should 
be procured by their younger brother, and that they with 
their father should live under the protection and govern* 
ment of Joseph.'* In answer to this, which was not very 
conclusive reasoning, the bishop informs his brother, that 
the archdeacon was not dead, but well, and likely to con^ 
tihue so. He died, however, soon after ; and, on the 20th 
of May 1720, the bishop collated Dr. Brydges, the duke 
of Chandos's brother, to the archdeaconry, after writing 
thus in the morning to the doctor : *M hope you are con- 
vinced by what I have said and written, that nothingN could 
have been more improper than the placing you in that post 
immediately under myself. Could I have been easy under 
that thought, you may be sure no man living should have 
bad the preference to you." To this the doctor answered : 
^* There is some shew of reason, I think, for the non-ac- 
ceptance, but none for the not giving it. And since your 
lordship was pleased to signify to me that I should over- 
rule you in this matter, I confess it was some disappoint* 
ment to me. I hope I shall be content with that meaner 
post in which I am ; my time at longest being but short in 
this world, and my health not suffering me to make those 
necessary applications others do : nor do I understand the 
language of the present times ; for, I find^ I begin to grow 

A T T E R B U R Y. 10» 

tn old-fasbion^d gentlanan, and am ignorant of the weight 
and' value of words, which in our times rise and fall like 
stock.'' In this affecting correspondence there is evidently 
a portion of irritation on thepart of Dr. Lewis, which is not 
softened by Sis brother's letters ; but there must have been 
some reasons not stated by the latter for his refusal,, and it 
is certain that they lived afterwards in the strictest bonds 
of affection. 

. Dr. Lewis Atterbury died at Bath, whither he went for 
a paralytic disorder, Oct.^ 20, 1731. In his will he gave 
some few books to the libraries at Bedford and Newport, 
and bis whole collection of pamphlets, amounting to up« 
wards of two hundred volumes, to the library of Christ- 
church, Oxford. He charged his estate for ever with the 
payment of ten pounds yearly to a school-mistress to ih-^ 
struct girls at Newport-Pagnel, which salary he had himself 
in his lifetime paid for many years. He remembered some 
of his friends, and left a respectful legacy of one hundred 
pounds to his ^^ dear brother, ia token of his true esteem and 
affection,?' as the words of the will are ; and made the 
bishop's son Osborn (after his grand-daughter, who did not 
long survive him) heir to all his fortune. This grand- 
daughter wa^ the daughter of Mr. George Sweetapple of 
St. Andrew's, brewer, by Dr. Lewis's only daughter. He 
had married Penelope, the daughter of Mr. John Beding** 
field, by whom he had this daughter, and three sons, pone. 
of whom survived him ; Mrs. Atterbury died May 1, 1723, 
and the grand-daughter in 1732. 

His works are, 1. Two volumes of " Sermons," 1699, 
8vo, and 1703. 2. ^' The Ji^euitent Lady ; translated from 
the French of the famous madam la Valliere," 1684, 12mo. 
S. Some Letters relating to the history of the Council of 
Trent. 4. " An Answer to a , popish book, entitled, A 
true and modest account of the chief points in controversy 
between the Roman Catholics and the Protestants. By N. 
Colson," whose real name was Cornelius Nary, an Irish 
priest, and author of a Churclx History from the creation 
jto the birth of Christ; some controversial Tracts against 
Archbishop Synge ; and an English version of the New 
Testament. In his " True and modest account" Synge had 
reflected upon Dr. Tillotson, which induced Atterbury to 
answer him. 5. ^^ The Re-union of Christians; translated 
from the French," 1708, and one or two occasional Sermons. 

Pursuant to the directions of Dr. Atterbury's will, Mr. 


'Yardley, archdeacon of Cardigan^ his executor, ptit)lis}k6d[ 
£roin bift manuscripts two volumes of Sermons on select sub* 
jects. To which is pre&xed a short account of the authot^ 
London, 1743, 8vo. ^ 

ATTERBURY (Francis), bishop of Rochester in th« 
reigns of queen Anne and king George I« was borti Marck 
6, 1662-3, at Milton or Middleton Keynes, near New* 
port-Pagnel, Bucks. He was admitted a king^s scholar itt 
1676 at Westminster-school; and thence, in 1680, was 
elected a student of Christ-Church college, Oxford, where 
he soon distinguished himself by his wit and learning ; and 
gave «arly proofs of his poetical talents, in a Latin versioa 
of Dry den's " Absalom and Achitophel,'* published in 
1682; and in 1684 he edited the *^ Avdoxorro^ seu selectii 
^aedam poematum Italorum qui Latine scripserunt,'* which 
was afterwards enlarged and published by Pope in 1740, 
with the omission, however, of Atterbury's excellent pre- 
face. In 1687 he made his first essay in controversial 
writing, and shewed himself as an able and strenuous ad« 
iFocate for the Protestant religion, in ** An Answer to 
-some Considerations on the spirit of Martin Luther, and the 
original of the Reformation." These Considerations wer« 
published under the name of Abraham Woodhead, who 
was a popish writer, but were really written by Obadiah 
Walker, master of University college, Oxford. Mr. At- 
terbury's answer was soon after animadverted upon by Mh 
Thomas Deane, fellow of University coUegCj at the end of 
"The Religion of Martin Luther, whether Catholic or 
Prote;3tant, proved from his own works." This spirited 
performance of Atterbury induced bishop Burnet to rank 
the author among the eminent divines who had distinguished 
themselves by their admirable defences of the Protestant 
iTeligion. Atterbury also pleads this pamphlet in his speech 
at his trial, as a proof of his zeal in that cause, and the 
•same was urged by his counsel. 

• • His applicatio'n to study was intense. In polite literature, 
«nd even in mathematical researches, he is known to have 
eminently excelled, and there are some proofs, in his cor- 
respondence, of his attachment to religious duties. Nor 
was be less distinguished for social qualities. Among his 
more immediate intimates may be reckoned Smalridge, 
Whitfield, Hickman, Charlett, Harrington, Newton> King, 

» Bipg. Bdt— WoQd>f Atb. vol IL— :Kicliob*i Atterbwy, vol. I. p. 484i U. 99; 

A T T E R B U R Y, 511 

Trairelly Gougfa, and the two brothers, Robert and Joh» 
Freind* By his tutors at Westminster, Busby and Knipe^ 
be had been particularly noticed, and at Christ Church be 
was honoured with the friendship of Dr. Aldrich. Whil0 
thus successful in the severer patl^tsof study, he occa^ 
tionally indulged in poetical attempts ; bi^t, akhongh hb 
attacfacnent to the Muses continued unimpaired throughout 
life, not many of his poems have been preserved, and some 
of those have not till lately been ascertained to be his pn>« 
duction. It is somewhat singular tbzt his name, as far aa 
we have searched, does not appear in any one <^ the pub^ 
lie complimentary verses which have issued from the uni* 
versity press on public occasions. We have translations of 
three odes and part of an epistle of Horace, one eclogue 
from Virgil, an idyllium from Theocritus, two short ori^ 
ginal songd, a Latin elegy, an impromptu, two Latin epi- 
grams, and one in English, much admired, on the fan of 
Miss Osborne, the lady whom he afterwards married. These 
are all his juvenile pieces that have been recovered; but 
there are some elegant epitaphs from his maturerpen, and 
some political squibs* He is said to have completed a ver- 
sion of Virgil's Georgics not long before his death, but this 
has never been ascertained. In 1690, his zeal for the me^ 
mory of a favourite writer induced lum to write a pre&ce 
to the ** Second part of Mr. Waller's poems." 

The time of his entering into the church is not exactly 
known ; but may be very nearly ascertained by his *^ Epis* 
tolary Correspondence;" where a letter to his father in 1690 
is highly expressive of a superior genius, impatient of the 
i(hackles of an humble college life ; whilst the father's an- 
swer displays the anxiety, together with a mixture of the 
severity, of the paternal character, offended by the que- 
Tulousness of the son, and his dissatisfaction. He had takep 
the deg^ree of B. A. June 13, 1684 (when he was little more 
than twenty-two years old); and that of M. A. April 20, 1687; 
.and it has been ingeniously conjectured, that he had ap- 
plied to the college fc^r' permission to take pupils whilst be 
was B. A. only (whith is unusual), and that he was refused. 
After passing two or three years more in the college, be 
then seems to have thought too highly 6f himself (when notir 
become M. Ai) to take any at all, and to be ^^ pinned down^ 
as," be says, '^ it is bis hard luck* to be, to this iBCene." 
This restlessness appears to have broken out in October 
1690, when he was moderatcir ef the collegei aod had had 

112 A T T E R B U R Y. 

JMr« Boyle four months under his tuition, who 'Hook Up 
jbalf his time/' and whom be never had a thought of part-» 
ing with till he should leave Oxford ; but wished he ^^ could 
part with him to-morlrow on that score." The father tells 
him in November, '^ You used to say, when you had your 
.degrees, you should be able to swim without bladders* 
You used to rejoice at your being moderator, and of the 
quantum and sub-lecturer ; but neither of these pleased 
.you ; nor was you willing to take those pupils the house 
afforded you when master ; nor doth your lecturer's places 
or nobleman satisfy you." tn the same letter the father 
advises his marrying into some family of interest, ^' either 
bishop's or archbishop^s, or some courtier's, which may be 
done, with accomplishments, and a portion too." And to 
■part of this counsel young Atterbury attended ; for he soon 
after married MissOsborn, a relation (some say a niece) of 
the duke of Leeds, a great beauty, who lived at or in the 
neighbourhood of Oxford, and by whom he had a fortune 
of 7000/* In February 1690-1, we find him resolved "to 
bestir himself in his office in the house," that of censor 
.probably, an officer (peculiar to Christ Church) who pre-» 
sides over the classical exercises; he then also held the 
catechetical lecture founded by Dn Busby. About this 
period he probably took orders, and entered into " another 
scene, and another sort of .conversation ;" for in 1691 he 
was elected lecturer of St. Bride's church in London, and 
in October 1693, minister and preacher at Bridewell cha« 
pel. An academic life, indeed, must have been irksome 
and insipid to a person of hiV active and aspiring temper. 
It was hardly possible that a clergyman of his fine genius^ 
improved by study, with a spirit to exert his talents, should 
remain long unnoticed ; and we find that he was soon ap- 
pointed chaplain to king William and queen Mary. The 
earliest of his sermons in print was preached before the 
queen at Whitehall, May 29, 1692. In August 1694 he 
preached his celebrated sermon before the governors of 
Bridewell and Bethlem, *' On the power of charity to cover 
tins ;" to which Mr. Hoadly (afterwards bishop) published 
some ^^ Exceptions" in the postscript to his '^ Second Let- 
ter to Dr. Atterbury," mentioned hereafter. In this he 
accuses Atterbury, and not without reason, of endeavour- 
ing to maintain the < proposition that ^^ God will accept 
€ne duty (charity) in lieu of .many others." InrOctober 
that year he preached before the queen^ <^ The scomdr 

ATT E R BURY. llj 

incapable of true wisdbtn ;" which was also warmly attack- 
ed by a friend of sir Robert Howard) author of ^ Thm 
History of Religion,*' supposed to be alluded to in this 
sermon. The pamphlet was entitled <^ A tivo-fold Vindi- 
cation of the late archbishop of Canterbury, and the 
Author of the Hbtory of Religion^ &c«" 1696, Svo» 

The share he took in the controversy against Bentley i$ 
now very clearly ascertained. In one of the letters to his 
noble pupil, dated ^< Chelsea, 1698,'' he says, ** the matter 
had cost him some time and trouble. In laying the design 
of the book, in. writing above half of it, in reviewing a 
' good part of the rest, in transcribing the whole, and at- 
tending the press," he adds, /^ half a year of my life went 
away." His pupil, afterwards lord Orrery, about the year 
1695, obliged the world with a new edition of Phalaris's 
Epistles; in the preface to which> he complains of Dn 
Bentley, the king's library-keeper, who had (prosolitd sud 
humanitatej deuied him the inspection of a valuable ma- 
nuscript. This sarcasm so exasperated the doctor, that, in 
order to his revenge on Mr. Boyle, he published a long 
letter to Dr. Wotton, who was Uien employed in writing 
on the State of ancient and modern Learning ; in which 
he undertakes to prove, that the Epistles, which g^ under 
the name of Phalaris, are spurious^ and probably the work 
of some modern sophist. This drew from Mr. Boyle a re- 
ply, so full of satire and raillery, that, on which side so- 
ever truth and argument may be supposed to lie, the wit, 
and the laugh too, were evidently on Mr. Boyle's. This 
reply was said to be written, jointly^ by a select club of 
ingenious men belonging to Christ Church ; among whom 
Atterbury is now clearly proved to have been tl\e chief. 

In 1700, a still larger field of activity opened, in which 
Atterbury was engaged four years with Dr. Wake (after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury) and others, conceniing 
the rights, powers, andprivileges of convocations : in which 
he displayed so much learning and ingenuity, as welLaa 
seal for the interests of his order, that the lower house of 
convocation returned him their thanks ; and in consequence 
of this vote a letter was sent to the university of Oxford, 
expressing, that, " whereas Mr. Francis Atterbury, late of 
Christ Church, bad so happily asserted the rights and pri- 
vileges of an English c6nvocation, as to merit the solemn 
thanks of the lower house for his learned pains upon that 
subject; it might behoped^ that the university would be 
Vol. III. I 

114 A T T E B 15 U R y. 

no less forwftrd in taking some public nodce of so great a 
piece of semce to tke church ; and that the most ftopet 
and seasonable mark of reelect to him> would be to confer 
on him the degree of doctor in divinity by diploma, with« 
out doing exercise, or paying fees." The university ap- 
proved ^ contents of this letter, imd accordingly created 
Mr.AtteiburyD.D. Ourauthor's work was entitled, ^^The 
iUghts, Powers, and Privileges of an Englisfa Convocation 
stated and vindicated, in answer to a late book of Br*. 
Wake's, entitled * The Authority of Christian Princes over 
liieir Ecclesiastical Synods asserted,' &c. and several other 
pieces," 8vo. The fame of this work was very great; but 
it was censured by Burnet, and in November the judges 
had a serious consultation on it, as being supposed to af- 
fect the royal prerogativje. Holt, then chief j-ustice, was 
strongly of that opinion, and the same idea was encouraged 
by archbishop Tenison, Dr. Wake,, and others. Endea-- 
▼ours were made to prejudice king William against iiim^ 
but his majesty remained indifferent; and on the other 
hand, Atterbury gained the steady patronage of sir Jona«^ 
than Trelawny, bishop of Exeter, of Lawrence earl of 
Rochester, and of bi^p Sprat. In December 1700, he 
published a second edition of *^ The Rights," considerably 
enlarged, and with his name, and a dedication to the two 
archbishops. This was immediately answered by Drs. Ken« 
net, Hody, and^Wake. Another controversy of some im- 
portance was at this time also ably agitated by Atterbury, 
the execution of the pramumentesy a privil^e enjoyed by 
the several bishops of issuing writs to summon the inferior 
clergy to convocation. Bishops Compton, Sprat, and Tre** 
lawny, were his strenuous supporters on this occasion, and 
by the latter he was presented to the archdeaconry of 
Totness, in which he was installed Jan. 29, 1700-1. His 
attendance in convocation was regular, and his exertions 
great In placing Dr. Hooper in the prolocutor's chair^ 
as the successor of Dr. Jane ; in the examination of ob- 
noxious books ; in the controversy between the lower and 
tipper houses ; in considering the methods of promoting 
the propagation of religion in foreign parts ; and in pre* 
paring an address to Uie king, his zeal distinguished itself. 
About this time he was engaged, with some other learned 
divines, in revising an intended edition of the Greek Tes«. 
tament, with GredL Scholia, collected chiefly from the 
fnthers, by Mr, archdeacon Gregory. On the 29th of Mayr 



he preached before the House bf Commons ; and on Aug. l $^ 
published ^< The power of the Lower House of Convocation 
to adjourn itself/' which was a sort of analjrsis of the vAioUe 
.controversy. He also published ** A letter to a olergy- 
tman in the country, concerning the Choice of Member^, 
&c.'* Nov. 17, 1701; a second, with a similar title, Dec. 
10, 1701; and a third, in defence of the two former, Jan. 8, 
1701-2. In October he published "The parliamentaiy 
origin and rights of the Lower House of Convocation 
cleared, &c." At this period he was popular as pfeachi^r 
at the Rolk Chapel, an office which had been conferred on 
him by sir John Trevor, a great discemer of abilities, in 
1698, when he resigned Bridewell, which he bftd obtained 
in 1693. Upon the accession of queen Anne, in 1702^ 
Dr. Atterbury was appointed one of her majesty's chaplains 
-in ordinary ; and, in July 1704, was advanced to the dean- 
-eiy of Carlisle ; but, owing to the obstacles thrown in h!s 
way by bishop Nicolson, he was not instituted until Octk 
12, and the same year Sir Jonathan Trelawny bestowed on 
him a canonry of Es!eter. About two years after this, he 
was engaged in a dispute with Mr. Hoadly, concerning thie 
advantages of virtue with regard to the present life, occa^- 
sioned by his sermon, preached August SO, 1706, at the 
funeral of Mr. Thomas Bennet, a bookseller. The doc« 
trine of this sermon Mr. Hoadly examined, in '< A letter 
to Dr. Francis Atterbury, conoeming Virtue and Vice,*^ 
published in 1 706 ; in which he un&rtakes to shew, that 
Dr. Atterbury has extremely mistaken the sense of bis text. 
Dr. Atterbury^ in a volume of Sermons published by him- 
«elf, prefisfced a long preface to the sermon at Mr. Bennetts 
funeral ; in which he replies to Mr. Hoadly^s arguments, 
and produces the concurrent testimonies of expositors, and 
the authorities of the best writers, especially our English 
divines, in confirmation of the doctrine he had advanced. 
In answer to this *' Pre&ce,*^ Mr. Hoadly published in 1709, 
" Aaecond letter^'* kc. ; and in the Preface to his *« Tracts,'* 
tells us, these two letters against Dr. Atterbury were de- 
stgnefd to vindicate and establish the tendeticy of virtue and 
nmality to the pres^itt happiness of such a creature as 
man is ; which he esteems a p<»ht bf the utmost importance 
to the Goi^l itself. In Jan. 1 707-8 he published a volume 
of Sermons, 8vo, and in the same year *• Reflections on a 
late scandalous report about the repeal of the Test Act.'* 
In 1709, he was engaged in a fresh dilpute m^ Mr. 

I 2 

[ . 

IW Al' T E RB U R Y. 

HoadijT) concerning Passive^ Obedience, occasioned by bk 
Latin sermon, entitled ^^ Concio ad Clerum Londinensem^ 
habita in Ecclesia S. Elphegi.'' Atterbury, in his pamphlet 
entitled " Some proceedings in Convocation, A> D. 1705, 
faithfully represented,^' had charged Mr. Hoadiy (whom 
he sneeringly calls *Hhe modest and moderate Mr.Hoadly'') 
with treating the body of the established clergy with lan- 
guage more disdainful and reviling than it would hav^ be« 
Come him to have used towards his Presbyterian antagoniiM;, 
upon any provocation, charging them with rebellion in the 
church, whilst he himself was preaching it up in the state.^' 
This induced Mr. Hoadiy to set about a particular examina- 
tion of Dr. Atterbury's Latin Sermon ; which he did in a 
, piece^ entitled . " A large Answer to Dr. Atterbury's Charge 
of Rebellion, &c. London, 1710,'' wherein he endeavours 
to lay open the doctor's artful management of the contro- 
versy, and to let the reader into his true meaning and de- 
sign ; which, in an " Appendix" tq the " Answer," he 
represents to be " The carrying on two different causes, 
upon two sets of contradictory principles ;" in order to 
*^ gain himself applause amongst the same persons at the 
same time, by standing up for and against liberty ; by 4e-' 
pressing the prerogative, and exalting it ; by lessening the 
executive power, and magnifying it; by loading some 
with all infamy, for pleading for submission to it in one 
particular which he supposeth ,an incroachment, and by 
loading others with the same infamy for pleading against 
submission to it, in cases that touch the happiness of the 
.whole community." " This," he tells us, ** is a method 
of controversy so peculiar to one person (Dr. Atterbury) as 
that he knows not that it hath ever heed prac^sed, or at- 
tempted by any other writer." Mr. Hoadiy has likewise 
transcribed, in this Appendix, some remarkable passages 
out of our author's " Rights, Powers, and Privileges, &c." 
which he confronts with others, from his Latin Sermon. 

In 17 lO came on the celebrated trial of Dr. Sacheverell, 
whose remarkable speech on that occasion was generally 
supposed to have been drawn up by our author, to whom 
Sacheverell, in his last will, bequeathed 500/. in conjunction 
with Smalridge and Freind« The same year Dr. Atterbury 
was unanimously chosen prolocutor of the lower bouse of 
convocation, and had the chief management of affairs in 
that house. This we learn from bishop Burnet. In his 
account of this convocation, having observe^, that; the 

A T T E R B U R Y. 117 

queen, in appointing a committee of bishops to be present^ 
and consenting to their resolutions, not only passed over all 
the bishops made in king William's reign, but a great many 
of those named by herself, and set the bishops of Bristol 
and St. David's, then newly consecrated, in a distinction 
above all their brethren, by adding them to the committee^ 
upon the indisposition of the archbishop and others, he adds : 
" All this was directed by Dr. Atferbury, who had the con- 
fidence of the chief minister ; and because the other bishops 
had maintained a good correspondence with the fortner 
ministry, it was thought fit to put the marks of the queen's 
distrust upon them, that it might appear with whom her 
royal favour and trust was lodged." May 11, 171 1, be was 
appointed, by the convocation, one of the committee for 
comparing Mr. WbistQu's doctrines with those of the 
church of England ; and, in June following, he had the. 
chief hand in drawing up " A Representation of the pre- 
sent State of Religion." In 1 7 1 2, Dr. Atterbury was made 
dean of Christ Church, notwithstanding the strong interest 
and warm apphcations'of several great men in behalf of his 
competitor Dr. Smalridge : but, *^ no sooner was he settled 
there," says Stackhouse, " than all ran into disorder and con- 
fusion. The canons bad been long accustomed to the mild and 
gentle government of a dean, who had every thing in him 
that was endearing to mankind, and could not therefore 
brook the wide difference that they perceived in Dr. Atter- 
bury. That imperious and despotic manner, in which he 
seemed resolved to carry every thing, made them more 
tenacious of their rights, and inclinable to make fewer 
concessions, the more he endeavoured to grasp at pow;er9 
and tyrannize. This opposition raised the ferment, and, 
in a short time, there ensued such strife and contention, 
such bitter words and scandalous quarrels among them, that 
it was thought adviseable to remove him, on purpose to 
restore peace and tranquillity to that learned body, and that 
other colleges might not take the infection ; a new method 
of obtaining preferment, by indulging such a temper, and 
pursuing such practices, as least of all deserve it ! In a 
word," adds this writer, " wherever he came, under one pre-t 
tence or other, but chiefly under the notion of asserting his 
rights and privileges^ he had a rare talent of fomenting 
discord, and blowing the coals of contention ; which madie 
a Ifsarned successor (Dr. Smalridge) in two of his prefer- 
inent;s complain of bis hard fate, in being forced tp carry 


water after him, to extinguish the flames, which his liti«i^ 
giousness had every where occasioned.'' The next year 
saw him at the top of his preferment, aa well as of his re-** 
putation; for, in the beginning of June 1713, the queen,* 
at tile recommendation of lord chancellor Harcourt, ad** 
Yanced him to the bishopric of Rochester, with the deanery 
of Westnunster in commendam ; he was confirmed July 4^ 
and consecrated at Lambeth next day. 

At the beginning of the succeeding reign, his tide of 
proisperity began to turn ; and he received a sensible mor* 
tification presently after the coronation of king George I* 
Oct. 20,-1714, when, upon his offering to present his ma- 
jesty (with a view, no doubt, of standing better in his fa- 
vour) with the chair of state and royal canopy, his own 
perquisites as dean of Westminster, the offer was rejected^ 
not without some evident marks of dislike to his person^ 
At the close of this year be is supposed to have written » 
pamphlet, deemed a libel by goveriiment, ^^ English Advice 
to the Freeholders of England.^' Bohngbroke and Swift 
were also supposed to have had a hand in it. During the 
rebdlion in Scotland, which broke out in the first year of 
this reign, Atterbury gave an instance of his growing disv 
affection to the established government, in refusing to sign 
the ^* Declaration" of the bishops. In that juncture of 
aiflhirs, when the Pretender^s declaration was posted up in 
most market towns, and, in some places, his title pro- 
otaimed, it^was thought proper, by most bodies of men, to 
give the government all possible assurance of their fidelity 
ahd allegiance ; and accordingly there waa pubil^ed ^' A . 
Declaration of the archbishop of Canterbury, and the 
bishops in and near London, testifying their abhorrence of 
the present rebellion ; and an exhortation to the clergy, 
and people under their care, to be ^ealons in the discharge 
of their duties to his majesty king George." This papev 
both Atterbury and Smalridge refused to sign, on pretence 
of a just offence taken at some unbecoming reflections cast 
on a party, not inferior to any, they said, in point of ioy* 
Alty. But Atterbury's refusal of signing the declaration of 
his episcopal brethren, during the rebellion ip Scotland]^ 
was not the only testimony he at that time afforded of hi9 
disaffection to government Anotber remarkable proof of 
it was his conduct to an ingenious and learned clergyman, 
Mr. Gibbin, curate of Gravesend. When the Dutch troops, 
which came over to assist in subduing the rebellion, werf 


A T T E R B U R Y. il» 

quartered at that place> the officers requested of Mr. Gibbia 
the use of bis church one Sunday morning for their chap- 
lain to preach to their soldiers, alleging that the like favour 
bad been granted them in other parishes, and promising 
that the service should begin at six in the morning, that it 
might not interfere with that of the town. The request was 
granted, the chapUin preached, and his congregation was 
dismissed by nine o'clock. But Dr. Atterbury was so in« 
censed at this transaction, that he suspended Mr. Gibbiu 
for three years. The suspension, however, was deemed 
so injurious by the inhabitants of Gravesend, that they 
subscribed a sum to Mr. Gibbin more than double the 
income of his diurch ; and the afiair being represented 
to the king, his majesty gave him the rectory of Norths- 
Fleet in Kent, which living he afterwards exchanged for' 
Birch, near Colohester in Essex, where he died July 29, 
1752. He was a very ingenious, learned, and worthy 
clergyman, who had greatly improved and enlarged his 
mind, by his travels intp France, Italy, and other coun- 
tries, with Mt. Addison. — ^A farther striking instance (if 
true) of bishop Atterbury's attachment to the Pretender^ 
is related, by tlie author of the " Memoirs of lord Ches- 
terfield,'' from Dr. Birch's manuscript papers, and was 
often mentioned by the late bishop Pearce (who appears 
to have been always severe on the memory of Atterbury) : 
*^ LcHrd HaroQurt leaving the old ministry, provoked At- 
terbury's abusive tongue. He, in return, declared, that 
on the queen's death, the bishop came to him and to lord 
Bolingbrobe, and said, nothing ^remained but immediately 
to proclaim king James. He further offered, if they would 
give him a guard, to put on his lawn sleeves, and head 
the procession/' Whatever may be in this, it is certain 
that from the time he perceived himself slighted by the 
king he constantly opposed, the measures of the court in 
the House of Lords, and drew up some of the most violent 
protests with bis own band. In 17 }6, we find bim ad- 
vising dean Swift in the management of a refractory 

April 26, 1722, he sustained a severe trial in the loss of 
his lady, by whom he had four children ; Francis, who died 
an infant ; Osborn ^, student of Christ-church ; Elizabeth, 

* Bishop Atierbnry's son was elected college till 1*725 $ when be went to t^ 
from Westminster to Christ-church in East Indies, and continued there tUl 
nit2, and continued a student of that th« death oH his uude (who Vsk hisa 

1^0 A T T E R B U R Y. 

iirho died Sept. 29, 1716, aged seventeen ; and Mary, who 
had been then seven years married to Mr. Morice. 

In this memorable year, the government, on a suspicion 
of his being concerned in a plot in favour of the Pretender, 
had him apprehended August 24, and committed prisoner 
to the Tower. Two officers, the under-secretary, and a 
messenger, went about two o^clock in the afternoon to the 
bishop^s house at Westminster, with orders to bring him 
and bis papers before the council. He happened to be in 
his night-gown when they came in, and being made ac- 
quainted with their business, he desired time to dress him- 
self. In the mean time his secretary came in, and the 
officers went to search for his papers ; in the sealing of 
which the messenger brought a paper, w)iich he pretended 
to have found in his close-stool, and desired it might be 
sealed up with the rest. His lordship observing it, and 
believing it to be a forged one, desired the officers not to 
do it, and to bear witness that the paper was not found 
with him. Nevertheless they did it ; and, though they be- 
haved themselves with some respect to him, they suffered 
the messengers to treat him in a very rough manner, 
threatening him, if he did not make haste to dress himself, 
they would carry him away - undrest as he was. Upoa 
which he ordered his secretary to see his papers all sealed 
tip, and went himself directly to the Cockpit, where the 
council waited for him. The behaviour of the messengers 
upon this occasion seems to have been very unwarrantable, 
if what the author of ^^ A letter to the Clergy of the Church 
of England,^' &c. tells us, be true, that the persons directed 
by order of the king and council to seize his lordship and 
his papers, received a strict command to treat him with great 
respect and reverence. However this was, when he came- 
before the council, he behaved with a great deal of calm- 
ness, and they with much civility towards him. He had 
liberty to speak for himself as much as he pleased, and 
they listened to his defence with a great deal of attention ; 

tlie reversion of his fortune), and of his tion of Westminster, elected student of 

lather, who took no notice of him in his Christ- church, Oxford, in 1755; in 

will, which bears date Dec. 31, 1725. 176S was appointed, by the b'isbop of 

In 1744 he was ordaiued by his father's Cloyne, his domestic chaplain; m 

great rival, bishep Hoadly; and io 1770 was collated by him to the dig- 

Jnne 1746, obtained the rectory of Ox- nity of precentor in the cathedra) of 

hill, Warwickshire. He left a widow Gloyne; and in 1776 was presented to 

and five children behind bim, two sons the valuable living of Cloumel, or th^ 

and three daughters : Francis, the el- Great Islands, in tlie same dioeesc. 
dest SCO, was educated on the founda- 


atid, what is more unusual^ after he was withdrawn, he ha4 
twice liberty to re-enter the council-chamber^ to make for 
himself such representations and requests as he thought 
proper. It is said, that while he was under examination^ 
he made use of our Saviour's answer to the Jewish council, 
while he stood before them : " If I tell you^^ ye will not 
believe me ; and if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, 
nor let me go," After three quarters of an hour's stay at 
the Cockpit, he was sent to the Tower, privately, in his own 
coach, without any noise or observation. 
^ This commitment of a bishop upon the suspicion of high'* 
treason, as it was a thing rarely practised since the Refor<> 
mation, occasioned various speculations among the people. 
March 23, 1723, a bill was brought into the House of Com- 
mons, for *^ inflicting certain pains and penalties on Fran- 
cis lord bishop of Rochester ;" a copy of which was sent to 
him, with notice that he had liberty of counsel and soUci« 
tors for making his defence. Under these circumstances, 
the bishop applied, by petition, to the House of Lords, for 
their direction and advice, as to his conduct in this con- 
juncture ; and April 4, he acquainted the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, by a letter, that he was determined to 
give that house no trouble, in relation to the bill xlepending 
therein ; but should be ready to make his defence against 
it, when it should be argued in another house, of which he 
had the honour to be a member. On the Otb, the bill 
passed the House of Commons, and was the same day sent 
up to the House of Lords for their concurrence. May 6, 
being the day appointed by the> lords for the first reding 
of the bill, bishop Atterbury was brought to Westminster, 
to make his defence. The counsel for the bishop were, sir 
Constantine Phipps and William Wynne, esq. ; for the 
king, Mr. Reeve and Mr. Weftrg. The proceedings con- 
tinued above a week ; and on Saturday, May 11, the bishop 
was permitted to plead for himself^ which he did in a very 
eloquent speech. On Monday the 1 3th he was carried, for 
the last time, from the Tower, to hear the reply of the 
king's counsel to his defence. On the 15th, the bill wa» 
lead the third time, and, after a long and warm debate, 
passed on the 16th, by a majority of 83 to 43. On the 
27th, the king came to the house, and confirmed it by his 
royal assent. June 18, 1723, this eminent prelate, having 
the day before taken leave of his friends, who, from the 
time of passing the bill against him^ to the day of his de- 

134 A T T E R B U R Y. 

parture/ bad free access to him in the Tower» embariied im 
board the Aldborough man of war, and landed the Friday 
following at Calais. When he went on diore, having been 
informed that lord BoUngbroke, who bad, after the rising 
of the parliament, received the king^s pardon, was arrived 
at the same place on his return to England, he said, with 
an air of pleasantry, '^ Then I am exchanged !** and it wa8» 
in the opinion of Mr. Pope on the same occasion, ^' a sign 
of the nation's being afraid of being over-run with too 
much politeness, when it could not regain one great man^ 
but at the expence of another.'' But the severity of his 
treatment did not cease even with his banishment. The 
same vindictive spirit pursued him in foreign climes. No 
British subject was even permitted to visit him without the 
king's sign manual, which Mr. Morice was always obliged 
to solicit, not only for himself, but for every one of his 
family whom he carried abroad with him, for which the fees 
of office were very high. 

' When bishop Atterbury first entered upon his banish^ 
ment, Brussels was the place destined for his residence ; 
but, by the arts and instigations of the British ministers, he 
was compelled to leave that place, and retire to ParisL 
There, being solicited by the friends of the Pretender to 
enter into their negociations, he too readily complied, as 
appears by his correspondence published at Edinburgh in 
176S, 4to; but, that he might appear to avoid them, he 
changed his abode for Montpelier in 1728, and after resid*- 
ing there about two years, returned to Paris, where he died 
February 15, 1731-2. The affliction which he sustained 
by the death of his daughter, in 1729, was thought to have 
hastened his own dissolution. 

How far the bishop was attached in his inclinations to 
the Stuart family, to which he might be led by early pre* 
judices of education, and the divided opinions of the ttme&y 
is now teo obvious to admit of controversy. But that he 
should have been weak enough to engage in a plot so in- 
consistent with his station, and so clumsily devi^d (to say 
the least of it, and without entering into his solemn asseve*> 
rations of innocenc'e), is utterly inconsistent with that 
cunning which his enemies allowed him. The duke of 
Wharton, it is well known, was violent against him, till 
cotivinced by his unanswerable reasoning. 

It has hebn said that Atterbury's wishes reached to the 
biiihopric of London, or even to York or Canterbury. But 

A T T E R B U R Y. 129 

tliose uAo were better acquainted wkh hit views, kn9m tha^ 
Wincbestf r would have been much more deninJile tp biiB 
than either of the others. And it has been asserted, from, 
respectable authority, that that bishopric was o^ed to 
Ima whenever it should become vacant (and till tl^at event 
should happ^i, a pension of 5000/. a^year, besides aa 
ample jMrovision for Mr. Morice) if he would cease to give 
the oppositi(Hi he did to sir Robert Walpole's administra- 
tioDy by bis speeches and protests in the House of Lords. 
Wbea that offer was rejected by the bishop, then the con- 
Invance for his ruin was d^ermined on; but surely no 
contrivance could have been successful, bad he been inno«* 
cent of the treason laid to his charge. 

In his speech in the House of Lords, the bishop mentions 
his briag ** engaged in a correspondence with two learned 
men (Bp. Potter and Dr. Wall) on settling the times of 
writing the four Gospels.'' Part of this correspondence 14 
now published. The same subject the bishop pursued 
during his exile, having consulted the learned of .all nations, 
and had nearly iMrought the whole to a conclusion when he 
died. These laudable labours are an ample confutation of 
bishop Newton's assertion, that Atterbury '^ wrote little 
whilst in exile, but a few criticisms on French authors." 

His body was brought over to England, accompanied / y 
by his manuscripts, which underwent a strict examination ; ! ; 
but as nothing of his is now to be found in the State-paper 
office, it is probable that the whole was lost by neglect, <Hr 
wilfuUy destroyed. He was interred on the 12th of May 
followiag, in Westminster abbey, in a vault which, in 1722, 
had been prepared by his directions. There is no memo* 
fM over his grave; nor could there well be any, unless 
his frieikds would have consented (which it is most pro- 
bable they refused to do) that the words implying him to 
have died bishop of Rochester should have been omitted 
on his. tomb. The funeral was performed in a very private 
liaiiaer, attended only by his son*in-law Mr. Morice, and 
his two chaplains, Dr. Savage and Mr. Moore. Upon the 
Wi which contained his bowels was inscribed, 

" In hkc utnk deposit! sunt cineres 
FfiANCisci Attekbury^ Episcopi Rolfensis. 

Some time before his death, he published a Vindicatloii 
foi himself bishop Smalridge, and Dr. Aldrich, from a 
charge bfiQught against them by Mr. Oldmixon, of having 


X24 A T T E R B U R Y- 

altered and interpolated the copy of lord Clarendon** 
*• History of the Rebellion." Bishop Attetbury's Sermons 
are extant in four volumes in 8vo; those contained in the 
two first were published by himself, and dedicated to his 
great patron sir Jonathan Trelawny, bishop of Winchester; 
those in the two last were published after bis death, by 
Dr. Thomas Moore, his lordship's chaplain. Four admi* 
Table Visitation charges accompany his Epistolary Corre- 
spondence, which was completed in 1798, by Mr. Nichols, 
in 5 vols. 8vo ; containing also all his tracts, and a vast 
mass of curious and interesting ecclesiastical history. To 
the last irolume is prefixed a life, written with great care 
and accuracy, and correctn)g the many mistakes of pre-t 
ceding biographers* It is needless to add how much the 
present article stands indebted to Mr. Nichols's labours. 

As to bishop Atterbury's character, however the moral 
and political part of it may have been differently repre- 
sented by the opposite parties, it is universally agreed, 
that he was a man of great learning and uncommon abili- 
ties, a fine writer, and a most excellent preacher. His 
learned friend Smalridge, in the speech he made, when he 
presented him to the upper house of convocation, as pro- 
locutor, styles him *^ Vir in nullo literarum genere hospes, 
in plerisque artibus et studiis diu et feliciter exercitatus, 
in maxim^ perfectis literarum disciplinis perfectissimus.'' 
In his controversial writings, he was sometimes too severe 
upon his adversary, and dealt rather too much in satire 
and invective ; but this his panegyrist imputes more to the 
natural fervour of his wit, than to any bitterness of temper, 
er prepense malice. In his sermons, however, he is not 
only every way ifnexceptionable, but highly to be coni- 
mended. The truth is, his.talent as a preacher was so ex- 
cellent and remarkable, that it may not improperly he said, 
that he owed his preferment to the pulpit, nor any hard mat- 
ter to trace him, through his writings, to his several promo- 
tions in the chi^rch. We shall conclude bishop Atterbury's 
character, as a preacher, with the encomium bestowed on 
him by the author of *^ The Tatler ;^^ who, having observed 
that the English clergy too much neglect the art of speak- 
ing, makes a particular exception with regard to our pre- 
late; who, says he, ^^ has so particular a regard to his 
Congregation, that he commits to his memory what he has 
to say to them, and has so soft and graceful a behaviour, 
that it must attract your attention. His person,'^ conti« 



Hues this author, '^ it is to be confessed, is no small re* 
commendation ; but be is to be highly commended for not 
losing that advantage, and adding to a propriety of speech 
(which might pass the criticism of Longinus) an action 
which would have been approved by Demosthenes. He 
has a peculiar fcNTce in his way, and has many of his audi- 
eace, who could not be intelligeQt hearers of his discourse, 
w^re there no explanation as well as grace in his action. 
This art of his is used with the most exact and honest skill. 
He never, attempts your passions till he has convinced your 
reason. All the objections Vhich you can form are laid 
open and dispersed, before he uses the least vehemence in 
his sermon ; but when he thinks he has your head, he very 
soon wins your heart, and never pretends to shew the 
beauty of holiness, till he has convinced you of the truth 
of it." — ^In his letters to Pope, &c. bishop Atterbury ap- 
pears in a pleasing light, both as a writer and as a man. 
In ease and elegance they are superior' to those of Pope, 
which are more studied. There are in them several beau- 
tiful references to the classics. The bishop excelled in his 
allusions to sacred as well as profane authors. 

The following anecdote was first communicated to the 
public by the late Dr. Maty, on the credit of lord Ches- 
terfield: " I went," said lord Chesterfield, " to Mr. Pope, 
one morning, at Twickenham, and found a large folio 
Bible, with' gilt clasps, lying before him upon his table; 
and, as I knew his way pf thinking upon that book, I asked 
him jocosely, if he was going to write an answer to it ? It 
is a present, said he, or rather a legacy, from my old 
friend the bishop of Rochester. I went to take my leave 
of him yesterday in the Tower, where 1 saw this Bible 
upon his table. After the first compliments, the bishop 
said to me, " My friend Pope, considering your infirmi- 
ties, and my age and exile, it is not likely that we should 
ever meet again ; and therefore I give you this legacy to 
remember me by it. Take it home with you, and let me 
advise you to abide by it." — ^^ Does your lordship abide 
by it yourself?"—" I do." — " If you do, my lord, it is but 
lately. May I beg to know what new light or arguments 
have prevailed with you now, to entertain an opinion so 
contrary to that which you entertained of that book all the 
former part of your life ?": — The bishop replied, " We 
have not time to talk of these things, but take home the 
book; I will abide by it, and I recommend you to do so 

126 A T r £ ft B R V. 

too, and so God bless yoti.^* It has been justly remarireif^ 
that whatever were the bishop^s faults, we do not rec<rflect 
any thing that indicates a disbelief or a doubt of the truth 
of Christianity. His actions and writings rather display 
him in the light of a zealous supporter of religion than ia 
that of an infidel. His sermons on the miraculous propa- 
gation of the Gospel, and on a standing revelation's beings 
the best means of conviction, not to mention others of his 
discourses, are important evidences of his attachment to 
the Christian religion. It is observable, that he generally 
treats unbelievers with contempt, as an ignorant, superfi- 
cial, and conceited set of men, which he would scarcely 
have done had he been of the same sentiments: for^ 
though a man may conceal, or deny, or even persecute the 
opinions "which he himself holds, it is not very likely that 
be should appear to despise the retainers of them. With 
respect to the above anecdote related by Dr. Maty, the late 
Mr. Badcock, from a zeal to vindicate thie^ bishop's cha- 
racter, as if it were insinuated that he had once been an 
unbeliever, wrote a letter in which he endeavoured to deny 
the authenticity of the anecdote ; but, in our opinion, with- 
out arriving at that conclusion. * 


ATTICU8 (Titus Pomponius), was a celebrated Ro- 
man knight, to whom Cicero wrote a great number of let- 
ters, which contain the general history of the times. These 
are still extant, divided into seventeen books ; but it is the 
excellence of Atticus's private character which has pro- 
cured him a place in most collections of this description. 
He was a man of such prudence, that, without departingr« 
from his neutrality, he preserved the esteem and affection 
of all parties. He sent money to the younger Marins, who 
had been declared an eriemy to the commonwealth ; yet 
was so much in favour with Sylla, that this Roman general 
would always have had 6im with him. He kept himself 
quiet at Rome during the war between CsBsar and Pompey, 
without giving offence to the one or the other, and he sent ' 
money to Brutus, while he was doing kind offices to An- 

1 life in ▼«!. V. of Nichdlft^t edition of Atterbnry's Caneltpaoifiooej^ljh of 
Att^bury by Stackbou8e.-~Oen. Diet. — Biog. Britaonica, voL I. and additions 
in subsequent volumes.— Pope's Works by Bowles.— ;Burnet's Own Times.— 
Malone's Life of Drydon, vol. I. p. 803. — Ath. On. vol. If.<»i*Dr. Jobason^ 
Works. — ^Blair's Lectures.— Swia's Works.— Bishop Nicolson't Letters, S V4il« 
1809> by >fr. Nichols.— Hurd and Warburton's Letters, 4to» p. 328, 231, fcc. 

A T T I C U S. 12? 

tony. Afterwards, in the cruel divisions which arose be- 
tnreen Antony and Augustus, he contrived to preserve the 
friendship of both, difficult as it must have been in the case 
of two such antagonists. The strict friendship he had with 
Cicero, did not hinder him from being intimate with Hor- 
tensius ; and he was the cause (as Nepos, his biographer, 
tells us) that these two rivals not only ceased from mutual 
reproaches, but even lived together upon very good terms. 
The contests between the parties of Cinna and Marius in« 
duced him to go to Athens young, where he continued a 
long time, and became such a favourite with the Athenians^ 
Uiat the day he left them was a day of mourning. He 
never attempted to raise himself above the rank of life in 
which he was born, which was that of knight, although, he 
might have obtained the highest posts in the republic ; but 
be chose to renounce all pretensions to them, because, in 
the then prevailing corruption, he could neither gain nor 
discharge them according to the laws, and as a man of in-^ 
tegrity; no inconsiderable proof of his virtue, notwith* 
standing he has been charged with avarice and political 
duplicity. He did not marry till he was fifty-three, and 
had only a daughter, who was married to Agrippa ; fromi 
which marriage came a daughter, whom Augustus be* 
trothed to Tiberius almost as soon as she was born. He 
leached the age of seventy-seven years, almost withouc 
knowing bodily illness ; but when his last sickness, which 
was slight for three months, at length became painful, he 
sent for Agrippa, his son-in-law, and two other persons, 
and declared to them a resolution to put an end to his life, 
by abstinence from food. Agrippa remonstrated with tears, 
bftt all ill vain. After two days abstinence, the fever left 
him, and the disease abated ; but Atticus persisted, and 
died three days after. This happened in the year of 
Rome 721. 

Atticus was extremely fond of polite literature, and was 
ranked among authors of reputation, for he wrote Annals, 
which Cicero declares to have been of great use to him. 
He was of the sect of Epicurus ; and, ^oush many have 
^ught it impossible for a denier of a Providence to equal 
m morality an acknowledger of the Gods, yet Bayle defies 
any one to shew a person of greater integrity than Atticus 
among the most bigoted of the Pagans. Much, however, it 
not gained by exalting the characters of the most eminent 

128 A T T I C U S. 



of the Pagan heroes, and it is generally done with an kisi' 
dious purpose. ^ 

ATTIC US, patriarch of Constantinople in the begiii-* 
ning of the fifth centuiy, was born at Sebastia, ^low Soustia^ 
a city of Armenia. He was first educated by the Macedo- 
nian monks in the principles of their sect, but when arrived 
at riper years, he embraced the faith of the Catholic church. 
In the year 406, being then a priest, he was chosen to 
succeed St. Chrysostom, who had been deprived of the see 
of Constantinople, but met with much obstruction from the 
friends of Chrysostom, and from all the bishops of the East^ 
who considered Chrysostom as unjustly deprived, and re- 
fused to communicate with the new patriarch. Atticos^ 
upon this, procured an edict from the emperor to compel 
them, but finding this produced no otlier effect than schism 
aud confusion, after the death of Chrysostom; be ordered 
bis name to be put in the Diptychs, or ecclesiastical tabtes^ 
in which were inserted the names of persons who had died 
in the peace and communion of the church, and those 
names were read at the altar during divine service. He 
also wrote to St. Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, earnestly in-- 
treating him to do the same, but Cyril answered that he 
should by that step appear to condemn tliose who had de>- 
posed Chrysostom. Both these letters are extant in Nice^ 
phorus Calixtus's Ecclesiastical History. There is another 
letter of his extant to Calliopius, by which he appears to 
have been a man of moderate principles towards those who 
differed from him in opinion. There are likewise some 
fragments of a homily on the birth of Christ, in the general 
collection of the Councils, ahd a fragment of a letter of hi» 
to Eupsychius, quoted by Theodoret. Writers differ mucb 
in their estimate of his general character and learning. * 
. ATTIBET (John Denis), a French Jesuit and painter^ 
attached to the mission to Pekin, was born at Dole, in 
Franche-Comte, July 31, 1702, and at first took lessons ia 
painting, and made considerable proficiency under bis fa-- 
ther, who was an artist. He then !^ent to Rome,* under 
the patrohage of the marquis de Brossa, and on his return^ 
painted some pictures at Lyons, which procured him great 
reputation. In his thirtieth year he entered among the 
Jesuits, in the humble character of a lay- brother, and ^oooie 
years afterwards, when the missionaries of Pekin demanded 

^ 1 Gen. Diet.- — Cornelius Nepos. 
• Gen, Piqt. — X>opin,-»Cave, vol. I. 

A T T 1 H K t. ^ l2i 

to ft6r«loii9 6f a painier, he obtained the appointmetit^ 
and went to China about the end of 1737. He had no 
ieoner anived at Pekia than he offered the emperor a 
painting of the Adoration of the Kings^ with which tfie 
empei'or wHs so much pleased that he ordered it to be 
placed in bis interior apartment. Notwithstanding this 
promising outset, he underwent many mortifications, in 
being obliged to comply with the bad taste of the Chinesis 
HI what paintings he execidied for them, and was so tesized 
by the emperor himself, that, in order to please him, he was 
dbliged to take lessons from the Chinese artists; but find- 
ing that a compliance with their instructions must spoil his 
perfoiinances, and injure his reputation, he declined pkint- 
lag for bis majesty. During the years, however, ftom 
1753 to 1760, distinguished by many rictories gained by 
die emperor Kien Long, he had frequent orders for battle- 
pieces, &c. which he executed so much to the satisfaction 
ef that monarch, that he created him a mandarin, and 
Wh^n Attiret refused to accept it, the minister of state 
told him he should have the revenues, although he de- 
^Hned the honour. The missionaries speak in the highest 
t^rms of his talents, modesty, and piety. He died at 
P^ih, Dec. 8, 1T68, and the emperor defrayed the ex* 
j^nces of his funeral ; the large pictures he painted for 
Ae emperor are in the palace, but never shown ;' the mis- 
mnaries can e:£hibit only one picture, ^^ The Guardian 
Angel,'' which is in the chapel 6i the Neophites, in the 
#rdnch missionary church at Pekin. There is nothing of 
Atiiret^s in print, except a letter in the ^' Recueil des Let^ 
ires Edifiahtes," vol. XXYH. which was translated by di^ 
llfle Rev. Joseph Spence, under his assumed name of sit 
Harry Beaumont, entitled ^< A particular account of the 
emperor of China's gardens near Pekin, in. a letter from fa- 
dier Attiret, a French missionary, now employed by that 
emperor to paint the apartments in those gardens, to hi$ 
iirieiid at Paris,'' London, 1752, 8vt>.^ 

' ATWOOD (GeorqjK), F. R. ^. an eminent mathema- 
tician, was bom ip 1746, and admitted of Westminster 
school in 17^9^ from whence he was elected to Trinity 
doUege, Cambridge, in 1765, where he took his bachelor's 

^ Biog. Uaivenelle. — Jottnwl de SaTants, for June i771««<»MonUi. Rer. toL 
VII. where tiiere is s loDg extract from Attiref • letter. 

Vol. Ill, K 

IS^ A T W O O Di 

degree in 1769 and his masters in 1772« He was fer son^ 
time a tutor, and for many years a fellow: of that coUegi?^ 
and read to the whole university lectui'es upon several, 
branches of experimental philosophy j, part of which he 

^ published under the title of ^^ An Analysis of a course of 
Lectures on the principles of Natural Philosophy! read ia 
the university of Cambridge, by G. A. &c." 17M, 8«q* 
These lectures were much attended and justly admired^ 
7he right hon. Wm. Pitt having been one of his auditors, 
was induced to form a more intimate acquaintance with 
him ; and discovering that his talents might be eminently 
pseful in the public service, bestowed upon him, in 1784^ 
the place of patent searcher of the customs, London, that 
he might be enabled to devote a larger portion of his time 
^o financial calculations, in which Mr. Pitt employed him^ 
jxot more to his own satisfaction than to the advantage o€ 
the revenue. He contin^ued in this employment under 
that eminent statesman, until his dedining health rendered 
him incapable of intense application. In 1784, he aUq^ 
published ^* A treatise on the rectilinear Motion and Ro« 
tation of Bodies, with a description of original EKperimentg 
relative to the subject," 8vo. He contributed, several pa* 
pers to the Philosophical Transactions, and was honourec^ 
on one occasion, with the Copleian medal* He died at 
his house in Westminster, July 1807, and was interred i^ 
St. Margaret's church, justly esteemed by a uumerous list 
of friends, and by the friends of science. ^ r. 

. AVANTIO (John Maria,) or Avanzi Giammarie^ t 
celebrated Italian lawyer, was born Aug. 23, 1564. Hit 
w^ educated with great care, and discovered so mnch tasift 
for polite literature, that Riccoboui, his mastier, said, .Jb#^ 
jvas the only youth he had ever known who seemed to hft 
born a poet apd orator. His. father wished hun to studjT 
medicine, but his own inclination led him to. study law^ iot 

< which he soon became distinguished. At ferrava.^ 
quired an intimacy with Tasso, Guarini, Gremonini, an^ 
other eminent characters of that time. He afterwards TCr 
tired ^ Rovigo, * and praetisi^d^as a lawyer^ b^ jwaD sing4t^ 
, (arly unfortunate in his personal af&irs,. npt Qnly Jlosii;^ ar 
considerable: part of his property by b?ing security for 
^ some persons* who violated their^ engagements, bjut^fuying 
iiis life attempted by assassids who attacked him one day 

I Geat. Mftff.^^^'^v 





A.VANTIO. 131. 

vmi l^ft'hitxr for dead with, eighteen wounds. He recover- 
edy however, but his brother being soon after assassinated, , 
and having lost his wife, he retired, in 1606, to Padua,, 
where he died, March 2, 1622, leaving several children, 
ojf whom Charles, his second son, became a learned phy^* 
sioiao kad botanist. Avanzi wrote a poem (^^ II Satiro Fa* 
vola Pastorale,** Venice, 15^7), and dedicated it to the em« 
p^ror Ferdinand, who rewarded him amply, and wished to 
bring hior to his court, by the offer of the place of counsellor 
of stsAe* H^ left in manuscript, a church history, ^' His- 
toria £cclesiastica si Lutheri apostasia;" and '^ Concilia- 
de rebus criminalibus."' ^ 

AUBAIS (Charles D^ Baschi),. marquis of, one of the 
cincoiiragers of useful learning in France, was born at Nis- 
aaes, in 16S6, and became a member of the academies of. 
Marseilles and Nismes* ; He was of a very distinguished 
fiuaily, whose £aoie. he peirpetuated by the probitj^ of 
his character, his love of science, and the patronage he 
extended to learning and learned men. He formed also. 
one of the most, complete libraries in his time. Among 
6tber contributions to literary undertakings, he gave Me-*. 
Bard the materials of his collection, entitled *^ pieces fu« 
gitives pour Thistoire de France,'' published in 1759^ 
3 vols. 4to, and himself published an '^ Historical Geo* 
graphy,'' 8vo, which was not much esteemed. He had, 
however, a perfect acquaintance with history and genealo* 
gies* He died at his chateaii d'Aubaiis, near Nismes^ 
Maroh 5, 1777, at the advanced age of 92. ' 

AUBERT, or ALBERT (James), a learned physician 
i»f the sixteenth century,: was born at Vendome, and be-* 
came a doctor of medicine and philosophy. He died at 
Lausa&ne in 1 586. His principal woriks are> 1. ^' De Me- 
lallorum ortu ^ ^ausis, contra Cbymistas, brevis explica- 
lio," Leyden, 1575, 8vo. 2. ".Du» Apologetica) Re- 
tiporisiones ad* Josephum Quercetanum," ibid. 1576. 
^. ** Progymnasqaata in Joban. Fenielii librum de fbditis 
reriHn naturalium et medicamentorum causis,*' Basil, 1579, 
8vo. 4» ^* Semeiotica, sive ratio dignoscendarum sedium 
4nl^)e affectarum, et affectuum preter naturam/' Lausanne,. 
1*87, and Leyden, 1596, Svo. , 5. ^ Libdlus de PeSste," 
Lausanne,. 1571, 8vo. 6. *^ D^s natures et complexions 

1 Mc^ri.—- HMttMioi m Slog. doct. Tir.— >Th» DiaU Hist, attributes «U|ir 
pnoted works to bim, but th« poem is the only mm we oao ateertaia. 
s Qiet. ttiit 

K 2 

1S2 A U B fi ft T. 

des hommesy &e/' Lausanne, 1571, Paris, 1572. Thk we 
suspect is a French translation. The original is not men* 
tioned by Mangel or Haller. * 

AUBERT (Peter), a French lawyer, was born in 1643 
and died in 1733, lea^ng his library to the city of Lyotis, 
on conditidn that it should be open for the use of the pub« 
lie. He published a new edition of the ^^Dictionnaire de 
Richelef' in 3 vols. 1728, fol. which has been superseded 
by more recent editions. He was ako the editor of '^ Un 
recaeil de Factums,^' 2 vols. Lyons, 1710, 4to, and the 
author of a little romance, entitled ^ Retour de Pisle d^ A:* 
mour,*' which he published at his father's request^ whei» 
he was only sixteen years of age. * 

AUBERT (William), sieur de Massouignes, was born 
ih 1534, at Poitiers, and became an advocate of parlia- 
ment at Paris, where he died in 1601. He pubUshed^ 
1 . *^ Histoire des ^erres de Chretiens contre les Turcs,\80us 
Godefroy de BouiHoti,*'^ Paris, 1 559, 4to. 2. "Vers au chan- 
Celier de L^Hopital,** Svo. Scevola de St. Marthe has- 
translated these poems into Latin verse. 5. ^ Le Re- 
tranchemens,'* 1585, 8vo. This is a eoliection of such of 
bis pieces as he thought worthy of being handed down to 
posterity ; among them is ifc» ^ Essay on Self-knowlec^e,'* 
and a eulogium on the president Thuanus. ^ 

AUBERTIN (EdmunH), in Latin Edmukdus AlberTI^ 
I7US), a minister of the reformed church of Paris in the 
seventeenth century, was bom ait Chalons sm* Marne id; 
1595. He was admitted a mihistet at the synod of Cba-^ 
i^ntot^ in 1618, and promoted to the church of Cikrtres, 
from whence he was remowd to Paris in 1631. He wrota^ 
a very celebrated work, erkitled " L'Eucharistie dd I'an-> 
cienne Eglise,'* 1633, fol. proving from history and ai:gu--> 
ment,. t6e opinions of the Protestants on the subject of 
transubstantiation and the real presence. This excited 
much controversy, and was attempted to be confuted by 
Arnauld and other divines in the work entitled *^ La P'er<^ 
petuit6 de la Foi.** M. Aubertin died at Paris, April 5^ 
1652. His last moments were disturbed by the harsh con- 
duct of the rector of St. Sulpice, who endeavoured to ob*^ 
tjun from him an acknowledgment of error, but M. Auber-t 
)Cin declared that he persevered iff the reformed religion. 1 - 

» Dhst. Hitt. « Morefi.--.Dkt. Hist;— «aiiiiOaKm«tstie©n. 

> Moreri.**-Chtiifeple.*— Diet. Hift. 

• Gen, Dlct4— Mof«ri.«^Dict. Hiit. • • • r ■ 

A U B E E Y. 13S 


AUBERY (Anthony)/ a lawyer of Parisy bom in 16 IT, 
became an indefatigable student^ it being bis practice tp 
rise at JBve o'clock every morning, and study without in^ 
termis&ion till six in tbe evening. He scarcely made any 
TisitSy and received still fewer, and though he had taken 
his oath -as avocat au conseil^ he preferred the silent com*- 
merce of his books to the tumult of a£Eairs. The '* Re- 
marques -de Vaugelas'* was his only book of recreation. He 
died of a fall in i€95y at upwards of 78. Several works of 
bis are ta be met with, very inferior in respect of stylq, 
but they sure not deficient in historical anecdotes and use-^ 
ful remarks. The chief of them are, 1. ^' Histoire gene- 
rale des Cardinaux,^' 5 vols. 1642, 4to, composed from the 
memoirs of Naud6 and of du Puy. 2. " Memoire pour 
l*bistoire du Cardioal de Richelieu,*' 1660, 2 vols, folio, 
and 1667, 5 vols, in 12mo. 3. ^^ Histoire de meme minis^ 
tre," 1660, folio. The materials here are good, but the 
best use has not been made of them. The cardinal, whom 
ihe author praises without restriction, is not painted in his 
proper colours, and the author has obviously laid himself 
open to the charge of flattery. Nor ha^ he discovered 
much judgment, for, in striving to make too honest a man 
of die cardinal, he has not made him a politician, which 
was his distinguishing characteristic. Guy Patin, in hia 
czxxvith letter to Charles Spon, speaks in a very contempt' 
tuous manner of this history : ^^ The duchess pf Aiguil- 
lon/* says he, '* has just had the history of her uncle the 
cardinal de Richelieu printed^ composed from the me- 
moirs she has furnished herself, by M. Aubery ; but it is 
already fallen into contem^pt, being too much suspected 
from the quarter from whence it originates^ and on ac- 
count of tbe bad style of the wretched writer, who, lucro 
addictus K adductus, will not fail to play the mercenary, and 
to prostitute his pen to the direction of that lady.^' It is 
said that tbe queen-mother answered the bookseller Ber- 
thier, who expressed his fear that certain persons of the 
court, of whom the historian spoke by no means advanta- 
geously, would bring him into trouble: ^^ Go, pursue your' 
Dusiness in peace;, and put vice so much to shame, that 
' nothing but virtue shall dare to be seen in France.^'*— » 
Aubery i» one of those who doubt whether the Testament 
published under the name of the cardinal de Richelieu be 
really by him. 4. " Histoire du cardin^tl Mazarin," 1751, 
4 vols. 1 2mo, a work in still less credit than the foregoing i 

'lU A U B iE R Y. 

*bnt, as it was composed from the registers of the parlia^* 
menty many of which have since disappeared, it contains 
several particulars not to be found any where else. Car- 
dinal Mazarin, whose portrait is much over*charged/and 
but a very faint likeness^ is very often lost among the 
great number of facts heaped together, and in which he 
sometimes plays but a very inferior part. 5. " Traitd his- 
torique de la pri-6minence des Rois de France," 1641>,4ta. 
6. ** Trait6 des justes pretensions du Roi de France s\ir 
TEmpire," 1667, 4to, which caused him to be thrown into 
the Bastille, because the princes of Germany thought the 
ideas of Aubery' to be the same with those of Louis XIV. 
He was, however, soon set at liberty, and even his con- 
finement was made easy. * 

AUBERY (Louis), sieur du Maurier, accompanied 
his father on his embassy into Holland, from whence he 
proceeded to Berlin, to Poland, and to Rome. • On his re- 
turn to Paris, he acquired the favour of the queen-mother ; 
but this hot being followed by promotion, he relinquished 
his attendance at court, and retired to his estate to pass 
the remainder of his days in reading and compilation, and 
there he died in 1687. His **Memoires pour servir 4 
Fhistoire de Hollande,'* 2 vols. 1 2mo, have been and are 
•till quoted by all historians, though the facts related in 
them greatly displeased the Dutch, His grandson pub- 
lished in 1737, " Memoirs of Hamburgh,*' in 12mo, also 
by him. We are likewise indebted to him for a. relation 
of the execution of Cabri6res and M^rindol, Paris, 1645, 
in 4to. « 

AtJBESPlNE (Gabriel de l'), the son of William Au- 
bespise, who was ambassador from the French court in 
England, became bishop .of Orleans in 1604. He was 
remarkable for his zeal as a divine, and his great applica- 
tion as a student, and was employed, as his father had been^ 
in many public transactions. He died at Grenoble, Aug. 
15, 1630, in the 5 2d year of his age. His writings are, 
'* De veteribus ecelesiae ritibus," J622, 4to, a work which 
idiscovers mu^h knowledge of ecclesiastical antiquities; 
^* Un trait6 de Tancienne police de l*Eglise,'' respecting 
the administration of the eui:harist. He published alsd 
notes on the Councils, and on TertuUian. His brother 


I Moreru-vifGeD* DicW * Kor^ri^ 


Chadea became marquis de Chateau-Neuf, and an emi- 
nent statesman in the seventeenth century. ^ 

AUBESPINE (Magdalene d'), daughter of Claude 
d*Aubespine, baron of Chateauneuf, and wife of Nicolas 
de Neu^riUe de Villeroi, secretary of state, was a French 
lady whose beauty and talents rendered her one of the^ 
ornaments of the courts of Charles IX. Henry III. and 
Henry IV. Ronsard has celebrated her in a sonnet, in 
which he quaintly advises her to substitute the laurels 
she had merited for the hawthorn {aubespine) which com- 
posed her name. She died at Villeroi in 1506, and Ber^ 
taud, bishop of Seez, wrote an epitaph on her. She is said 
to have translated Ovid's epistles, and to have written seve*^ 
ral original works in verse and prose, none of which, how* 
ever, we find specified in our authorities. Her statue, in 
white marble, is in the present French museum. * 

AUBIGNE (THEonoRE Agrippa d'), a very celebrated 
French Protestant, was son to John D'Aubigne, lord of 
Brie, in Saintonge, and born in 1550 at St. Maury, He 
inade such proficiency under his preceptors, that at eight 
years old he was able to translate the Crito of Plato. Hav-* 
ing lost his father, who left him only his name and hiS' 
debts, at the age of thirteen, he betook himself to the 
profession of arms, for which a spirit and zeal particularly 
ardent and persevering seemed to have qualified him. He 
accordingly attached himself to Henry then king of Na^* 
varre, who made him successively gentleman of his bed^ 
chamber, marshal of the camp, governor of the island ilnd 
castle of Maillezais, vice-admiral of Guienne and Bretagne,i 
and what D'Aubigne valued most, his favourite. But he 
lost this last honour by a want of subserviency to his plea* 
sure, and a stern and uncourtly infle^^ibilit^ It is welt 
known that ingratitude was not the failing of Henry IV; 
yet he expended so much in conciliating the catholic lords^ 
that he was often incapable of rewarding his old servants 
as they deserved, and with the utmost esteem for D^Au-*^ 
bigne, he had bestowed little else upon him, and was pro- 
bably not sorry for any pretence to get rid of him. D^Au* 
bigne, displeased with his conduct, left the court, and 
although Henry intreated and demanded his return, con^ 
, tinued inexorable, until he accidentally learnt that uppn il 

^ MareBi,*-»Dupi% ^ Monri.-i-Pict* Ut«t. 

13« A U B I 6 N E. 

£al$e report of his being made i prisoner at the siege of 
Limoges, the king had ordered him to be ransomed at^ 
great expence. Penetrated by this mark of rejtumipg 
kindness, he again came to court, but persisted in giving 
the king both advice and reproaches, in a blunt and some«> 
times satirical manner^ which the king scarcely knew how 
to tolerate, while he felt conscious of the vahie of so sinr 
cere a friend aad counsellor. 

Many curious anecdotes are reported of his freedoms 
with the kipg. Before, he returned to the court, he sentt 
one of his pages to announce to the soyereigu that he wa« 
upon the road. The king asked him from whence ha 
came? The page said, "Yes, yes;" and to every ques- 
tipu that w?k9 put to him^ still returned "Yes« yes." On 
the king's asking him why he. continued to answer bia 
questions in that manner, be replied, " Sire, I said ye% 
yes, because kings drive away from their presence all per** 
sons who will not make use of those words to every thing . 
which their sovereigns require of them." While equeiry 
to the king, and lying one night with the Sieur de la Focc^ 
in the guard chamber, he whispered in . his companion'o 
ear, ^^ Certainly our master is tk^ most covetous, aud most 
ungrateful mortal upon earth." Receiving no answer* he 
repeated the accusation, but la Force, being scarcely 
awake, did not hear him distinctly, and asked, ^^ What do 
you say, D*Aubigne,?" " Cannot you hear him?" said the 
king, who was awake, " he tells you I am the most covet? 
ous ^nd most nnsrateful mortal on. earth." ^^ Sleep on^ 
sire," replied D'Aubigne, " I have a good deal more to 
^y y^t." The next day, Aubigne tells us in his memoirs, 
the king did not look unkindly on hm, but still gave him 
nothing. After^ however, sometimes plea^iig and some-* 
times displeasing the king and court by these free^oms^ be 
^gain found it necessary to retire, and passed the rest of bis 
days at Geneva, where he died in 1630, in tbe SOth year 
df his age. It was here probabty, where be was received 
with great respect and honour, that he empiloyed his pent 
on those vatipus works which entitle him to a distinguished, 
place in the republic of letters. These were his universal 
history,^ entitled ^* Histoire Universelle depuis 1550 
jnsq^n leoi^.avec un histoire abreg^e d^ la.i^ort 4)9 
Henry IV." 3 vols, folio, printed at St. Jean d'Angeli, al- 
though the title page says Mwlle, 1616— IS — 20, and re-p 
printed in 1626, with additions and corrections. . The first 


edition* is in- most request by the curious^ as having some 
sti'okes of satire in it which are omitted in the other. His 
style is not uniform, and he often departs from the dignity 
of history to indulge in a jocose garrulity, accompanied 
with impassioned coarse passages,, which are, however, 
highly characteristic of the writer. The first volume waf 
burnt by order of the parliament of Paris, on account of 
the freedoms he had taken with the royal personi^es, par- 
ticularly Henry III. The first and second parts of this 
history, which contain the wars of the prince of Cond£ 
and of the admiral Coligny, the massacre of St Barllio-' 
lomew, and the first transactions of the League, are given 
rather in a succinct form, but the third, which continues the 
detail, until the peace of Henry the Great, is the most full 
and most correct. He wrote also some ^^ Tragedies,^* 
1616, 4to and 8vo; ."A collection of Poetical pieces,** 
printed at Geneva, 1630, 8vo; a very satirical piece en* 
titled *^ La Confession de Sancy ;" and in 1731, was print- 
ed /' Baron de Fqeneste,'' 12mo, said to be his, which is 
a more gross composition. In the same year his Memoirs, 
written by himself, were printed, and have been translated 
into English. His son. Constant D'Aubigne, a most pro*- 
fligate character, was the father of madame de Main^ 
tenon. * 

AUBREY (John), an eminent English antiquary, de- 
scended from an ancient family in Wiltshire, was born at 
Easton-Piers in that county /Nov. 3 % 1625 or 1626. He^ 
received the first rudiments of his education in the gram«- 
mar-scbooi at Malmesbury, under . Mr. Robert Latimer ; 
who bad also been preceptor to the famous Thomas 
Hobbes, with whom Mr* Aubrey commenced an early friend-' 
ship, which lasted as long as Mr. Hobbes lived. In 1642^ 
Mr. Aubrey was entered a gentleman- commoner of Trinity 
college at Oxford, where he pursued his studies with great 
diligence;, making the history and antiquities of England 
his peculiar object. About this time the famous ^^ Monas- 
ticon Anglicanum^' was talked of in the university, to 
which Mr« Aubrey contributed considerable assistance, and 
procured, at his own expence, a curious draught of the 
remains of Osney abbey near Oxford, which were entirely 
destroyed m the civil w^urs. This was afterwards engraved 

^ Diet. Hist.-v-Moreri.-iwMarchaiid Diet. Hist, a most prolix article.— The 
life of JyAvlbipnit, London, 1772, compiled from hU Alemolrs and history. «-» 
llk^s^ift -QsBiaty volf L^H^3a3Mi O09iaM 


by Hollar, and inserted in the Monasticon with an inscrip- 
tion by Aubrey. In 1646 he was admitted of the Middles 
Temple, but the death of his father hindiered him from 
pursuing the law. He succeeded to several estates in tl^e 
45ounties of Wilts, Surrey, Hereford, Brecknock, and Mon- 
mouth, but they were involved in many law-suits. These 
suits, together with other misfortunes, by degrees con- 
sumed all his estates, and forced him to lead a more active 
life than be was otherv^ise inclined to. He did not, how- 
ever, break off bis acquaintance with the learned at Ox* 
ford or at Loudon, but kept up a close correspondence 
with the lovers of antiquity and natural philosophy in the 
university, and furnished Anthony Wood with a consider- 
able part of the materials for bis two large works. Wood, 
however, in his own life, does not speak very respectfully 
of his assistant. He calls him a pretender to antiquities, 
Bnd after giving an account of the origin of their acquaint- 
ance, of the gay appearance which Aubrey made at Ox- 
ford, and of his subsequent poverty, Wood adds, " He 
•was a shiftless person, roving, and magotie-headed, and 
sometimes little better than erased. And being exceed- 
ingly credulous, would stuif his many letters sent to A. W. 
with folliries and mis-informations, which sometimes would 
guide him into the paths of error." : • 

Aubrey preserved an intimacy with those great persons, 
who then met privately, and were afterwards formed into 
the Royal Society. Soon after the restoration, he went 
into Ireland, and returning from thence, in the autumn of 
1660,. narrowly escaped shipwreck near Holyhead. On 
the 1st of Nov. 1661, he was so unfortunate as to suffer 
^mother shipwreck. In 1662, he was admitted a fellow oi 
^the Royal Society. In June 1664, he travelled through 
France into Orleans, and returned in the month of Octo- 
ber. In 1666, he sold his estate in Wiltshire; and was 
at length obliged to dispose of all he had left, so that, in 
the space of four years, he was reduced even to want ;. yet 
bis spirit remained unbroken. His chief benefactress was 
the lady Long of Draycot in Wilts, who gave him an apart- 
ment in her house, and supported him as long as he lived* 
When-Jiis death happened is uncertain : we are only told 
in general that he died suddenly on « journey tq Oxford 
in bis way to Draycot ; and he was there buried, as near 
S.s.i:an be conjectured, in 1700. He was a man of an ex-* 
> cellent capacity, and -indefatigable application s sl dili* 


gent searcher into antiquities, a good Latin poet, an ex*» 
cellent naturalist^ but somewhat credulous, and tinctured 
with superstition. 

The character Mr. Malone has given him, in his ^*' His- 
torical account of the English Stage," is worthy of tran- 
scription, as the opinion of one who has had every opjK)r- 
tunity to investigate his merits. ** That," says Mr. Ma- 
lone, " the greater part of his life was devoted to literary 
pursuits, is ascertained by the works which he has pub- 
lished, the correspondence which he held with many emi<- 
nent men, and the collections which he left in manusoript, 
and which are now reposited in the Ashmolean jVtuseum. 
Among these collections is a curious account of our Eng- 
lish poets and many other writers/ While Wood was pre- 
•paring his Athenae Oxonienses, this manuscript was lent to 
him, as appears from many queries in his hand-writing in 
•the margin ; and his account of Milton, with whom Au- 
brey was intimately acquainted, is (as has been observed 
by Mr. Warton) literally transcribed from thence. Wood 
afterwatds quarreled with Mr. Aubrey, whom in the second 
volume of his Fasti, p. 262, he calls his ynendy and on 
whom, in his History of the University of Oxford he be- 
stows the highest encomium ; and, after their quarrel ^ with 
his usual warmth3 and, in his loose diction, he represented 
Aubrey as a pretender, &c. But whatever Wood in a 
peevish humour may have thought or said of Mr. Aubrey, 
by whose labours he highly profited, or however fantasti- 
cal Aubrey may have been on the subject of chemistry and 
gho9ts, his character for veracity has never been im* 
peached ; and as a very diligent antiquary, his testimony 
is worthy of attention. Mr. Toland, who was well ac- 
quainted with him, and certainly a better judge of men 
than Wood, gives this character of him : " Though he was 
extremely superstitious, or seemed to be so, yet he was a 
very honest man, and most accurate in his account of mat- 
ters of hjct. But the facts he knew, not the reflections he 
made, were what I wanted.'* 

The manuscripts mentioned by Mr. Malone, now in the 
Museum at Oxford, are, ** An Apparatus for the Lives of 
our English mathematical and other writers : an Interpre- 
tation* of Villare Anglicanum : Designatio de Easton-Piers 
Ml com. Wilts : A volume of Letters and other papers of 
E. Ashmole's, relating chiefly to Dr. Dee and sir Edward 
Kelly : two volumes of Letters from eminent persons to 


140 AUBREY. 

John Aubrey, esq.^' His priucipal works besides are, 
1.. " Tlie Life of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury," a ma'r 
nuscript written in English, but never published ; the prin^ 
cipal part has been used by Dr. Blackbourne, in his Vita^ 
Hobbianae auctarium/' published in 1681. — 2. " Miscel- 
lanies on the following subjects : U Day-fatality. 2. Local 
fatality. 3. Osteuta. 4. Omens. 5. Dreams. 6. Appa- 
ritions. 7. Voices. 8. Impulses. 9. Knockings. 10. Blows 
invisible. 11. Prophecies. 12. Marvels. 13. Magic. 14. 
Transportation in the air. 1 5. Visions in a beril or specu- 
lum. 16. Converse with angels and spirits. 17. Corpse 
candles in Wales. 1 8. Oracles. 1 9. Extasies. 20. Glancefi 
of love and envy. 21. Second-sighted persons. 22. The 
discovery of two murders by apparitions,^* often reprinted. 
— 3. ^'APerambulationofthecounty of Surry, befi;un 1673^ 
ended 1692." This work the author left behind him in 
manuscript; it was published, 1719, in five volumes Svq, 
i^ttd is now scarce. 4. ^^ Monumenta Britannica, or a di$<- 
course concerning. Stone-henge and Rollich*-stones in Ox- 
fordshire;^' a manuscript. This is said to have been writr 
ten at the command of Charles II. who meeting Mr. Au- 
brey at Stone-henge, as his majesty was returning froni 
Bath, conversed with him in relation to that celebrated 
monument of antiquity ; and also approved of his notioii 
concerning it, which was this, that both it and the stones 
in Oxfordshire were the remains of places dedicated to 
sacred uses by the Druids, long before the time of the Ro- 
man invasion. See a letter from Mr. Paschal to Mr. Aut 
brey, prefixed to his Memoirs, i. *^ Architectonica sacra,'* 
a Dissertation concerning the manner of our Churdi-build- 
ing in England,'* a manuscript in 'the Museum at Ox- 
ford. 6. " The Idea of universal Education." There ar^ 
besides many letters of our author relating to natural phi^ 
losophy, and other curious subjects, published in several 

AUBREY, or AWBREY (William), an eminent civir 
lian in queen Elizabeth's reign, is said to have been a na^ 
tive of Cantre in Brecknockshire. He was educated at 
Oxford, where he took his bachelor's degree in law, an4 
was elected fellow of AH Souls college in 1547. He was 
made regius professor of civil law, Oct. 7, 1553, and 
proceeded D« C. L. in 1554. He was also principal of 

' Bio(. BriUnnica.-»Gough> To|H>|rraphy.«>-Ant. Wood'g Life» p. 208« 

AUBREY. i4t 

Mew Inn hall, Oxford, firom 1550, probably to 1560, but 
the exact year has not been ascertained. He executed 
the office by deputies, as he was about that time judge 
adyocate of the queen's army at St. Quintin in France, 
He also was successively, advocate in the court of at ches, 
master in Chancery, chancellor to archbishop Whitgift, 
and lastly, by the special favour of queen Elizabeth, he 
was made one of the masters of requests in ordinary. He 
died July 23, 1595, aged €6^ and was buried in St. PauPs' 
cathedral under a monument which perished in the de»* 
struction of that church in 1666. Dr. Aubrey was a man 
of high character in his time, and is mentioned with great 
respect by Thuanus. His only writings remain in manu«» 
script, except a few letters published in Strype's Life of 
Grindal. He wrote some letters to Dr. Dee respecting 
the dominion of the seas ; and something respecting the 
reformation of the court of Arches in 1576. * 

AUBRIET (Claude), a celebrated painter of flowers, 
plants, birds, fish, &c. was born at Chalons sur Marne, 
about the middle of the seventeenth .century. He was 
first employed to make drawings in the king's garden, and 
discovered such accuracy, that Tournefort engaged him 
to go with him to the Levant in that voyage which he took 
in 1700. On his return he succeeded Joubert as kingV 
painter in the royal garden, where he continued the fin^ 
€oUection of natural history begun at Blois by the famous 
Nicholas Robert, by order of Gaston of Orleans. Aubriet's 
most celebrated work, is a volume^ of paintings of 
sea-fish which Louis XtV. kept alive in his managerie, 
and which are admirably exeMted. The plates of Vail-^' 
lant^s ** BotanicoQ Parisiense,^* 1727, were also done front 
his designs ; and the imperial library is enriched by three, 
$uperb volumes of fish, butterflies, birds, &c. The col- 
lection^ above-4nentioned, begui^ by Nicholas Robert, and 
continued by Joubert and Aubriet, forms sixty-six folia 
volumes, which are now deposited in the library belonging 
to the botanical garden, Paris. Aubriet died at Paris in 
1740, upwards of eighty-nine years of age. • 

AUBRIOT (HtTGO), a native of Burgdndy, was made 
trtasurer of the finances, and provost of the merchants of 
the city of Paris. He buik the Bastille by order of Charles 
V, lung of Frtoce, in 136^, as a fortress agunst -die Eifg* 

1 Wood's Ath. Tol. l.-^tr? »^ CflBinen R* 40f .-<-Strype'8 Grindat, p. 207, 
299, 849, 867.-iTaiu»r; ! Diet. HkU 

M» . A U B R t O T; 

lish-; but being accused of heresy by the'cltfi^, he-wiST 
condemned to be ioimured between two walls, where he ^ 
doubtless would have ended his days, had be not have been - 
set at liberty by the Maillotins, who wanted to make him. 
their captain in their insurrection upon account of the 
taxes. But that night he made his escape from them into 
ifturguady, where he soon after died in 1382. From this, 
penson the Hugonots are said to have derived their name,. 
which seems not very consistent with the conjectureii of 
most historians. ^ 

. AUBRY (John Baptist), a French Benedictine of the . 
congregation of St. Vannes, was born at Deyyillier, near 
Spinal, in 1736, and became prior of the house of Com* 
mercy, in which he continued to live after the suppression 
of the monastic orders. He was a man in very generals 
esteem for abilities and amiable manners, both among Ms 
fellow ecclesiastics^ and with the public at large. He is 
likewise praised for his humility, of which the following 
instance is given. Haviiig written his " Questions Philo-^ 
scfphiques sur la religion naturelle," he solicited -permis-^ 
sion from the keeper of the seals to publish it, without 
living first consulted the superiors of his. order, and for 
this he was condemned to dine in the refectory, upon 
bread and water, and on his knees, to which he submitted^ 
^mong other literary works, he was employed to continue 
*^ L'Histoire des auteurs sacres et ecclesiastiques,** beguiv 
by Flavigny, which was submitted to the revisal and highly; 
approved by the congregation of St. Maur; but as that, 
ancient order, once so celebrated in the republic of lettars^ 
began to be remiss in their exertions^ this work nevet 
appeared. In 1775, he published his ^VAmi philoso^ 
phique," a performance well received by the public, nHd 
which procured him a very flattering letter from prince 
Charles of Loiraine. D'Alembert also bestowed higK 
praises on it, a circumstance we should have thought ra** 
ther suspicious, if we were not assured that Aubry, in all 
his writings, was a zealous defender of religion. Besides 
this and the ** Questions philosophiques*' above nientionedy* 
he published : l. >^ Theorie de Tame des bites et de eelle 
qu'on attribue i la matieie organis6e.'* 2. '* Questions 
metaphysiques sur Texistence -et la i>ature de Dteu;"-^ S« 
'VQuestioi^s aux philosopbes du jour." 4^ <f L'Ajitt CSon? 

A U B R Y. 1« 

diUac, ou harangues aux ideologaes modernea.'* 5. *^ La 
nouvelle theorie des €;tres/' 6. *^ Aabade, ou lettres 
apologetiques^ &c." Aubry died about ibe eud of the year 
i809. * 

AUBRY (John Francis), a French physician, and su- 
perintendant of the mineral waters of Luxeil, where he 
aied in 1795, pubUabed a much esteemed work, under the 
title x>f " Les Oracles de Cos," Paris, 1775; of which a 
second edition was published by Didot in 1781, with an. 
"introduction a la tberapeutique de Cos." This work %» 
intended to connect the observations of Hippocrates with 
his maximsy as the best commentary on that ancient au-. 
thor. It contains likewise a curious dissertation on the. 
ancient history of the medical science. He ia^ particularly, 
praised by his countrymen for his happy talent in compress-^, 
ing much valuable matter in a small compass, and thus af- 
fording a convenient and useful manual to students. * 

AUD£B£RT (Germain), president in the election, or 
court of assessors of Oileans, was a learned lawyer, and. 
esteemed an excellent Latin poet in the sixteenth century.. 
He studied at Bologna under Alciat, and on his return to 
France^ wrote the greater part of his poems. The elogium: 
on Venice induced that republic to bestpw.upon him the 

Jrder of St. Mark, with the .chain of gold of the order, 
tenry III. of France also granted him letters of nobility^' 
and permitted • him to add to bis arois two fleur-de-lis of 
|roId. Notwithstanding these honours, he continued to 
act as assessor at Orleans for the space of fifty years. He 
die<i Dec. 24, 1598, aged about eighty years. He wrote 
'\Boma, poema^" Paris, 1555,.4t9. , 2, " Venetia, poema, 
Venice, 1583, 4to. 3. ** Part^nope," Paris, 1585. These 
^ee were published together at. Hanau, according to 
Bayle; or Hanover, according to Moreri, in 1603. .He 
wrote other poems which would have probably been pub-' 
fished by his ^on, had he lived longer.; but he died &ve 
days after. his father. ' 

[, AUDIFFREDI (John B^tist), ^n able astronomer and 
mat^einatician, was bom at JS^J^gio, near Nice^ in .Fro* 
^Bcey in .17 14.. At the age jof sixteeen . he , entered the 
<n;4er of St. Dominic, and ipade r^kd .progress in. his stu-^ 
Sags, not Qn]y in tiacred Ut«rature$ but in matbema^csj 
i^d^tbe languages. Ia hi^ thir^-fiftb year he^waa.ap* 

I Dy^mtU t i^i^ . : ,. 9 Qen. Diet,— Moreri. 

i44 A U D I F P R fe D I. 

pointed second librarian bf the Casanata, and t^n jretn 
afterwards first librarian, which office he held until his 
death. His studies were extended to mathematics, astro- 
•nomy, antiquities, natural history, criticism, and biblio- 
graphy ; but astronomy was his favourite pursuit, on which 
he published many pieces. He was appointed by the late 
jK>pe Pius VI. to make mineralogical observations on thff 
new mines of Tolfa. He died Jaly 3, 1794. Hi9 pub^ 
lished works are, 1. ^* Mercurius in sole visus, observatio 
babita Ronm, &c.*' Rome, 1753, 4to. 2. " Phenomena 
ecriestia observata," Rome, 1754, 8yo. 3. ^' Otia astro* 
nomica,*' Rome, J755, 4to. 4. "Novissimus Mercurii 
transhus," Rome^ 1756, 8ro. 5. " Passaggia di Venere, 
&c.*' 4to, without place or date, but most probably 1761.. 
6. " Transitus Veneris, &c." 1762. This appears to b© 
either-the same work as the preceding, or a Latin transla- 
tion. 7. ** Investigatio Parallaxis Solaris, &e.'* Rome,^ 
1765, 8vo, published under the anagrammatical nam^ of 
Dadeus Ruffus. 8. << De SoHs Parailaxi comtneptarius,^^ 
Rome, 1766, Svo. 9. " Dimostrazione della theoria, &c.'* 
of the Comet of the year 1769, published in a literary 
journal at Rome, 1770. 10. " Letere typografiche," un-« 
der the name of the abb€ Nicolas Ugolini de Foligno, ad<^ 
dressed to Xavier Laire, author of the historical essay ou 
the Roman typography of the 15th century, Mentz, 1778,^ 
8vo, a satirical attack on father Laire. 11. ''Catalogue 
historico-criticus Romanarum editionum ss&culi 15,^* Rome^ 
1783, 4to. 12. '* Catalogns librorum typis impressoranif 
bibliothecae Casanatensis, prsBstantioribus notis et obser-' 
vationibus illustratus," 4 vols. fol. 1762,1768, 1775, 1788,^ 
13. '^ Specimen historico-criticum edltionum Italicafuiii 
aeeculi 15,'* Rome, 1794, 4to. In some of the foi^gn 
iournals, are other essays by him on astronomical subjects. \ 
AUDIFFRET (John Baptist), a French geographer^ 
was a native of Draguignan in Provepce, or according to* 
other accounts, of Marseilles, and flourished about the 
beginning of the 18th century. In 1698, he was appointed 
envoy extraordinary to the courts of Mantua, Parma, imd 
Modena. His work entitled <^ Geographie Ancienne, Mo-, 
derne, & Historique,'' Paris, S vols. 4to, 1689, 1691, and 
3 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1694, has been much esteemed^ as[. 
luitting verjr skilfully details of history with geognipfa::^^ It. 

» Diet Hist' .. • . * 

AVDtFPlltiT* t«r 

•onpidiieiiiia bbwev^r only a p4rt of Eqi^p^u l>9t A^ 49 
well executedly that it b to be regretted be 4i4 m>% f^mk 
k: He died et Nancy, 17S9» ag^ 76. V 

AUDIGUIER {YiTAh Ds), « French nobl^miQi iv# 
bem at Ctermont 10 15^S, Hia li(fe wa9 a continued ieriei > 
of miflfisrtunes and eicapeB, He waa one ef the king's ma* 
gbtiatet in 1590, when be wat attacked and dangereiis]]^ 
vM&ded by efoven of tboae men who were endeavouring 
to raise the eeuaitry i^aiast Henry IV* • and in favour of 
the le^pnew He bad scarcely . fe<^veredf . wben^ in eeni# 
paoy with his father^ be was a^abi attacked and wounded 
by ^e same men. He determined new to quit GMtk^imf^ 
and pass into Hangsgry ; but his servant with wbett he set 
out mbbed him «ad left him destitttle; with some difficulty^ 
however, be reaebed Paris, where he feand firiends ; was- 
introduced to court, plunged into all aaamer of pleaanre% 
end fergot his former lowes and bis former ve^otationsb 
But here be fell sick, and bad aoarcdy pacpvered, when 
be wounded a false friend in a; duel, and was obliged to 
make his escape. He wandered for a considereble time 
horn pbee to place, spent much money, contm^ted debts, 
became poor, and lost his friends* Again he gurmounted 
his difficulties, when for some crime be waa thrown into 
prison ; he vindicated his inoocenoe, plunged agajn into a 
set of adventnrous troubles, and at last was asaajisinated in 
16S0. He was a volnminous writer both in verso and 
prose, published Romances and books of Devotion ; trans^ 
iated CervaiitesVnovels, and a work entitled '^ Usage dos 
Duels,^ 1617, 8to. His w<Hrka shew some marks of ge«* 
nins, but partook too much of the irieguUriiiea of their 
author to enjoy long reputation* ^ 

AUDLEY (EoMiiifD), an English paelate, waa the sonn 
of JFauses, lord :4«dley, by El^or his wife, but in wbalt 
year be was born does not appear. He was educated in 
iincdn cidlege in Oxford, and in the yeer l^&% took the 
degree of bachelor of arts in tbnt uaiveraity, and il ia 
presnmed, that oi «iasfeer of arts also, but the register* at 
that period is impetfea. In 149 1 » be becmne prebendary 
of Fareoden in tJse cbareb of {i^coln,.Md in Oetobei^ 
1475, attained the like prefersaent in «^e ebareh of WeUib 
On Chriitmaa day the same yeai^ he became archdei^reii 
of the £Mit riding of Yiatlitk$im^ and bed otb^ cM«ideir« 

% Diet* HIH.— Honrk ^ 0eiu Diet.^XQreri. 

Vol. ni. t 

L . 

A U D L E Y. 

Me preferments, which he quitted, on his being prcM 

inoted to the bishopric of Rochester, in 1480. In 1492^ 

he was translated to Hereford, a,nd thence in ' 1 502, to ' 

%alisbury^ and about that tim'e wa^ made cfhancellor of the 

toost noble order of the Garter. He Was a man of learning/ 

and of a generous spirit. In 1518, he gave four hundred 

founds t6 Lincoln college to purchase lands, and bestowed 

upon the same house the patronage of a chantry, which he 

had founded in the cathedral church of.. Salisbury. H6 

ifTas ia benefactor likewise to St Mary's church in Oxford; 

and contributed towards erecting the curibiis stone pulfut 

Ihei^. Bishop Godwin likewise tells us, that he gave 

the organs ; but Anthony Wockl s^ys, that does not ftp* 

. pear. He gave, however, 200/. to Chichele^s chest, which 

had been robbed; a very considerable ben^ction at that 

lime« He died Aug. 23, 1524, at Ramsbury iii the couilty 

of Wilts, tod Was buried in a chapel which he erected to 

the honour of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary^ in the 

tathedral of Salisbury, being then, doubtless, a very old 

man, as he bad sat forty-four y^rs a bishop. *■ 

AUDLEY, or AWDELY (Thomas), descended of an 
hncient and honourable family, of the county of Essex, 
Was born in 1488. He was by nature endowed with great 
ttbilities, from his ancestors inherited an ample fortune; 
Imd was happy in a regular education, but whether at 
Oxford or Cambridge' is not certain. At what time be was 
entered of the Inner-Temple, "does not appear, but iii 
1526 he wa^ autumn teader of that house, and is thought 
to have read on the statute of privileges, which he handled 
With so much learning and eloquence, as to acquire great 
reputation. This, with the duke of Suffolk's recommend 
llaiion, to whom h^ was chancellor, brought him to the 
knowledge of his sovereign, 'who at that iinnte wanted men 
^f learning and sotne pliability ; he was, accordingly, by 
the king's influence, chosen • speaker of that parliament, 
vwbich sat first on the third of November, 152i9, and is by 
4iome styted the Black Parliament, and by others, on ac- 
\;ount of its' duration, the<iLong Parliament. Great com^^ 
plaints Yrete made in the house of commons .against the 
clergy, knd the proceedings in' ecclesiastical courts, and 
Several bills were ordered to be. brought in, which alarmed 
Home of' the prelates. Fisher, -bishop of-Rochesteiti iti'' 

A U D fc E Y. , i47 

i^eigted boldly ^gkiofst fbesi! transactioosf in the house of 
lords, witbr ^bieh the house of commons were so much 
oiFen<ledj tbiit they thought proper to conplain of it, bv 
&eir speaker, to the king^ and Fish^ bad some difficult 
III excusing himself. The best historians agree^ that great 
care was taken by the king^ or. at least by his ministry^ to 
have such persons chosen into this house of commons as 
would prooeed therein readily aiid effectualiy, and with 
this Tiew Audley was choseii to supply the place of sir 
Thomas More, now speaker of the londs' bouse, and chan<f 
cellor of England. The new hoiise and its speaker justified 
his majesty's expectations, by the whole tenor of their- be- 
haviour, but especially by the passing of a law, not now 
found among our statutes. The king, having borrowed 
very large sums of money of particular subjects, and en- 
tered into obligations for the repayment of the said sums^ 
the house brought in, and parsed a bill, in the preamble of 
which they declared, that inasmuch as those sums had b^eii 
Applied by his majesty to public uses, therefoi*e they can- 
celled and discharged the said obligations, &c. and the 
king, finding the convenience of such a parliamefnt, it sat 
agaiii in -the month of January, 1530*1.- In this, sessiod 
also many extraordinary things were done; amongst the 
rest,' there was a law introduced in the house of lords, by 
which the clergy were exempted from the penalties they 
had incurred, by submitting to the legatine power of 
Wolsey. On this occasrioii the oommons moved a clause' ii4 
favour of the laity, many of themselves having also in- 
curred the pORalties of the statute. But the king insisted 
that acts of grace ought to flow spontaneously, and that this 
Was not the method of obtaining what they wanted; audih6 
house, notwithstanding the intercession of its speaker, and 
several, of iits meflsbers, who were the king's servants^ was 
obliged td pass the bill without the clause, and immediately 
the king granted them likewise a pardon; which reconciled 
all pjArties. In the recess; the king thought it necessary 
to have a leiter written to the pope by the lords and com- ^, 
mons, , or rather by the three estates in parliament, which 
letter ^as drawn up and signed by cardinal Wolsey, the ' 
archbishop of Canterbury, four bishops^- two -dukes, two 
marquissesi; .thiiteen- earls, two viscounts, twenty-three 
bifaron^, twenty-two abbots, and eleven members of the 
house ,of cctmmons; The purport of this letter, dated 
July J3j above three weeks after the parliament rose, was 


I4« A U D* L E Yi 

to engage tbe pope to gmnt the king's dei^re in the dirorce. 
btiBHiess^ for the sake of preventing a civil war^ on^ac<^ 
eount of the succedsiony and to threaten him jf he did not, 
to mke settle other way. To gratify the speaker for th^ 
»teat pa^fis he bad already taken, and to eneourage him to 
proceed in the same way, the king made him this year 
attorney tot the dudiy of Lancaster, advancied him in 
Michaelmas term to the state and degree of a seijeant at 
}aw, and on the 1 4th of November following, to that of 
his own Serjeant.' In January, 1531-2, tbe parliament had 
its third session, whereih the grievances occasioned by the 
excessive power of the ecclesiastics and their courts, were 
reglilariy digested into a book, which was presented by 
the speaker, Audley, to the king. The king^s answer was^ 
He would take advice, bear the parties accused speak, and 
then proceed to reformation. In thb session, a bill wa^ 
brought into die house of lords, for the better securing the 
tights of bis majesty, and other persotis interested in the 
care of wards, which rights, it was alleged, were injured 
by fraudulent wills and contracts. This bill, when it came 
into the house of commons, was violently opposed, and the 
thembers expresses a desire of being dissolved, which the 
kin^ would not permit: but after they had done some 
business, they had a recess to the moftth of April. When 
they next met, the king sent for the speaker, and delivered 
to bim' the answer which bad been made to the roll of 
grievances, presifnted at their last sitting, which afforded 
very little satisfaction, and they seemed now less subser« 
vierit. Towards the close of th# month, one Mr. Themse 
. mo^ed. That tbe house would intercede with the king, to 
take back bis queeit again. The kin^, extremely alarmed 
at this, on the BOth of April, 1 5S2, sent for the speaker, to 
whom he repeated the plea of cotiscienee, which had iti« 
dut^ed him to repudiate the queen, and urged that the 
opinion of the learned doctors, &e. was oft his side. OtI 
the I ith of May the king sent for the speaker again, und 
told himi that hie had found that the clergy of his realm 
^,^re'^ b4it half Uis subjects, or scarcely ^o much, every 
bisbop and abbot at the entering into i^is <ygnky, taking^ 
an ^>ath to the pope, . derogatory to that of their fidelity 
to the king, vfhAch contradiction he desired bis parlift'^ 
nn^t to take aw^. Upon this motion of the kitig*S| thft 
two oaths he mentioned were read in the hoiisfc of eom^ 
l^ons, and they would probably have complied^ if the plague 

A U D L E Y* 14* 

\mA not put an end to the senion abruptly, an the Mtk 
of May ; and two daya aftert air Thomas More, knt. tbeq^ 
lord cbancaHor of England, went suddenly, without ac* 
quainting auy body with his intention, to court, his ina« 
jesty being then at York Place, and surrendered up the 
seals to the king. The king going, out of town to JEast>« 
Greenwich, carried the seals with him, and on Monday, 
May 20, delivered them lo Thonms Audley, esq. with the^ 
title of lord keeper, and at the same time conferred on him 
the honour of knighthood* September 6, sir Thomas de- 
livered the old seal, which was mw^h worn, and received a 
new one in its ftead, yet with no bi^ier title : but on 
January 26, 1533, he again delivered the jeal to the king, 
who k^t it a quarter of an hour, and then returned it with 
tb^ title of lord chancellor. A little after, the king 
granted to him the site of the priory of Chiist Churchy 
Aldgate, together with all the church plate, and lands be« 
longing tp that house. When chancellor he complied with 
the king's pleasure as effectually as when speaker of the 
house of .commons. For in July 1535, he sat in judgment 
ojx sir Thomas More, his' predecessor, (as he had before on 
b^hop Fisher,) who was now indicted of high-treason ; upon 
urhich indictment the jury found him guilty,, and the lord 
chancellor, Audley, pronounced judgment of death upoA 
him.. This done, we are told, that sir Thomas More satd^ 
that he had £br seven years bent bis mind and study upon 
this cause, bolt as yet be found it no where writ by any 
approved doctor of the chureb, that a layman could he 
bmi of the eoclesiastical state. To this Audley returned, 
** Sir^ will yon be reefcoaed wiser, or of # better conscience^ 
4faaa ail the bidx^s, the nobility, and the wh<de kingf 
dom V' Sir Thomas rejoined, ^ My lord chancellor, for 
«ne bishop that yau have of your opinion, I have a hundred 
of mine, and ihat among those that have been saints ; and 
for your one councU, which, what it is, God kkiows, I have 
on my side all the general coonoils for a thousand years 
|iast$ and ^^ one kingdom, I have France and ail the 
4^ar Jdngdoms of the Christian worid.** As our cbaucellor 
was very \actaire in the business of the divorce, he was tio 
less so ill the business of abbies,. ^nd bad particulaily a 
hrge hand in the dissolution ci such reUgieus houses as 
l)ad not (Nfo hnodred pounds by the year. This was in the 
tweiMj^^eventb of Henry VIII, and the bill being delayed* 
hi^m lhe:h0««e of <»NnmQP% Jhia majesty seiit for iba 

150 A U n L E Y. 

members of that hous^ to attend him in his gallery, where 
be passed through them with a stern countenance, without 
speaking a word : the members not having received the 
king's command to depart to their house, durst not return 
till they knew the king's pleasure ; so they stood waiting iit 
the gallery. In the mean time the king went a bmitingp 
|tnd his ministers, who seem to have had better manners 
than their master, .went to confer with the members ; to 
some they spoke of the king's steadiness and severity ; to 
others, of his 'magnificence and generosity. At last the 
king came back, and passing ' through them again, said, 
with an air of fierceiiess peculiar to himself. That if bis 
bill did not pass, it should cost many of them their heads. 
Between the ministers* persuasions and the king's threats, 
the matter was brought to an issue : the king's bill, as be 
palled it, passed ; and by it^ he had not only the lands of 
the small n^onasteries given him, but also their jewels, plate, 
and rich moveables. This being accomplished, methods 
were used to prevail with the abbots of larger foundations 
to surrender. To this end, the chancellor sent a specia) 
^gent to treat with the abbot of Athelny, to offer him an 
hundred marks per annum pension ; which he refused, in-* 
sisting on a greater sum. The chancellor was more sue* 
ces^ful with the abbot of St. Osithes in Essex, with whom 
lie dealt personalty; and, as he expresses it in a letter to 
Cromwell, the visitor-geaeralj by great solicitation pre-* 
vailed with him; but then he insinuates, that his place of 
lord chancellor being very chargeable, he 'desired the kin^ 
inight be moved for addition of some m(Mre profitable oiBces 
unto him. In suing for, the great abbey of Walden, in the 
same county, which he obtained, besides extenuatiivg its 
worth, he alleged ' mydei bis hand, that he had in this 
9vorld sustained great damage and in&my in serving the 
kintg^ which the grant of that should veeompense. But tf 
the year lS9t6 was agreelibie to bim in* one respect, it was 
far from being so in another; since, notwithstanding the 
j)blig^ions he was nnder to queen Anne Bullen^ he wa^ 
obliged, by the king^s command, to be present at her ap* 
prehension and commitment to the Tower« He sat after^ 
wards with Cranmer archbishop of Canterburyi when he 
gave sentence of divorce on the pre-oon tract between the 
queen and the lord Piercy ; and on the 1 5th of May, in the 
«ame year, he sat in judgment on the said queen, notwidi^ 
standiog we are told b^ Upyd, that with -great addfea» b^ 

A U D L E Yv Ml 

avoided it. The lengths he liadl gone in serving th^ l^ingj^^ 
and his known dislike to pop^y> induced the northerly 
rebels in the same year, to . name him as one of the evil 
counsellors,, whom they desired to see removed from abou^. 
t^e king's person ; which charge, however, his majesty^^' 
as far as in him l^y, wiped off, by his well- penned answer 
to the complaint^ of those rebels, wherein an excellent 
character isgiv^n of the chancellor. When the authors of 
this rebellion came to b^ tried, the chancellor declined 
sitting as lord high steward, vvbicl| high office was executed[ 
by the marquis of Exeter, ^n whom shortly after, viz. io^ 
1538, Audley sat &^ highrsteward, and condemned him^ 
his brother, and si^veral other perspns, to sniffer death aa 
traitors. In the latter end of tbe same year, viz, on ther 
29th of Noveml^r, 30 Hen.yiII. the chancellor was created* 
a baron, by the style of lord Audley pf Walden in th^ 
founty of Ess^, ^d was likewise installed knight; of the 
garter. In the session of parliament in 1539, there .^ere 
Hiany severe aQts.made,^ and the p^erogauve carried to ai) 
^ces^ve height, particularly by ^be six bloody articlesj 
^nd the giving the king^s prpclamation thf forceof a law. 
It does not very clearly appear who were, the king^s prin<^ 
(;ipal co^ns^llprs in t^e^e matters i but it is admitted by 
tJ2e besi^ historians, that the rigorous f xecutioi> of these 
j[aws, ^hich the king first designed, was prevented by the 
interpos^ion qf the lord Audley, in conjunQtiqn with Crom^i 
Keli, who wafs |hen prinae minister, ,^ud the duke pf Sufipolk, 
|he kiiifg'^; favourite tbro^gho^t bis whple reign. . In the 
beginning pf 1540, the cou^t was excessively embarrassed^ 
What share Audley had in the fall qf Cromwell afterwards 
is not clear, but immediately aft^r a. new question was 
furred k^ parl^aqti^iit, viz. How far the ki^g'^ marriage with 
Anne of CleK^es, was l<»wfu|[? This wa^ referred to the 
ju<%mentrOf ^ i^iritual cpuii't ; and there are yet. extant the 
deposition^ of Jhomas \qx^ Avidley^r lard chaq^eUor^ Tho- 
xpas, archbishop of Cant^rhijry, Jhomas, (^ukf^ of Norfolk 
Cb^rl^s^ d|ik^ of Suffolk, and Cuthbert, lord bisbop c^ 
|}urhai|i» .vhejrein th^y jointly swear, that the Pftjjers pro^^ 
.di^c^d ta prove, the retraction of the lady A^^^'s contract 
with the duke of Lqrraip, ^ere incon<ciusive and unsatis^ 
factory. Qth^r lords and ladies deposed to other point% 
aiKl the issue of the business was, that the marriage waii 
de^l^red Yoi4, by tiiis court, which sentence ivas supported 
by an.^ a«t of parUament| affirming the same thing, and 

1«» A U D t E Y. 

eMbl^Ag^ Tbut H shMld W lilj^^rdAttmi to judge or ti^^ 
lleve othefwii»e* This^ obstt^l^ removed, the king married'. 
tile lady Ctthttittt Howard, niece to the duke of NorMk, 
and eotiditi-gei'mati to Aiine Bulleh. Nothh^g is clearee* 
from history^ tlian that the chancellor Was closely attached' 
to the houii»e of Norfolk ; and yet in the latter end of the 
^ear } 541 /he was constrained to be an instrument b% the 
YHin of th^ unfortunate queen ; ilkfOrmation of; her bad life, 
before her marriage, being laid finst before the archbishops 
of Catiterbury^ and by him communicated to the chan**' 
eellor. 'The king then appointed tord Audley one of th« 
commissiotien to eMmine her, which tiiey did, and thete 
H yet extant a letter subscribed by him and the other 
Iteds, containing an €xaet detail of this affiar, and of the 
evidettte oft which, in the next session of parliament, the 
^ueeii aod others were attainted. The whole of this liir« 
Mviess was managed in parliament by the chancellor, and 
there la reason to believe, that be had some batid m anotlve^ 
buddess transacted in that session ; which was the openin|( 
ft door for the dissolution of hospitals, Peking having ttovf 
wasted all that bad laccrued tohim by the adppression <^ 
|J>bies. Borne other things of the like kiature were the 
last testhmnies of the chancellors conrcem for Us tnasteifi 
toteresft ; but ne^t year a mcfre remarkable case occurred; 
In the S4th of Hefiry VIII. George Ferrers, esq. tfurgesc 
for Plymouth, w^s arrested, and carried to the compter^ 
by virtue of a writ from the court of kfeg'a beneh. Tbe 
liouse, on notice thereof, ^sent their setjeant to demand 
dieir member ; in doing wliich, a fray eiii^^ at the comp^ 
ter, fats tnace was Woke, his servant knocked down, and 
himself obliged to make his escape as well hs he ttMliL 
The bmrntef, iipoti notice of this, resolved tl^ey would trit 
jeo longer without their tnember, and desired a cotifereftee 
"With tbelordlB; where, after hearing the twitter, thelotd 
dmftcellor Audley dedjired tfaeeoft tempt was toost flagrant; 
)ind referred the punishment ther^ to die heii$e of cmn^ 
mon^; whereupon Thomas Moyle, esq. who w|is tbeA 
irpeaker, issued l^is warrant, and die sheriff of i^ondoii^, 
i^ud aeveral other persons, we^e brought to the bar of thi 
bouse, aud committed, some to the Tower, imd sqme vb 
Ner^rgate. Tl^is precedent was gained by the l^ing^s wntnlt 
^f all aid, who at that tim<^ escpected die commpiis wou^ 
foflbr him a isubsidy ; the ministry, and the house of W«d^ 
the kitig*3 will^ ga*^ d^ cmiimona the com^ 

A U D L E y. 1S$ 

flieni of punishing those who had imprisoned one of their 

flDemben. Dyer, mentioning this case, says, ^^ The sages 

of the law held the commitment of Ferrers l^al, and 

ihottgh the pririlege was allowed him, yet was it held ua-» 

just** As the chancellor bad led a Very active life, he 

iprew how infirm, though he was not much above fifty years 

old, and tl^refore began to think of settling his family and 

afii^. But, previous to this, he obtained from the king a 

licence to change the name of Buckingham college in 

Cambridge, into that of Magdalen, or Maudlin some wiUl 

have it, because in the latter word his own name is in* 

cittded. To this college he was a great bene&ctor, be*» 

atowed on it his. own arms, and is generally reputed ita 

fiKinderj or restorer. His capital seat was at Chrtst*Chrirt. 

in town, and atWalden in Essex; and to preserve some 

renieQri>rance of himself and fortunes, he caused a naag* 

Qificent tomb to be erected in his new chapel at Walden* 

About the beginning of April, 1 544, he was attacked bjr 

hit last illness, which induced htm to resign the seak : but 

he was too weak to do it in person, and dierefore sent them 

to the Mngy who <folivered them to sir Thomas Wriothesley^ 

i|rith tne title of keeper, dnring^ the indisposition of the 

«haneeUor; a circumstance not remarked by any of our 

faistortans. On the 19tli of April, lord Audley made fai» 

will» and, amongst other things, directed that his executois 

should, upon the next New-year* s day after bis decease* 

deliver to the king a legacy of one hundred pounds, from 

Irhbm, aib he expresses it, <^^ he had received all his repa« 

tations and bene^ts.'^ He died on the last of April, 1541^ 

Irhen he had held ^e seats upwards of twelve years, am| 

in the fi^y-sixth of his life, as appears by the inscriptioii 

on hi$ tomb. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 

Grey, marquis of Dorset, by whom he had two daughterSf 

Margaret and Mary; Mary died unmarried, and Margaret 

1)ecame his sole heir. 8be married first lord Henry Dudley, 

p younger fon of John duke of ^forthumberlalld, and he 

]being slain at the battle of St. Quintin*s, in Ptcardy, in 

15^7, she married a second time, Thomas duke of Norr 

fdlk^ to irhom she was afeo aisecond wife, and had by him 

a^ son Thomas^ who, by act of parliament, in the] 27th of 

EBtabeth, was restored in bloodf and in the 39th of tb^ 

tteie veign^ vummoned to parliament by his grandfather*a 

|itle> as baroa of Walden. In the 1st of James I. he was 

^r^^fd earl of Sufiblk^ and being afterwards lord high- 


»54 A U p I. E Y. 

treasurer of England, be built oa the rains of tbe^ abbey 43^ 
Walden, that once noble palace, which, ia honour of our 
chancellor, he called Audley- End. ..* 

Ill the Parliamentary, History, there are the heads of sci^ 
veral speechec^ delivered by sir Thomas Audley Qu different 
occasions, chiefly as lord chancellor. But theycont^ia 
ijiothing in them peculiarly renparkable ; being either mere 
explanations of the business for jwjiich the two hoiise^ ^^^ 
-assembled, or fslse eboufiding with the praises . of king 
Henry VUI. In an age of th^ meanest complianceii with 
the will of the prin^^ lord Audley undoubtedly equalled^ 
if Jpie did not exceed^ all hi^ contemporaries in servility. 

The case of George Ferrers is a very remarkable jone iii 
tb^ history of parliamentary privilege, and has been greatljf 
agitated in the warm debates which have been carried on 
.upon tbat subject, during the preseut reigJi. An account 
of it may be seen in many writers, and more recently in a 
publication of M,r. HatselPs, . chief clerk of the bouse of 
comnions. Mr* Hatsell is of ^piniouj from the many new 
and extraordinary circumstances attending the cas^ of 
Ferrers, that the measures which were adopted, and the 
doctrine which was novy first laid down with .respect to t^p 
extent of the privileges of the house 9f cpmmons^ was 
more owing to Ferrers's being a servant of the king, than 
that he was a member of the bouse of commons, ^ 

AUDOUL (Gaspard),^ a native of Province, went to 
Paris in his youth, there studied law, and became a mem* 
ber of the counsel of the house of Orleans. In 1708 h^ 
published a work entitled ^^ Trait6 de l^origioe de la Re^l^ 
et des causes de son etablissement,*' 4to, in eight book% 
in which he bad introduce^ a dissertation on tbe authei^* 
ticity of canon 22 distinct. 63 of the first part of the catio^ 
law, which had been rejected by Baronius and Bellaraxiix^ 
and some other able writers, even in France, The cons^ 
quence was, that his work was condemned in a brief of 
pope Clement XI. in 1710, and .this censure was repeale4 
a few months after by a sentence of the parliament of Pari§. 
These circumstances contributed not a little to the reputa-* 
tion of the author, who is. said to have died the. year foV* 
lowing. ^ 

AUDRA (Joseph), a French philosopher, was born at 
Lyons in 1714,. was brought up to the church) ^dJ>eoam.e 

1 Biographia Britannict.— Uoyd'g State MTortkies, Am. * Morei^K— Diet. His^ 

A U D'R A. IS$ 

9 professor of phiFosophy in bis native country. In con-* 
junction witb the intendant Michaudiere, be drew up a 
state of the population of the district of Lyons^ which was 
pnbii^hed under the name of Mezence, who was secretary 
to the intendant In 1769, the abb6 Audra was appointed 
professor of history in the college of Toulouse, and, we 
are told, filled that chair with distinction. It was here h« 
wrote die first volume of fais ^^ General History," which 
proved the cause of his death. The archbishop of Toulouse 
issued a mandate in which he condemned the work as being 
feplete with dangerous principles; and the author's mor* 
tification on hearing of this affected his brain to such 9, 
degree, as to carry him off in twenty* four hours. Sept* 
17, 1770. Voltaire and D'Alembert praise this history, as 
likely to give offence only to bigots and fanatics, from 
which we may safely infer that the archbisbop-S opinion of 
it was not ill founded. ^ 

AUDRANS, a very celebrated family of artists, of whom 
we shall give some account in the order of chronology. « 

AUDRAN (Claude),' the first of this family who is 
mentioned as an artist, was born in 1592, and died in 1677; 
He was the son of Louis Audran, an officer bdonging to 
the wolf-hunters, in the reign of Henry IV. of France, 
Claude appears to have become an engraver rather late in 
life, and his prints, which ai% but few, are not held in 
much estimation. Yet, though he acquired no great re- 
putation ' by im own works, it was no sa»ll honour to be 
father to three great artists, Germain, Claude, and Gerard^ 
the last' of whom has immcHtalieed the name of the family. 
' AUDRAN (Carl, or Karl), is generally believed to 
have, heen^ brother of the preceding Claude, but otben 
have asserted that he was cousin-german to him only. It 
is, however^ universally, screed that he was born at Paris 
in 1594. In his infancy he discovered much taste, and 
an apt disposition for the arts; and, to perfect himself 
in engraving, of whic^ he appears to have been chiefly 
fond, he went toRome^ where he produced several prints 
that did him great honour. What master be studied under 
at Rome cannot easily be determined. The style he adopted 
is very like that of Cornelius Bloemart, but still neater : 
Mr. Strutt thinks that the prints of Lucas Kilian and of the 
Sadelers may have lai4 the first foundation on which he 

* Diet. UijiU 

156 A U D R A N. . 

built. On his return to his ovirn country, he settled at 
Paris, where he died in 1674, without having ever been 
married* The abb6 Maroiles, who always speaks of this 
artist with great praise, attributes one hundred and thirty 
prints to him ; amongst which, the '^ Annunciation,^' Aronoi 
Annibale Caracci, and the '^ Assumption," from Domeoi^ 
chiho, are the most esteemed. 

AUDRAN (Germain), was the eldest son of Claude, 
and was born in 1631, ^x, Lyons, where his parents then 
resided* Not content with the instructions of his lather, 
be went to Paris^ 4ind perfected himself under his uncle 
Carl; and upon his return to Lyons, published several 
prints which did great honour to his graver* His merit was 
in Buch estimation^ that he was made a member of the 
academy established in that town, and chosen a professor. 
He died at Lyons, in 1710, and left behind him four sons^ 
all artists, namely, Claude, Benoist, John, and Louis. 

AUDRAN (Claude), the second of this name, and se- 
cond son to Claude, the founder of the family, was born at 
Lyons in 1639, and went to Rome to study paintings where* 
be succeieded so well^ that, at his returuy he was enq)loye4 
by Le Brun, to assist him in the battles of Alexaadett* 
which he was then painting for the king of France* fist 
was received into the royal academy in the year .1675^ anfi] 
died unmarried at Paris in 1684.. His virtues, saya ab]i>4! 
Fontenai, were as praiseworthy as his talents were gr^t»: 
M, Heineken mentions him as an eQgvaver, but withpHtt, 
specifying any of his prints. -...'. 

AUDRAN (GisARD or Grrard), the most ^lehratpd 
artist of the &mily, was the third son of the first-mentioned 
Claude Audran, and bom at Lyons in 1640. He le^m^ 
from his father the first principles of desigaii^ and ea*^ 
graving; following the example of his brotber, he wenttto; 
Paris, where bis genioB soon began to manifest itself : and 
Ikis reputation brought him to the knowledge of Le ^run^ 
who employed him to engrave the ^' Battle of Constan- 
tine,'' and the ^ Triumph'* of that emperor, and for these- 
works he obtained apartments at the Gobelins. At Rome,, 
where he went for improvement, he is said to have studied 
under Carlo Maratti, in oinder to petlect himself in diuwi^. 
ing: and in that city, where he resided three years^ be. 
engcaved several fine plates ; among the rest the |K>rt«si^ 
of pope Clement IX. M. Colbert, a great encourager of. 
the arts, >vas so struck with the beauty of Audran^^ vorks^ 

~ A U D K A N. 157 

whibthe resided at Rome, that he persiiaded Louis XI V< 
to recall him, Oa his return, he applied himself assi-» 
duously to engraviagi and was appointed engraver to the 
king, from whom he received liberal encouragement. In 
168 1^ he was named counsellor of the royal academy : and 
died at Paris in 1 703. He had been married, but left no 
male issue behind him. 

Mr. Strutt considers Gerard Audran as the greatest eiu 
graver, without any exception, that ever existed in the 
historical line, an opinion, which, he thinks, a careful 
examination of ^* The Battles of Alexander*' alotte, will 
justify. His great excellency, above tliat of any other 
engraver, was, that though he drew admirably himself, 
yet he contracted no manner of his own ; but transcribed 
on copper simply, with great truth and spirit, the style of 
the master, whose pictures he copied* On viewing his 
prints, we lose sight of the engraver, and naturally say, it 
is Le Brun, it is Poussin, &c. <<This sublime artist,'* 
says the Abbe Fontenai, borrowing chiefly from M. Basaa, 
'' far from conceiving that a servile arrangement of strokes^ 
and the loo frequently cold and affected clearness of the 
graver, were the great essentials of historical engraving, 
gave worth to his works by a bold mixture of free hatch-* 
inga and dots, placed together apparently without ordef^ 
hat with, an inimitable degree of taste ; and has left to pos« 
terity most admirable examples of the style in which 
giaftd craipotitions ought to be treated. His greatest 
works, which have not a very flattering appearance to the 
ignbmnt eye, ire the admiration of true connoisseur]^ and 
penons of reid taste. He acquired the most profound 
knowledge of the art by the constant attention and study 
which be bestowed upon the science of design, and the 
frequent %ue he made of painting from nature. He always 
knew how to peiietrate into the genius of the painter he 
oopied from : and often improve^ upon, and sometimes 
even surpassed him.*^ Mr. Strutt has given a list of hit 
principal engravings, divided into four classes, to which 
we refer the reader. 

AUDRAN (Benoit or Bekoist) was the second son 
of <3ermain Audran, and was bom at Lyons in 1661, where 
he learned the first principles of design and engraving, 
jioder the instruction of his father. But soon aftef going 
to Parts, his uncle Gerard took him under bis tuition, and 
.ficaoit so greatly profited by his instructions, that thot^ 

15i A U D R A !t 

he never equalled tbe stibliiiie style of his tutor, yet he sJc^ 
quired, and deservedly, great reputation. His maimer 
was founded upon the bold, clear style of bis uncle* His 
outlines were firm and determined; bis drawing correct ; 
the heads of his figures are in general very expressive^ and 
the otber extremities well marked. — He was honoured with 
the appellation of the king's engraver, and received tb^ 
Toytl pension. He was made an aotdemician, and ad-- 
ypitted into the council in 1715. He died Unmarried at 
Louzouer, .where he had an estate, in 1721. 

AUDRAN (John), the third son of Germain Audran^ 
was also born at Lyons, in 1667, and after having received 
instructions from his father, went to Paris, to study the 
art of engraving under his uncle Gerard. At tbe age of 
twenty years, the genius of this great artist began to dis- 
play itself in a surprising manner: and his future success 
was such, that iii 1707, he obtained the title of engraver 
to the king, and had a pension allowed him by his ma^ 
jesty, with apartments in the Gobelins ; and tbe following 
year he was made a member of the royal academy. He 
was eighty years of age before be quitted the graver ; and 
near ninety in 1756, when he died at his apartments^ as- 
signed him by the king. He left three sons behind him^ 
one of wbom^ Benoit, was also an engraver, and died id 
1735$ but very inferior to his uncle of the same hamei - 

The most masterly and best prints of John Auckan ar^ 
those, in Mr. Strutt^s opinion, which are not to pleasing 
to the eye at first sight. In these the etching bonstltutes 
a greiit part ^ and he has finished them in a bold, rough 
ktyle. The scientifio b^nd of the master appears in them 
on examination. The drawing of the human figure, where 
it is shewn, is correct. The heads are expressive, and 
finely finished; the other extremities well marked. Jle 
has not, however, equalled his uncle. He wants that har<- 
moiiy in the effect ; his lights are too much and too e<|ualljr 
covered ; and there is not sufficient difference between the 
style in which he has engraved his back gtounds and his 
draperies. This observation refers to a fine print by him^ 
of ^^ Athaliah,'^ and to such as he engraved in that style. 

AUDRAN (Louis), tbe last son of Germain Audran^ 
was born at Lyons in 1670, from whence he went to Parisy 
-after the example of his brothers, to complete his studies 
in the school of his uncle Gerard. He died suddenly at 
P^ris^ in 1712, aged 42, before he had produced any great 

' ACDftAN. U9 

aumbei* ot prints by his own hand ; but, it is presumed, he 
assisted bis brothers in their more extensive works.*- 
Benedict Audran, the son of John, was also an engraver 
of some note, and died in 1772. * 

AVELLANEDA (Alphonsus Fernandes db), a Spa-* 
nifth writer, and a native of Tocdesillas^ is principally 
inown as the author of the ^' Continuation, or second part 
of the history of Don Quixote,** which was published iinder 
the title '< La Segunda Parte del Ingenioso Hidalgo D. 
Quixote de la Mancha,'* 1614, 8vo. This, without be-* 
ing absolutely contemptible, is still very inferior to Cer- 
fantes^s admirable production. It was afterwards trans- 
lated, or rather imitated and new-modelled by Le Sage,- 
and from this edition, aii English translation was published 
ibout fifty or sixty years ago, in 2 vols. 8vo, but from the 
English work no proper judgment can be formed of the 
original. A more recent translation, which we haiire not 
seen, appeared in 1807. - Pope has versified b. tale from it 
in his Essay on Criticism. * 

AVENPACE, a Spaniard by birth, but ranks among 
tbe Arabian writers and philosophers of the twelfth cen- 
tury, wrote a commietitary upon Euclid, and philosophical 
ind theological epistles. He was intimately conversant 
widi the Peripatetic philosophy, and applied it to the 
illustration of the Islamic system of theology, and to the 
explanation of the Koran. ' On this account, he was sus- 
pected of heresy, and thrown into prison at Corduba. He 
is said to have been poisoned at Fez, in the year i 137, or 
according to others, in 1129. His works were translated 
intd Latin, and were well known to Thomas Aquinas, and 
tiie old schoolmen. ' 

AVENTIN (John), author of the Annals of Bavaria, 
Wad born of mean parentage, iii 1466, at Abensperg in the 
eoiintry jbst named. He studied first at Ingolstadt, and 
sfter^ards iii the university of Paris. In 1 503, he privately 
taught eloquence and poetry at Vienna; and in 1507,* 
Jpublicly taught Greek at Cracow in Poland. In 150^, he 
rdad lectures on some of Cicero's pieces at Ingolstadt ; and 
in 1512; was ippbitited to be preceptor to prince Lewis 
and prince Ernest, sons of Albert the Wise, duke of Ba- 
^ voriaU: He also travelled with the latter of those two princes. 

he undertook to write the '^ Annals of Bavaria,^' 

1 Strutt*i Dict.«A>AiIareri.— Diet. Historique. 

• Antonio Bibl. Hisp. — Warton's Essay on P^pc— Gent May. 1907, p. 146. 

' Gen. Dift.«^Brttcker. 

160 A VENT IN, 

being encouraged by the dukes of that namei who settled 
a pension upon him, and g»ve bim hopes that they wouU 
defray the charges of the book. This work^ which gained 
its author great reputatioR, was first pubKsbed in 1$^, by 
Jerome Zieglerus, professor pf poetry in the university o£ 
Ingolstadt; but, as he acknowledges in the preiaee, he 
retrenched the invectives against the clergy, and several 
stories which had no relation to the history of Bavaria^ Th^ 
Protestants, however, after long search, found an uncas-* 
trated manuscript of Aventin's Annals, which was piiiblished 
at Basil in 1580, by Nicholas Cisner* 

In 1 52^, he was forcibly taken out of his sister's bouse 
at Abenspergy and hurried to & gaol ; the true eause of 
which violence was never known : but it would probably 
have been carried to a much greater length, had not the 
duke of Bavaria interposed, and taken this learned man 
into his protection. In his 64th year he made an impni<4 
dent marriage, which disturbed his latter days. He died 
in 1534, aged 68, leaving one daughter, who was then b«l 
two months old. It was supposed, from the inquiries made 
by the Jesuits^ that he was a Lutheran in sentiment ; and 
the adherents to th0 church of Rome make use of this ar-« 
gument to weaken the force of his testimony agauatst tb« 
conduct of the popes, and the vicious lives oi the priests ; 
for the Annals of Aventin have been ofiten quoted by Pro*^ 
testants, to prove the disordert of the Romish church. 

The principal editions of his works are, 1. ^' Anualtum 
libri vii. ad annum usque 1533, cum notis Gnudlingii,^* 
Leipsic. 1710, fol. 2. " Chronica Bavarian,'* Nuremberg^ 
1522, fol. 3. ** Henrici IV. vita, epistol»,'* &c. Aug«-» 
burgh, 1518, 4to. 4. ** Chronicpn, sive Annates Schi^ 
tenses,'' Bipont. 1600, 4to. 5. << Liber de causis mise-i 
Tiarum, cum chronicis Turcicis,'' Loniceri, ISld, 4to. 
6. f' Antiquitates Danicse,'' Hafniae, 1642, 4to. An«* 
Other work is attributed to him by Gesner, relative to tht 
manner of counting on the fingers, under the title ^* Nn* 
merandi per digitos manusque veterum consuetudinesy*' 

AVENZOAIi (4bu Merwan ApnALMAus Ebst Zoar)^ 
an eminent Arajbian physician, floarished about the end 
of the eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth centoryv 
He was of noble deseent, and bom^ Seville, tibe eapttal 

^ Geo. I>ict<-»3taarl««»SasiiOiioaui4icoa»., 

A y E N Z O A:R. Ui 

«f Andalusia, where he exercised h(a profeasioJOL with gveii 
reputatioo. His graodfathet and father were b^th pby^ 
^iciaos. . The large estate be ioherited froin his aoceatom 
rendered it unnecessary for him to practise for gain, atid 
he therefore took no fees from the poor, or from aiti^eertf^ 
though he refused not the presents of .princes and great 
men. His liberality extended ereti to his enemies; for 
which reason he used to say, that they hated l^im not ftir 
any fault of ht^ but ratheor out of envy. JQr. Freind thinks 
that he lived to the age of 13 5, that he begaa to practise 
at 40 ; or, as others say,, ot 20, and had the advantage of 
a longer experience than almost any one ever had, as he 
enjoyed perfect health to his last hour.. He left a son, 
known, also by the name of £bn ^lohr, who followed his 
father^s profession, waa iu great favour with Al-Mansor 
emperor of Morocco, and wn>te several treatises o£ physic. 
> Avenzoar was contemporary with Averrocs, who, accord* 
log to Leo Africaims, beard the lectures of the former, and 
learned physic of him. Avenzoar, however, is reckoned 
by the generality of writers an empiric, although Dr, 
1^'reind observes that this character suits him less than any 
of the Arabians. He wrote a. book on the .'^ Method of 
preparing Medicines,'^ which is much esteemed. . It was 
translated into Hebrew in the year 1280, and thence into 
Latin by Paravicius, and printed at Venice in 1490, foL 
and again in 1553.^ 

. AVERANI (Joseph) was born at Florence the 19th of 
March 1662, the youngest of the three sons of John Fran«- 
cis Areranu Benedict, the eldest, made himself famous 
for his eloquence and the thorough knowledge he had of 
the Greek and Roman classics ; while Nicholas, the other 
brother, so greatly excelled in jurisprudence and all kinds 
of mathematical learning, i|s to be . reckoned among the 
foremost in those studies, y Joseph received the first rudi«> 
menls of learning from his father, after which he was put un« 
'der the. tuition of Vincent Glarea, a Jesuit, who then gave 
public lectures on rhetoric at Florence, with whom he made 
uncommon progress. He was taught Greek by Antonius 
Maria Salvini, and advanced so rapidly in his studies, that^, 
in a short time,, whether he wrote in Italian, or Latin, or 
Greek, he shewed an intimate acquaintance with the an« 
ciieht writers* Young as he wa3, however, he did not con- 

> Qea. Diet/— Frekd'iHiX. of Pbjvic.— Bailer SibL M«4. [ 

Vol. III. " M 

162 A V E R A.^ L 

fine himself to oratorft:al performances alone, but exer^ 
. eised himself in poetry, for which he had much taste. He 
nestt applied to the study of the peripatetic philosophy^ 
taking tor his' guide John Francis Vannius, the Jesuit* 
After pursuing 9» variety of studies, with astonishing suc- 
cess, be at length attached himself to mathematics and 
natural philosophy. When at Pisa he applied to the study 
of the law ; and at bis leisure hours, in the first year of his 
residence there, he translated Archimedes with the com- 
mentaries of Eutocius Ascalonita out of Greek into Latiu^ 
adding many remarks of his own in explanation, and illus* 
tration of those books which treat of the sphere and cylin- 
der, the circles^ the spheroids and conies^ and tiie quad^ 
, rature of the parabola. He shortly after wrote a treatise 
on the Momenta of heavy bodies on inclined planes, in cle^ 
fence of Galileo, against the attacks of John Francis Van- 
nius, but did not ■ publish it. He cleared up many ob- 
scurities in Apollonius Pergaeus. ^ Tliese and other studies 
did not retard the wonderful progress he made in juris** 
prudence, which induced Cosmo IILof Medicis to appoint 
him public teacher of the institutes of civil law in the aca- 
demy of Pisa. It is to be lamented that none of. the ora« 
tions which he -made in this capacity have reached us^ 
except one on the principles of jurisprudence, medicine^ 
and theology. . He published two books of the interpreta- 
tions of the law. The applause with which these were re- 
ceived, induced him to join to them three more books, m 
the composition and arrangement of which he passed many 
years. He made a great variety of discoveries in experi- 
mental philosophy. He applied himself earnestly to as- 
certain the time in which sound is propagated, and, to dis- 
cover whether its velocity ia retarded by contrary and in-* 
creased by fair winds. These and other , experiments he 
made at the request of Laurentio Magoloti, who commu-' 
iiicated them to the royal society of London ; and the so- 
ciety in return .admitted Averoni as an honorary member. 
Upon the death of his brother Benedict, he sought for con- 
solation in composing an elegiac poem in his praise, and 
jn writing his life in Latin. He died on. the 22d of Sep- 
tember 17S8, lamented as one of the ablest aud best of 

His works are, L ^^ De libertate <civitaus Florentis» 
ej usque dominis,'^ Pisa, 1721, 4to. 2. " Esperienze fatte 
coUo 3|)*ecchio'' ustorio di Firenze sopra le gemme^ e le 

A V E R A N L 16$ 

pxette dure/' printed in vol. VT. of the Galleiria di Minerva^ 
and .the same appeared in vol. VIII. of the Italian Literary 
Journal.- 3. '^ Disputatib de jure belli et pacis/' Florence^ 
1703. 4. ^* Prefazione alle Poesie Toscane di Ansaldo 
Ansaldi/' ibid. 1704* 5. ** Vita Benedicti Averianii,'* pre- 
fixed to his works, 3 vols. 1717, fol. 6. " Dissertatio 
de Rapressaliis habita Pisis^ 1713, published in Mig*^ 
liorucci's Institut. Juris Canon. 1732. 7. ** Interpreta** 
tionum Juris libri duo," Leyden, 1716, 8vo, ** Libri Tres 
posteriores'* of the same, ibid. 1746, 8vo. 8. "Oratio 
de juris prudentia, medicina, theologia per sua principia 
addiscendis, Pisis habita,'' Verona, 1723, 8vo, published 
by one of his pupils Bernard Tanucci, Under the fictitious 
name of Draunerus Cibandtus. 9. ** Lezioni sopfala Pas* 
sione di nostro Signor," Urbino, 1738. 10. ** Dissertatio 
de Calculorum seu Latrunculorum ludo," Venice, 1742, 
inyoL VII. of " Miscellanea di vari opuscoli.** 11.** Le- 
zioni Toscane," 3 vols. Florence,, 1^44, 1746, 1761, 4to. 
12. ** Monumenta Latina Posthuma Josephi Averanii Flo- 
rentini," Florence, 1763. He left also in MS. a treatise on 
the sphere, bis defeuce of Galileo, some Latin poems> and 
other woAs.> 

AVERANI (Benedict), elder brother to Joseph, was 
bom at Florence in 1645. His preceptor in rhetoric want 
Vincent Glarea, who soon confessed that his pupil went 
beyond him. He read almost incessantly the best Italian 
and Latin writers. And having at first employed a con- 
siderable time in the perusal of the poets, epecially the 
epic, he afterwards applied hhnself wholly to the reading 
of Cicero, and of the historians. From the works of the 
rhetoricifins he proceeded to those of the philosophers, and 
particularly admired and followed Plato. He bestowed ati 
indefatigable' attention upon those parts in the writings of 
the philosophers^ which in any manner related to elo- 
quence, the attainment of which he sought with incredible 
ardour. Amidst these occupations he sometimes renewed 
his poetical exercises. At his father's request he com- 
posed a Latin poem in praise of St. Thomas Aquinas. This, 
with many others of our author's poems', is lost. Those of 
his poems which- are extant, most of which he composed 
in his youtb» shew that if he had chosen to addict himself 
exclusively to this study, he might have attained a very 

1 Fubroni Vjt» Italonnn^^Tol. VII.— SaxiiOaomatticoD.— Diet. HisU 

M 2 

164 AVE RAN I;. 

high rank. His father afterward* sent him to Pisa to study 
jurisprudence, aad he exercised himself daily tn writing to 
perfect his style. Nor did he write in Latin only ; for he 
translated Sallust, and Celsus, and other Latin authors^ 
into Greek : and some Oreefc elegies of his are extant. 
He was created chief of the academy of Apathisis. On 
the death of the cardinal Leopold of Medicts> he was or-^ 
dered to composje verses in his praise, which were so much 
approved^ that similar tasks were imposed upon him on the 
deaths of o|her. princes. In the year 1^76, the place long 
vacant of teacher of Greek in the Lyceum of Pisa was be** 
stowed upon \kim by the archduke Cosmo IIL After fill* 
ing this office s^jx years, be was advanced to the dignity of 
teacher of humanity. In this he succeeded Gronoviusy 
who, by the rudeness and asperity of his maaoers, had 
given so much offei^ce to the college, thai he was obliged 
to quit the academy inlets than a year after his entering 
on his office in it. Benedict wrote well in Italian, at ap<* 
pears by the Lezioni which be recited in the Tuscan aca^ 
demy, and in the academy of the Apathiats. la his youth 
he cultivated Italian poetry^ and sevecal of his Italian 
pqems are preserved at Rome. He was invited to be pro* 
fessor of han^miiy in the adShdetny of Pavia on tlie death 
of the former professor in 1682,. and the sasie ofler was 
soon after made to him by pope Innocent XI. who was. de«» 
sirousof bringing into the Roman Arcbigymna^soBS soeitii-^ 
nent a ii>an. In l&dS he was induced by ehie solicitations 
of his friends to publish the first book of his Ofatioiuu H« 
died ia 17Q7. T<he dissertations he made in the academy 
at Pisa, a. ppstbumous work, his orations and poems repots* 
lisbed, and his letters then first printed, were all publish^ 
ed together at Florence in 3 vols. 1717, folia ^ 

AV&RDY CClem£KT CfiARi^ES D6 l')^ a French states^^ 
man, was born at Paris in 17^0. He was counsellor ia 
tbe parliament of Paris, and so distki^xdsbed for talent 
fnd probity, that he was appoiisbted minister of states, and 
comptroller of tlie finances, by Lewis XY. in 1763; but 
wa3 unfortunate in his admitiistration, faaving formed some 
ii\judicipus plans respecting grain, which evdbd in increas** 
ing the wantB they were intended to alleviate. He after** 
^ards retired to Gambais, where he emfdoyed hinsself in 
rur^i kn{H*oyements^ uouttt the* fiatal period of the yevoUi-* 

,i Saxii ODomast.— Diict. Hut-^Movcri.-^FalwMi, vol. VUI» 

A V E R D Y. 165 

tion, when he was arrested, brought to Paris, and guillo- 
tined Oct. 1794, on an accusation of having monopolised 
eorn. He had been a member of the academy, and pub<- 
lished, 1. "Code penal," 1752, l2mo. 2. *< be la pleine 
$ouverainet£ du roi sur la province de Bretagne,** 1765, 
8vo. 3. " Memoire sur le proces criminel de Robert d' Ar- 
tois, pair de France,*' inserted in the account of the M8S. 
'Of the national library. 4. " Experiences de Gambais sur 
les hies noirs ou caries," 1788, 8vo. * 

AVERROES, a very celebrated Arabian philosopher, 
and whom Christians as well as Arabians esteemed equal, 
if not superior to Aristotle himself, was born about the 
middle of the 12th centurj^^, of a noble family at Corduba, 
the capital of the Saracen dominions in Spain. He was 
early instructed in the Islamitic law, and, after the usual 
tnanner of the Arabian schools, united with the study of 
Mahometan theology that of the Aristotelian philosophy. 
These studies he pursued under Thophail, and became a 
follower of the sect of the Asharites. Under Av^nzoar he 
studied the science of medicine, and under Ibnu-Saig he 
made himself master of the mathematical sciences. Thus 
qualified, be was chosen, upon his father's demise, to the 
chief magistracy of Corduba. The fame of his extraor- 
dinary erudition and talents soon afterwards reached the 
cahph Jacob Al-Mansor, king of Mauritania, the third of 
the Almohadean ^ dynasty, who had built a magnificent 
school at Morocco ; and that prince appointed him supreme 
magistrate and priest of Morocco and all Mauritania, al- 
lowing him still to retain his former honours. Having left a 
temporary substitute at Corduba, he went to Morocco, and 
remained there till he had appointed, through the king- 
dom, judges well skilled in the Mahometan law, and set-« 
tied the whole plan of administration ; after which he re- 
turned home, and resumed his offices. 

This rapid advancement of Averroes brought upon him 
the envy of his rivals at Corduba; who conspired to lodge 
an accusation against him, for an heretical desertion of the 
true Mahometan faith. For this purpose, they engaged 
several young persons among their dependants, tp , apply 
to liim for instruction in philosophy. Averrpes, who was 
easy of access, and always desirous of communicating 
knowledge, complied with their request, and thus fell into 

I Diet. Ili&t. 


the snare that had been laid for him. His new pupils were 
very industrious in taking minutes of every tenet or opi- 
nion advanced by their preceptor, which appeared to 
contradict the established system of Mahometan theology. 
These minutes they framed into a charge of heresy, and 
attested upon oath, that they bad been fairly taken frona 
his lips. The charge was signed by an hundred witnesses.. 
The caliph listened to the accusation, and punished Aver* 
roes, by declaring him heterodox, confiscating his goods, 
and cominanding him for the future to reside among the 
Jews, who inhabited the precincts of Corduba ; where be 
remained an object of general persecution and obloquy. 
Even the boys in the streets pelted him with stones, when 
he went up to the mosque in the city to perform hie devo* 
tions. His pupil, Maimonides, that he might not be un* . 
der the necessity of violating the laws of friendship and 
gratitude,, by joining the general cry against Averroes, left 
Corduba. From this unpleasant situation Averroes at last 
found means to escape. He fled to Fez, but bad been 
there only a few days, when he was. discovered by the ma». 
gistrate, and committed to prison. The report of his 
flight from Corduba was soon carried to the king, who im- 
mediately called a council of divines and lawyers, to de- 
termine in what manner this heretic should be treated. 
The members of the council were not agreed in opinion. 
Some strenuousl}' maintained, that a man who held opini-* 
ons so contrary to the law of the prophet deserved death. 
Others thought that much mischief, arising from the di&- 
satisfaction of those among the infidels who were inclined 
to favour him, might be avoided, by only requiring from 
the culprit a public penance, and recantation of his errors. 
The milder opinion prevailed ; and Averroes was brought 
out of prison to the gate of the mosque, and placed upon 
the upper step, with his head bare, at ^e time of public 
prayers ; and every one, as he passed into the mosque, was 
allowed to spit upon bis face. At the close of the service, 
the judge, with bis attendants, came to the philosopher, 
and asked him whether he repented of bis heresies. He 
acknowledged his penitence, and was dismissed without 
further punishment, with the permission of the king. Aver- 
roes returned to Corduba, where he experienced all the 
miseries of poverty and contempt. |n process of time the 
people became dissatisfied with the regent who had suc^ 
ceeded Averroes, and petitioned th?) king that theiif fq^^ 

A V E R R O £ SL 167 

mer governor might be restored. Jiu:ob Al-Mansor, not 
daring to show sacb inddigence to one who had beeh in- 
famous for heresy, without the consent of tlie priesthood^ 
called a general assembly, in which it was debated, whe- 
ther it would be consisteiu with the safety of religion, and 
the honour of the law, that Averroes should be restorefd to 
the government of Corduba. The deliberation terminated 
in favour of the penitent heretic, and be was restored, by 
the royal mandate, to all his former honours: Upon this 
fortunate chaiige in his aiiairs, Averroes removed to Mo.- 
roccQ, where he remained till his death, which happened, 
as s^Qfic say, in 1,195, or according to others in 1206, 

Averroes is highly celebrated for his personal virtues, 
tie pr* . Used the most rigid temperance, eating only once 
in the day the plainest food. So indefatigable was his 
industry in the pursuit of science, that he often passed 
.whole nights in study. In his judicial capacity, he dis- 
<;barged bis duty with great wisdom and integrity. His 
iiumauity would not permit him to pass tbe sentence of 
^eath upon any criminal ; he left this 4)ainful office to his 
deputies. He possessed so great a degree of self- command 
and patient lenity, that, when one of hw enemies, in the 
midst of a public discourse, sent a servant to him to whis- 
per some abusive language in hb ear, he took no other 
notice of what passed, than if it had been a secret message 
of business. The next day, the servant returned, and 
•publicly begged pardon of Averroes for the affroni: he had 
offered him; upon which Averroes only appeared dis- 
pleased, ahat his patient endurance of injuries should be 
brought into public notice, and dismissed the servant with 
a gentle caution, never to offer that insult to another, 
which had in the present instance passed unpunished. 
Averroes spent a great part of his wealth in liberal dona- 
tions to learned men, without making any distinction be« 
tween his friends aiid his enemies ; for which bis apology 
was, that, in giving to his friends and relations, he only 
followed the dictates of nature ; but, in giving to his ene- 
mies, he obeyed the commands of virtue. With uncom«> 
^on abilities and learning, Averroes united great affability 
and urbanity of manners, and may, in fine, be justly reck- 
oned one ot the greatest men of his age. 

In philosophy, he partook of the enthusiasm of the 
^mes with' respect to- Aristotle, and paid a superstitious 
deference to his authority ; but extravagant as he was iu 

ITO A V E S B ir R Y. 

JQeame has preserved^ although of opinion they were not 
%vritten by Avesbury. * 

AUGE (Danikl d'), in Latin Augf.ntius, a native of 
ViUeneuve, in the diocese of Sens in Champagne, lived in 
the sixteenth centur}', arid was esteemed on account of his 
learning and writings. The office of the king's professor 
in the Greek tongue in the univerMty of Paris was designed 
for him in 1574, and he took possession of it in 1578. - He 
was also preceptor to the son of that Francis Olivier who 
was chancellor of France, as appears from the preliminary 
epistle of a book, which be dedicated to Anthony Olivier 
bishop of Lombes, and uncle to his pupil, dated from Paris 
the 1st of March 1555. The time of his death is not cer- 
tainly known; but Francis Parent, his successor in the pro- 
fessorship of the Greek tongue, entered upon it in 1595, 
and Moreri gives that as the date of Auge's death. He 
\vrote, 1. "A consolatory oration upon the death of Mes- 
sire Francis Olivier, chancellor of France," Paris, 1560. 
2. " Two dialogues concerning Poetical Invention, the 
jtrije knowledge of the Art of Oratorj^ and of the Fic- 
tion of Fable," Paris, 1560. 3. " A discourse upon the 
Decree made by the parliament of Ddle in Burgundy with 
relation to a man accused and convicted of being a Were- 
wolf" 4. " The institution of a Christian Prince, trans- 
lated from the Greek of Synesius, bishop of Syrene, with an 
oration concerning the True Nobility, translated from the 
Greek of Philo Juds^us," Paris, 1565. 5. " Four homi- 
lies of St. Macarius the Egyptian," Paris, and Lyons 155S^. 
6. " A letter to th^, noble and virtuous youth Anthony The- 
}in, son of the noble Thelin, author of the book entitled 
* Divine Tracts,' in which is represented the true Patri- 
mony and Inheritance which fathers ought to leave to their 
children." This letter is printed in the beginning of the 
above-mentioned " Divine Tracts," Paris, 1565. He re- 
vised and corrected them, Paris, 1556. 6. ** A French 
translation of the most beautiful Sentences and Forms of 
Speaking in the familiar Epistles of Cicero," The " Dis- 
course upon the Decree," &c. relates to a man convicted 
of having murdered and eat one or two persons, for which 
be was burnt alive.' 

AUGER (Athanasius), a distinguished French critic, 
was born at Paris, Dec. 12, 1724, embraced the clerical 
profession, and obtained the chair of the professorof belles 

' Biog. Brit. > Gen. Diet— MorerU • 

A U G E R. 171 

lettres in the college of Rouen. The bishop of Lescar No6 
made him his grand vicar, and usually called him his grand 
vicar in pariibus Atheniensiunif in allusion to his intimate 
acquaintance with the Gredk language, froQfi which he had 
made translations of the greater part of the orators, with 
much purity. He was received into the academy of In-* 
scriptions, where he was much esteemed for bis learning 
and personal virtues. He lived, it is said, among the great, 
and told them truth, and to his opponents was remarkable 
for candour and urbanity. In his private character he ap- 
pears to have been distinguished for a love of letters, and 
an independent and philosophic spirit which kept him from 
soliciting patronage or preferment. He died Feb. 7, 1791. 
His principal works were, " The Orations of Demosthenes 
and Eschines on the crown,'^ Rouen, 1768, 12mo; "The 
whole works of Demosthenes and Eschines," 6 vols. 8 vo, t7 77 
and 1788. This is accompanied with remarks upon the ge« 
nius aiid productions of these two great orators, with critical 
notes on the Greek text, a preliminary discourse concerning 
eloquence ; a treatiseon the jurisdiction and laws of Athens ; 
and other pieces, relative to Grecian laws and literature, • 
which have great merit. His countrymen, however, do not* 
speak highly of his translations, as conveying the fire and 
spirit of the original. They say he is exact and faithful, 
but cold. In 1781 he published, in 3 vols. 8vo, ** The 
Works of Isocrates." This is thought preferable to the 
former, yet still the French critics ^nsidered the transla- 
tor as better acquainted with Greek than French ; the 
truth perhaps is, that the French language is less capable 
of receiving the fire ami sublimity of the great orators than 
those critics are willing to suspect. In 1783 he published 
the "Works of Lysias," 8vo; in 178<5 "The homilies, 
discourses, and letters of S. John Chrysostom,'^ 4 vols. 8vo; 
in 17S7, " Select orations of Cicero," in 3 vols. 8vo; in 
1788, " Orations from Herodotus, Thucydides, and the 
works of Xenophon,'' 2 vols. 8vo. In 1789, he published 
" Projetd' Education Publique ;'' at least such is the title 
of the work, but we suspect it to be a re->publication of some 
" Discourses on Education, delivered in the Royal college 
at Rouen, to which are sxHbjoined, Reflections upon Friend* 
ship," which appeared first in 1775, and were commended 
for their spirit, taste, and judgment. Some political works 
were published in his name after his death, and a piece en- 
titled <^ De la Tragedie Grecque," 1792, 8vq. To his 
works also may be added an edition of " Isocrates, in Gr. 

172 AUGER* 

and Lat.'* 3 vols. Svo, and 4to, a very beautiful book. As 
an editor and critic, be discovers, in all his editions, much 
taste and judgment; but perhaps his countrymen do bint 
no injury in supposing that the latter in general predomi* 
,nated. ' 

AUGER (Edmund), a French Jesuit, was bom in 1530, 
at AUem^n, a village in the diocese of Troyes, and became 
noted for his eKtraordinary skill in the. conversion of here* 
tics, that is, Hugonots, or Protestants, of whom he is said 
to have recovered many thousands to the church. H^ was 
often in danger from his unsought services, and was once 
narrowly saved from the gallows by a minister of the re* 
formed church, who hoped to gain hi^ over to his party. 
This, however, only served to excite his ardour in thcf cause 
of proselytism, and be distinguished himself very refhark- 
ably at Lyons during the ravages of the plague. Henry 
III. appointed him to be his preacher and confessKSt^ the 
first time in which this latter honour bad been conferred. 
He was, however, either so conscientious or so unfortunate 
as neither to gain the affections of his prince, nor to pre* 
serve the good opinion and confidence of the Jesuits. 
After the death of Henry III. his superiors recalled htm to 
Italy, and sent him from bouse to house, where he was con* 
sidered as an excommunicated person, travelling on foot iti 
the depth of winter ; and of such fatigues he died in the 
sixty-first year of his age, in 1591. He wrote some 
controversial works in a very intemperate istyle. One of 
his pieces was published in 1568, under the title of " Pe- 
.dagogue d^armes a un Prince Chretien, pour entreprendre 
et achever heureusement une bonne guerre, victorieuse de 
tons les ennemis de son etat et de Peglise.^' Father Do- 
rigny published the life of Auger in 1716, 12aio. ^ 

AUGURELLO (John Aureuo), an Italian, highly 
praised by Paul Jovius, and as much condemned by Scali- 
ger, was born in 1441, at Rimini, of a noble family. He 
iitudied at Padua, and was professor of belles lettres in se- 
veral universities, particularly Venice and Trevisa : in the 
latter place he obtained the rank of citizen, and died there 
in 1524. His principal poem, ^^ Chi^ysopceia,'' or the art 
of making gold, occasioned his being supposed attached to 
9.1chymy ; but there is no foundation for this, unless his 
employing the technicals of the art in the manner of & 

} Pict« Hist.**-Saxu OnoouaticoUi voU Y III» t Mc4ren««-DicU HisU 

A U C U R E L L D. tli 

didactic poet, who studies imagination more than utility. 
Leo X. to whom he dedicated the work, is said to have re- 
warded him by an empty purse, the only article he thought 
necessary to a man who could make gold. This poem' 
was first printed at Venice, with another on old age, en« 
titled ^< Geronticon,'* 1515; and as some proof that it was 
seriously consulted by akhymists, it has obtained a place 
in Grattorolo's collection of alchymical authors. Bale, 1561^ 
fol. in vol. III. of the ^ Theatrum Chemicum," Stras- 
burgh, 1613, and in Mangel's '' Bibl. Cbemica.'* His 
other Latin poems, consisting of odes, satires, and epi* 
grams, were published under the title ^* Carmina,** Ve- 
rona^ 1491, 4to, and at Venice, 1505, 8vo. They are 
superior to most of the poetry of his age in elegance and 
taste,*and in Ginguene's opinion, approach nearly to the 
style and manner of the ancients. Auguretlo was also an 
accomplished Greek scholar, and well versed in antiquities,* 
history, and philosophy, and in his poetry, without any ap- 
pearance of pedantry, he frequently draws upon his stock 
of learning. * 

AUGU8TIN (St.), an eminent father of the church, 
was born at Tagasta, Nov. 13, in the year 354, of his father 
Patricius, a citizen of that place, and his mother Monica, 
a lady of distinguished piety. He first applied to his 
studies in his native place, and afterwards at Madora and 
Carthage. In this latter city his ihorals became corrupted,* 
and he had a son born to him, named Adeodat, th^ fruit of 
a criminal connexion. He then became a proselyte to the 
sect of the Manichasans, and an able defender of their 
opinions. The perusal of some part of Cicero's philosophy 
is said first to have detached him from his immoral con^ 
duct; but one thing, Baillet says, gave him uneasiness in 
this work, and that was bis not finding the name of Jesus, 
which had l>een familiar to him from his infancy in thel 
writings of the celebrated' Roman. He resolved, there- 
fore, to read the holy scriptures, but the pride of his heart, 
and his incapacity to taste the simple beauties of these, 
made him still give the preference to Cicero. In the 
mean time he acquired considerable fame in the schools of 
eloquence, and was a professor of it successively at Ta- 
gasta, at Carthage, at Kome, and at Milan, whither he had 
been sent by the prefect Symmachus. St. Ambrose was at 

^ Ginguene Hist. d'lUHe, vol. IH. p. 457.-->Ro8coe'« Leo, who MMaki kWy 

tf Ai^^rttlo.— Mortri.— MazaucWli,— Tirtbgicbi, rol. VI. 


17* A tr G U S T I N". 

this time bisbop of Milaii, and Augustin, affected by hiit 
sermons^ and by the tears of his mother Monica, began tor 
think seriously of forsaking his irregularities and bis Mant« 
cbaeism. He was accordingly baptised .at Milan' in the year 
387, in the thirty -second year of his age, and renouncing 
bia rhetorical pursuits, studied only the gospel. On bi» 
return to Tagasta, he betook himself to fasting and prayier, 
gave his property to the poor, and formed a society among 
some of bis friends. Some time after, being at -Hippo, 
Valerius, then bishop of that diocese, ordained him a priest 
about the commencement of the year 391. Next year we 
find him disputing with great success against the Mani« 
chees, and in the year 392 he gave so learned an exposi-^ 
tion of the symbol of faith, in the council of Hippo, that the 
bishops were unanimously of opinion he ought to be chosen- 
one of their number. In the year 395, another council 
appointed him coadjutor to Valerius, in the see of Hippo, 
and it was in this situation that the spirit and virtues of . 
Augustin began to display themselves. He established iti: 
the espiscopal mansion a society of clerks, with whom he 
lived, and became more active in his opposition to heresies, 
particularly -the Manichuean, converting one Felix, a'very 
celebrated character among them. Nor did he less prove 
his judgment and eloquence in a conference between the 
Catholic bishops and the Donatists at Carthage in the year 
411, where he bent his endeavours to procure unity in the 
church. His great work " On the city of God,'* now made 
its appearance. - . . \ 

In the year 418, a general council was held at Carthage 
against the Pelagians. Augustin, who had formerly re- 
futed their errors, now prepared nine articles against them, 
and evinced a zeal on the subject, which procured him the 
title of the " Doctor of grace/* After having thus tri- 
umphed over the enemies of the church, he had to contend 
with those of the empire. The Vatidals, who bad passed 
from Africa intp Spain, under the conduct of their king 
Genseric, in the year 428, made themselves masters of a 
considerable part of that country, but Carthage and Hippo 
resisted them a long time. Augustin, when consulted by 
his associates, whether they ought to escape by flight, oi: 
wait for the barbarians, gave his opinion for the latter, as 
more becoming their duty; and when the episcopal city wa$ 
besieged by a great army, he encouraged his flock by his 
esfample and exhortations. He dreaded^ nevertheless, lesft 

A U G U S T I N* i7* 

Bippa should fall into the hands of the enenlyi and ptayed 
to God that he might be taken away before that calamity 
happened. His prayer, it would appear, was answered, a» 
he was cut off, during the siege, by a violent fever, on the 
2Sth of August, in ihe year 430, at the age of seventy-six. 
The Vandals, who took Hippo the year following, showed 
respect to his library, his works, and his body. The catho-^ 
lie bishops of Africa carried his body to Sardinia, the place 
to which they were driven by Thrasamond, king of the 
Vandals ; and Luitprand, king of Lombardy, caused it to 
be conveyed, nearly two hundred years after^ to Pavia« 
His works have been printed at Paris in 1679 and 1700, in 
elevefi volumes, folia But the author of the Bibliographi- 
cal Dictionary says, there are two editions under the same 
date, and that the first is preferred, and is distinguished by 
the preface at the beginning of the first volume. In the 
first edition there are only five lines of the preface on the 
first page ; in the second edition there are more. In the 
tenth volume of the first edition there is a little tract, of 
half a leaf, preceding page 747, before the book '' D^Cor- 
ruptione et Gratia," which is not found in the second edi« 
tion. There was another edition in 12 vols. fol. published 
also by the Benedictines at Antwerp, 1700 — 1703. 

The character of Augustin has been depreciated by some 
modern writers, and ought undoubtedly to be considered 
with a reference to the time he lived, and the state of 
learning and religion. There is neither wisdom nor can- 
dour, however, in collecting and publishing the frailties of 
his early years, nor in denying that he may justly be ranked 
among those illustrious characters, in a dark age, who pre- 
served and elucidated many of those doctrines which are 
held sacred in days of more light and knowledge. Mo- 
sbeim^s character seems candid and just The fame of 
Augustin, says that ecclesiastical historian, filled the whole 
Christian world ; and not without reason, as a variety of 
great and shining qualities were united in his character. 
A sublime genius, an uninterrupted and zealous pursuit of 
truth, an indefatigable application, an invincible patience, 
a sincere piety, a subtile and lively wit, conspired to estab- 
lish his fame upon the most lasting foundations. It is, 
however, certain, that the accuracy and solidity of his 
judgment were, by no means, proportionable to the emi- 
nent talents now mentioned, and that, upon many occa- 
sions^ he was more guided by the violent impulse of a warm 

17fi AUG US TIN. 

imagination, than by the cool dictates of wisdotn and Jliru-^ 
dence. Hence that ambiguity ^hich appears in his writ-^ 
ings, and which has sometimes rendered the most attentire 
readers uncertain with respect to his real sentimei^ ; and 
>hence also the just complaints which many have made of 
the contradictions that are so frequent in his works, and of 
the levity and precipitation with which he set himself to 
write upon a variety of subjects, before he had examined 
them with a sufficient degree of attention and diligence. 
It ought to be added, that almost all Augustin's works hare 
lateen printed separately and often, particularly his ^^ City 
of God," and his ** Confessions." * 

AUGUSTIN (Anthony), archbishop of Tarragona, 
one of the most learned men of his age, was born at Sara* 
gossa, in 1516. His parents were, Anthony Augustin, vice^ 
chancellor of Arragon, and Elizabeth, duchess of Cardonna. 
He was well skilled in civil and canan law, the belles 
lettres, ecclesiastical history, languages, and antiquities. 
His first promotion was to be auditor of Rota ; then he was 
made bishop of Alisa, afterwards of Lerida,and distingtiished 
himself greatly in the council of Trent. The archbishopric 
of Tarragona was conferred upon him in 1574, and here he 
died in 1586, aged seventy. His character appears to have 
been excellent, and such was his charity that he left not 
enough to defray the expences of his funeral. His work^ 
are much valued. The principal are, 1. " De emenda- 
tione Gratiani Dialogorum," Tarrac. 1587, 4to, a curious 
and much esteemed work. Baluze has given afi excellent 
edition of this, with notes, 1672, 8vo. 2. " Coustitytionum 
Provincialium Ecclesiae Tarraconensis, lib. V." Tarracon, 
1580, 4to; and again in 1593. 3. " Canones Penitentia- 
les," Tar. 1582, 4^to. 4. " D6 Nominibus Propriis Pan- 
dectas Florentini, cum notis A. Augustini," 1579, folio. 

5. " Antiquaj Collectiones Decretalium," Paris, 1621, fol. 

6. " Epitome Juris Pontificis,'* 3 torn; Tar. and Rome, 
1587, 16H, folio. 7. '^ Dialog. XI. de las Medallas,'' 
Tarrag. 1587, 4to and folio, and in Latin, 1617, fol. The 
4to edition of these dialogues on medals, in Italian, is pre- 
ferable, as the medais of the dialogues, from the third to 
the eight, are not in the edition of 1537, a remark which 
the editor of the Bibliographical Dictionary has by mistake 
made upon the " Emendatio Gratiani." * 

i Baylc— Moreri.— Diet. Utst.«-Dupiii. — Lardner, vol. V. 

* Diet. Hilt* de I'Avocat.—- Diet Bibliograph.— Morcri.->*S«xii OfiMnMl. 


AUGUSTINE, or by contraction AUSTIN (St.), usual- 
ly styled the Apostle of the English, and the first archbishop 
of Canterbury, was originally a monk in the convent of St. 
Andrew at Rome, and was educated under St, Gregory, 
afterwards pope Gregory I. who undertook the conver- 
sion of the island of Britani. His inducement to this, in 
the life of St. Gregory, written by John Diaconus, intro- 
duces us to a string of puns, which we must refer to the 
manners and taste of the times, without surely impeaching 
the seriousness of Gregory, who in his present situation, as 
well as when pope, had no other visible motive for his zeal, 
than the propagation of Christianity. Walking in the fo- 
rum at Rome, he happened to see some very handsome 
youths exposed to sale, and being informed that they were 
of the island of Britain, and that the inhabitants of that 
island were Pagans, he regretted that such handsome youths 
should be destitute of true knowledge, and again asked the 
name of the nation. *^ ArigW* was the answer; on which 
be observed, *^ In truth they have angelic countenances^ 
and it is a pity they should not be coheirs with angels ia 
heaven." When 'informed that they came from the pro- 
vince of Deira (Northumberland), he observed, ** It is 
well, dc tra, snatched from the wrath of God, and called to 
the mercy of Christ ; and when, in answer t6 another in- 
terrogatory, he was told that the name of their king was 
£lla, he said, ^^ ^//^luia should be sung to God in those 
regions.'* More seriously impressed with a sense of his 
duty on this occasion, he requested pope Benedict to send 
some persons to our island on a mission, and offered to be 
. one of the number. He was himself, however, too much a 
favourite with the Roman citizens to be suffered to depart,' 
and it was not until he became pope, that he was enabled 
effectually to pursue his purpose. After his consecration 
in the year 595, he directed a presbyter, whom he had sent 
into France, to instruct some young Saxons, of seventeen 
or eighteen years of age, in Christianity, to act as mission- 
aries ; and in the year 597, he sent about forty monks, in- 
eluding perhaps some of the^e new converts, with Augus- 
tine at their head. Having proceeded a little way on their 
journey, they began to dread the attempt of committing 
themselves to a savage and infidel nation, whose language 
they did not understand. In this dilemma, doubtful whe- 
ther to return or proceed, they agreed to send back -Augus- 
tine to Gregory, to represent their fears; and intreat that 
Vol, III. N 


he would release them from their engagement. Gregcrj^ 
. however, in answer, advised them to proceed, in confidence 
of divine aid, undaunted by the fatigue of the journey, or 
any other temporary obstructions, adding, that it would 
h^ve been better not to have begun so good a wotk^ than 
to recede from it afterwards. He also took every means 
for their accommodation, recommending them to the atten- 
tion of Etherius, bishop of Aries, and providing for them 
such assistance in France, that at length they arrived safely 
in Britain. 

Before proceeding to their success here, it is necessary 
to advert to some circumstances highly in their favour. 
Christianity, although not extended over the kingdom, was 
not at this period unknown in Britain, notwithstanding it 
had been much persecuted by the Saxons. They were at 
this time, however, disposed to look upon their Christian 
brethren with a more favourable eye, and the marriage of 
Ethelbert, king of Kent, in the year 570, with Birtha, or 
Bertha, daughter of Cherebert, king of France, a Christian 
princess of great virtue and merit, contributed not a little 
to abate the {^ejudices of that prince and his subjects 
against her religion, for the free exercise of which she had 
stipulated in her marriage contract. She was also allowed 
the use of a small church without the walls of Canterbury, 
where Luidhart, a French bishop, who came over in her re- 
tinue, with other clergymen, publicly performed all the 
rites of Christian worship, and by these means Christianity 
had some, although probably a very confined influence. 

It is easy to suppose that a queen, thus sincere in her 
principles, would be very earnest in persuading her hus- 
band to give Augustine and his followers a hospitable re- 
ception, and Ethelbert accordingly assigned Augustine an 
habitation in the isle of Thanet. By means of French in- 
terpreters, whom the missionaries brought with them, they 
informed the king that they were come from Rome, anijL 
- brought with them the. best tidings in the world — eternal 
life to those who received them, and the endless enjoyment 
o^ life hereafter. After some days, Ethelbert paid them a 
visit ; but being afraid of enchantments, things which, true 
or false, were then objects of terror, chose to receive them 
in the open air. The missionaries met him, singing litanies 
for their own salvation, and that of those for whose sake 
they came thither; and then, by the king^s direction, un- 
folded the nature of theijr mission, and of the religion they 


wished to preach. The substance of the king's answer was, 
that he could not, without further consideration, abandon 
the religion of his forefathers, but as they had come so 
far on a friendly errand, he assigned them a place of resi - 
dence in Canterbury, and allowed them to use their best 
endeavours to convert his subjects. The place assigned 
them was in the parish of St. Alphage, on the north side of 
the High or King's street, where, in Thorn's time, the arch- 
bishop's palace stood, now called Stable-gate. Accord- 
ingly they entered the city, singing in concert a short 
litany, recorded by Bede, in these words : " We pray thee, 
O Lord, in all thy mercy, that thine anger and thy fury 
may be removed from this city, and from thy holy house, 
for we have sinned. Alleluia." 

In this city they employed example and precept in the 
introduction of their doctrines. They prayed, fasted, 
watched, preached, wherever they had opportunity, and 
received only bare necessaries in return. They practised 
also what they taught, and showed a firmness and zeal, evea 
to death, if it should be necessary, which produced con- 
siderable eiFect on the people ; and at length the king him- 
self was converted, and gave the missionaries his license to 
preach every where, and to build or repair churches. The 
king, however, declared that no compulsion should be used 
in making converts, although he could not avoid express- 
ing greater partiality to those who embraced Christianity. 
. During this success, Augustine went to France, and was 
there, by the archbishop of Aries, consecrated archbishop 
of the English nation, thinking that this new dignity would 
give additional influence to his exhortations. When he 
returned into Britain, he sent Laurentius the presbyter, 
and Peter the monk, to. acquaint Gregory with what had 
been done, and to consult him upon several points of doc- 
trine and discipline. Some of "these points savour, un- 
doubtedly, of the superstitious scruples of the monastic 
austerity, but others lead to some information respecting 
the early constitution of the church. To his inquiries con- 
cerning the maintenance of the clergy, Gregory answered, 
that the donations made to the church were, by the custom 
of the Roman see, divided into four portions ; one for the 
l)ishop and his family to support hospitality, a second to 
the clergy, a third to the poor, and a fourth to the repara- 
tion of churches. As the pastors were all monks, they 
were to live in common, but such as chose to marry were 

N 2 


to be maintained by the monastery. With respect to H* 
versities of customs and liturgies, Gregory^s answer was 
truly libei*al, implying that Augustine was not bound to 
follow the precedent of Rome, but might select whatever 
parts or rules appeared the most eligible and best adapted 
to promote the piety of the infant church of England, and 
compose them into a system for its use. Gregory also, at 
Augustine's request, sent over more missionaries, and di« 
rected him to constitute a bishop at York, who might have 
other subordinate bishops ; yet in such a manner, that Au- 
gustine of Canterbury should be metropolitan of all Eng- 
land. He sent over also a valuable present of books, 
vestments, sacred utensils, and holy relics. He advised 
Augustine not to destroy the heathen temples, but only to 
remove the images of their gods, to wash the walls with holy 
watei^ to erect altars, deposit relics in them, and so gra* 
dually convert them into Christian churches; not only to 
save the expence of building new ones, but that the people 
might be more easily prevailed upon to frequent those 
places of worship to which they had been accustomed. He 
directs him further, to accommodate the ceremonies of the 
Christian worship, as much as possible, to those of the hea- 
then, that the people might not be too much startled at the 
change ; and in particular, he advises him to allow the 
Christian converts, on certain festivals, to kill and eat a 
great number of oxen, to the glory of God, as they had for- 
merly done to the honour of Ae devil. It is quite unne- 
cessary, in our times, to offer any remark on this mixture of 
pious zeal with worldly policy. 

The next great event of Augustine's life was his attempt 
to establish uniformity of discipline and customs in the 
island, and as' a necessary step to gain over the British 
(Welch) bishops to his opinion. These Britons, from the 
first time of planting Christianity in the island, had con- 
stantly followed the rules and customs left them by their 
first masters. But the church of Rome had made certain 
alterations in the manner of celebrating divine service, to 
which it preteaded all other churches ought to conform. 
The churches of the West, as being the nearest to Rome, 
were the most easily gained ; and almost all of them, ex- 
cepting those of France and Milan, conformed at last to 
the Roman ritual. But Britain still continued, as it were, a 
world apart. Since the embassy of Lucius to pope Eleu«* 
therius, the Britons had very little communication with the 


bithops of Rome. They acknowledged tfajem only a^ 
bishops of a particular diocese, or, at most, as heads of a 
patriarchate, on which they did not think the British church 
ought to be any way dependent. They were so far from 
receiving orders from the pope, that they were even stran« 
gers to bis pretensions. But Augustine, full of zeal for the 
interests of the see of Rome, made an attempt to bring them 
to acknowledge the superiority of the pope over all other 
churches. For this purpose he invited the Welch bishops 
to a conference, and began to admonish them to enter into 
Cluristian peace and concord, that they might join with him 
in converting the Pagans ; but this proved fruitless, as they 
would hearken to no prayers or exhortations, and Augus- 
tine, therefore, had recourse to a miracle. A blind man 
was introduced to be healed, and was healed by Augustine^s 
prayers, when those of the ancient Britons failed. They 
were obliged, therefore, to confess that Augustine was sent 
pf God, but pleaded the obstinacy of their people as a rea- 
son for their non-compliance. A second synod was ap- 
pointed, attended by seven British bishops, and many of 
their learned men, belonging to the ancient monastery of 
Bangor, of which Dinoth was at that time abbot. Before 
these came to the synod, they asked the advice of a person 
of reputed sanctity, whether they should give up their own 
traditions on the authority of Augustine or not. *' Let hu- 
milil^y," said he, ^^ be the test ; and if you find, when you 
come to the synod, that he rises up to you at your ap- 
proach, obey him ; if not, let him be despised by you.** 
On such precarious evidence was a matter to rest which 
they thought - so important. It happened that Augustine 
continued sitting on their arrival, which might easily have 
been the case without kny intentional insult ; but it answered 
the purpose of the Britons, already averse to join him, and 
they would now hearken to no terms of reconciliation. 
Augustine proposed that they should agre^ with him only 
in three things, leaving other points of difference undeter- 
mined ; namely, to observe Easter at the same time with 
the rest of the Christian world ; to administer baptism after 
the Roihan manner; and to join with him in preaching the 
gospel to the English : but all this they rejected, and re- 
fused to acknowledge his authority. This provoked Augus- 
tine to tell them, that if they would not have peace with 
brethren, they should have war with enemies ; and it hap* 
pened afterwards, that in an invasion of the Pagan Saxons 


of the North, the Bangorian monks were cruelly murdered ; 
but this was long after the death of Augustine, who, never- 
theless, has been accused by some writers of exciting the 
animosity which ended in that massacre. For tliis there 
seems no solid foundation. Augustine betrayed an impro-* 
per warmth, and was not free from ambition ; but in all his 
history we can find no instance of a sanguinary spirit, or 
any inclination to propagate Christianity by any other wea- 
pons than those he had at first employed. The Britons 
undoubtedly had a right to their independence, and Augus- 
tine is not to be praised for endeavouring to destroy what 
bad so long existed, and over which be bad no legal con- 

Augustine died in the year 604, at Canterbury, and wa« 
buried in the church-yard of the monastery that was called 
after his name, the cathedral not being then finished ; but 
after the consecration of that church, his body was taken 
up, and deposited in the north porch, where it lay, till, in 
1091, it was removed and placed in the church by Wido^ 
abbot of Canterbury. The miracles ascribed by popisit 
writers to Augustine may now be read as other legendary 
tales, as monuments of weakness and superstition, nor do 
such writers gain any credit to their cause,^ by asserting that 
t-o be true, which they know to be contrary to the economy 
of providence and nature, and the appearance of which, for 
the purposes of conversion, could not be produced without 
implicating the parties in a charge of wilful delusion.^ 
• AUGUSTUS, duke of Brunswick and Lilnenburg, was 
a man of learning, and a patron of men of learning. He 
published several works, among which bis ^^ Evangelical 
Harmony," written in German, is much esteemed by Pro- 
testants. He pubUshed also, in 1636, a ^^ Treatise on the 
Cultivation of Orchards," which is still consulted in Ger- 
many. The ** Steganographia," under the name of Gus- 
tavus Selenus, which was publi^ed in Latin, at Lunenburg, 
in 1624, folio, was also the work of this prince, who died 
in 1666, in the eighty-seventh year of his age. ' 

AVIANO (Jeromb), an Italian poet, was born at Vin- 
cenza, and employed his fortune, which was very consider- 
able, in patronising and associating with men of genius and 

1 Biog, Brit— Cave. — ^Dupin. — Bede Hist. £cc]es,-*-Wbarton's Anglia Sacra. 
— Godwin, de Presulibus. — ^Thorn's Chrooicon apud Decern Scriptoresv-* 
Henry's Hist, of Great Britain.— Milner's Keel. History. 

9 Diet, Historique. 

A V I A.N O. 183 

talents. He is supposed to have died about 1607. His 
poems, consisting of ^* Three Epistles," highly praised by 
Mazzuchelli, Crescembini, and Quadrio, were first printed 
in 1605, and were reprinted in 1615 and 1627. They were 
inserted likewise in some of the collections. * 

AVICENNA, Abou-Ali-Alhussein-ben-Abdoullah, 
Ebn-Sina, called Avicenes, the prince of Arabian philo- 
sophers and physicians, was born at Assena, a village in 
the neighbourhood of Bokhara in the year 980. His far 
ther was from Balkh in Persia, and had married at Bok- 
hara. The first years of Avicenna were devoted to the 
study of the Koran, and the belles lettres, and so rapid was 
his progress that, when he was but ten years old, he was per- 
fectly intelligent in the most hidden senses of the Koran* 
Abou-AbdouUah, a native of Napoulous in Syria, at that 
time professed philosophy at Bokhara with the greatest 
reputation. Avicenna studied under him the principles of 
logic ; but soon disgusted with the slow manner of the 
schools, he set about studying alone, and read all the au- 
thors that had written on philosophy, without any other 
help than that of their commentators. Mathematics like- 
wise had great charms for him, and after reading the first 
six propositions of Euclid, he reached to the last, without 
a teacher, having made himself perfect master of them^ 
and treasured up all of them equally in his memory. 

Possessed with an extreme avidity to be acquainted with 
every science, he likewise devoted himself to the study of 
medicine. Persuaded that this divine art consists as much 
in practice as in theory, he sought all opportunities of see- 
ing the siick ; and afterwards confessed, what can seldom 
be denied, that he had learned more from experience than 
from all the books^ he had read. He was now only in his 
sixteenth year, and already was celebrated as the luminary 
of his age. He resolved, however, to resume his studies 
of philosophy, which medicine had interrupted ; and he 
spent a year and a half in this painful labour, without ever 
sleeping all this time a whole night together. If he felt 
himself oppressed by sleep, or exhausted by reading, a 
glass of wine refreshed his wasted spirits, and gave him 
new vigour for study : if in spite of him his eyes for a fe^y 
minutes shut out the light, we are told that he then re- 
collected and meditated upon all the things that ha4 op-r 

I Diet Hiitonque. 

18* A V I C E N N A. 

cupied his thoughts before sleep* At the age of twenty <• 
one, he conceived the bold design of incorporating, in one 
ivork, all the objects of human knowledge, and carried it 
into execution in an Encyclopedia of twenty volumes, to 
ivhich he gave the title of the " Utility of Utilities.'* 

Several great princes had been taken dangerously ill, 
and Avicenna was the only one who could know their aiU 
ments, and administer a remedy. His reputation conse- 
quently increased daily, and all' the kings of Asia desired 
to retain him in their families. Mahmoud, the first sultaa 
of the dynasty of Samanides, was then the most powerful 
prince of the east. Imagining that an implicit obedience 
Vas due by all to his will, he wrote a haughty letter to Ma- 
moun, sultan of Kharism, ordering him to send Avicenna to 
him, who was at his court, with several other learned men : 
but as Avicenna had himself been used to the most ilatter- 
ing distinctions, he resented this imperious command, and 
refused to go. The sultan of Kharism, however, obliged 
him to depart with the others who had been demanded. 

Avicenna pretended to obey, but, instead of repairing 
to Gazna, he took the road to Giorgian, Mahmoud, who 
had gloried in the thought of keeping him at his palace, 
was greatly irritated at his flight, and dispatched portraits 
of this philosopher to all the princes of Asia, with orders 
to have him conducted to Gazna, if he appeared in their 
courts. But Avicenna eluded the most diligent search, 
and arrived in the capital of Giorgian, where, undqr a dis* 
guised name, he performed many admirable cures. Ca« 
bous then reigned in that country, and a favourite nephew 
having fallen sick, he consulted the most able physicians,^ 
Done of whom were able to discover his disorder, or to 

five him any relief. Avicenna was at last consulted, who 
iscovered, as soon as \xe felt the young prince's pulse, 
that his disorder was copcealed love, and he commanded 
the person, who had the care of the different apartments in 
the palace, to name them all in their respective order. A 
more lively motion in the prince's pulse, at hearing men« 
tioned one of those apartments, betrayed a part of bh se- 
cret. The keeper then had orders to name all the slaves 
that inhabited that apartment. At the name of one of those 
beauties, the young prince, by the extraordinary beating 
of his pulse, completed the discovery of what he in vain de- 
sired to keep concealed. Avicenna, now fully assured 
that this slave was the cause of his illness, declared that 

A V I C E N N A. 18S 

she alone had the power to cure him. The Sultanas con- 
sent being necessary, he expressed a desire to see his 
nephew^s physician, and had scarcely looked at him when 
he knew in his features those of the portrait sent to liim bjr 
Mahmoud ; but Cabous, far from forcing Avicenna to re* 
pair to Gazna, retained him for some time with him, and 
heaped honours and presents on him. 

Avicentia passed afterwards into the court of Nedjmed- 
jdevle^ sultan of the race of the Bouides. Being appointed 
first physician to that prince, he found means to gain his 
confidence to so great a degree, that he- raised him to the 
post of Grand Vizir, but h^ did not long enjoy that dig- 
nity. Too great an attachment to pleasures made him lose 
at the same time, his post, and his master^s favour. Front 
that time Avicenna felt all the rigours of adversity, wan- 
dered about as a fugitive, and was often obliged to shift 
the place of bis habitation to secure his life from danger. 
Certain propositions he had advanced, and which seemed 
to contradict the sense of the Koran, were alleged against 
him as very criminal. He is said, hovyever, to have abjured 
bis errors before the end of his life. He died at Hamadan^ 
aged 58 years, in the 428th year of the Hegira, and of the 
Christian aera 1036. 

Such are the reputed events of the life of this extraor- 
dinary man, of whose genius and studies the most wonder- 
ful tales have been told. He enjoyed so great a reputation 
after his death, that till the twelfth century, he was pre- 
ferred in philosophy and medicine to all his predecessors. 
His works were higldy popular even in the European 
schools. His style is said to be clear, elegant, and solid. 
Physic is indebted to him for the discovery of cassia, rhu- 
barb, and tamarinds ; and from him also came tbe art of 
making sugar. Dr. Freind, however, is inclined to under- 
value tbe medical knowledge in his works. He wrote. On 
the utility and advantage of the sciences, — on innocence 
and criminality, — health and remedies, — canons of physic 
in fourteen books,, his chief work : On astronomical obser- 
vations, mathematics, theological demonstrations, on the 
Arabic language, and many other subjects of morals and 
metaphysics. Hebrew and Latin versions of his works are 
still extant, but in Brucker's opinion, the translators do 
not i^pear to have been sufficiently masters of the Arabic 
tongue to do justice to their author. Tbe last edition of 

186 A V I C E N N A. 

the " Canon Medicine" was printed at Venice. in 2^ vols. 
in 1608, fol.* 

AVIENUS (RuFUS Festus), a Latin poet, flourished 
under Theodosius the elder, in the fifth century. We 
have by him a translation in verse of the Phaenomena of 
Aratus, Venice, 1488, 4to, and Madrid, 1634, 4to; of 
the description of the Earth by Dionysius of Alexandria J 
and of some fables of iEsop, far inferior to those of Phae- 
drus for purity and elegance of diction. His translation 
of ^sop in elegiac verses is to be found in the Phsedrus of 
Paris, 1747, 12mo, and the' Variorum edition of Amster- 
dam, 1731, in 8vo. He also turned all the books of Livy 
itito iambic verse : a very strange undertaking, of which it 
is not easj' to conceive the use at that time, although at 
present it may supply in part what is wanting of that his- 
torian. * 


AVILER (x^uGUSTiNE Chahles d'), descended from a 
family originally of Nanci in Lorraine, but long established 
at Paris, was born in the latter city in 1653. From his 
earliest years, he discovered a taste for architecture, and 
studying the art with eagerness, soon made very consider- 
able progress. At the age of twenty he was sent to an 
academy at Rome, founded by the king of France for the 
education of young men of promising talents in painting,, 
architecture, &c. He was accompanied in the voyage by 
the celebrated Antony Desgodets, whose measurements of 
the ancient Roman edifices are so well known. They em- 
barked at Marseilles about the end of 1674, with all the 
impatience of youthful curiosity, but had the misfortune to 
be taken by an Algerine corsair, and carried into slavery; 
Louis XIV. no sooner heard of their disaster, than he made 
interest for the liberation of Desgodets and Aviler, and 
likewise for John Foi.Vaillant, the celebrated antiquary, 
who had been a passenger with them. Sixteen months, 
however, elapsed before the Algerines admitted them to be 
exclmnged for some Turkish prisoners in the power of 
France. Aviler and his friends obtained their liberty, 
Feb. 22, 1676. During their slavery, Aviler could not 
conceal his art, although the admiration with which it 

1 Catalogue Ratsoiin^ of Arabian MSS. in tke library of the Escu(ial.— ^Freind^ 
Hist, of Physic. — Brucker. — Baj^le. 
< Diet. Hi8t.-«-Fabric. Bibl. Lat.-^Saxii OnomasticoD. 

A V I L E R. 187 

Struck the Algerines, might have afforded them a preteset 
for detaining one who could be so useful to them. On the 
contrary, he solicited employment, and had it : at least 
there was extant some time ago, an original plan and ele* 
vatiou of a mosque which he made, and which was built 
accordingly at Tunis. On being released, however, he 
went to Rome, where he studied for five years with unin- 
terrupted assiduity, and on his return to France was ap« 
pointed by M. Mansart, first royal architect, to a consider- . 
able place in the board of architecture. While in this 
situation, he began to collect materials for a complete 
course -of architectural studies. His first design was to 
reprint an edition of Vignola, with corrections ; but per- 
ceiving that the explanations of the plates in that work 
were too short, he began to add to them remarks and illus- 
trations in the form of commentary ; and, what has long 
rendered his work valuable, he added a con^lete series, in 
alphabetical order, of architectural definitions, which em- 
brace every branch, direct or collateral, of the art, and 
which have been copied into all the subsequent French 
dictionaries. He prefixed also a translation of Scamozzi^s 
sixth book, which treats of the ordei?. 

While Aviler remained as subordinate to Mansart, he 
conceived that he could not acquire any high distinction in 
his profession, and therefore accepted an invitation to go 
to Montpellier, where he 6uilt a magnificent triumphal 
arch, in honour of Louis XIV. from a design by M. D'Or- 
bay, who was one of his friends, and had assisted him in 
completing his literary work. This arch was finished in 
1 692, and highly approved, and Aviler afterwards construct* 
ed various edifices at Beziers, Nismes, Montpellier, and 
at Toulouse, where he built the archiepiscopal palace. 
In 1693 the states of Languedoc, as a testimony of their 
esteem, created the title of arc*hitect to the province, a 
mark of distinction which induced him to reside there 
during life ; but this was not long, as he died in 1700, 
when only forty-seven years of age. 

He published, 1. " CEuvres d' architecture de Vincent 
de Scamozzi," translated from the Italian, Paris, 1685, 
Leydeo, 1713, fol. This being only an extract from 
Scamozzi, whose method was no longer followed, the work 
had not much success. 2. " Cours d'architecture, qui 
comprend les ordres de Vignole, avec des commentaires, 
et plusieurs nouveaux dessins,^^ Paris, 1691, 2 vols. 4to, 

188 A V I L E R. 

and a third edit. 1699, and again in 1710, 1720, and l73S ; 
the latter the best edition, with the lives af Aviler and Vig- 
Dola, by Mariette the printer. Aviler also wrote a sonnet 
on the death of the chevaUer Bernin in the Mercure of 
Jan. 1681,? 


AVISON (Charles), an ingenious English musician, 
.was born probably at Newcastle, where he exercised his 
profession during the whole of his life. In 1736, July 12, 
.he was appointed organist of St. John's church in that 
town, which he resigned for the church of St. Nicholas in 
October following. In 1748, when the organ of St Johi^'s 
required repair, which would amount to 160/. Mr. Avison 
.offered to give 100/. if the parish would raise the other 60/« 
upon condition that they appointed him organist, with a 
salary of 2QL and allow him to supply the place by a suf- 
ficient deputy. This appears to have been agreed upon, 
and the place was supplied by his son Charles. In 1752 
he published' ^VAn essay on Musical Expression,'* Lon- 
don, 12mo. In this essay, written with neatness and even 
lelegance of style, he treats of the power and force of mu- 
sic, and the analogieA)etween it and painting : of musical 
composition, as consisting of harmony, air, and expression ; 
and of musical expression so far as it relates to the per- 
former. To the second edition, which appeared in 1753, 
was added, an ingenious and learned letter to the author, 
conceruing the music of the ancients, now known to be 
written by Dr. Jortin. Mr. Avison's treatise was very fa- 
vourably received, but some were dissatisfied with his sen- 
timents on the excellencies and defects of certain eminent 
musicians, and particularly his preference of Marcello and 
Geminiani, or at least, the latter, to Handel. In the same 
year, therefore, was published, '^ Remarks on Mr. Avison's 
essay, &c. wherein the characters of several great mas- 
ters, both ancient and modern, are rescued from the mis- 
representations of the above author ; and their real merit 
ascertained and vindicated. In a letter from a gentleman 
to his friend in the country." In this tract, which was 
written by Dr. Hayes, professor of music at Oxford, Mr. 
Avison is treated with very little ceremony, and accused 
of being ignorant, or neglectful of our ancient English mu- 
sicians, and of having spoke too coldly of the merits of 

1 Moreri^ 

A V I S O N. 189 

tlandel. It is also insinuated that he was obliged to abler 
pens for the style and matter of his essay. This last was 
probably true, as both Dr. Brown and Mr. Mason are sup- 
posed to have assisted him, but in what proportions cannot 
now be ascertained. Mr. Avison wrote a reply to Dn 
Hayes, nearly in the same uncourtly style, which was re- 
published in the third edition of his essay in 1775. Avisoa 
had been a disciple of Geminiani, who, as well as Giardini^ 
had a great esteem for him, and visited him at Newcastle^ 
where the latter played for his benefit. Whenever Gemi« 
niani affected to hold HandePs compositions cheap, it was 
usual with him to say, ^^ Charley Avison shall make a bet- 
ter piece of music in a month's time.^* Avison died at 
Newcastle, May 10, 1770, and was succeeded in the church 
of St. Nicholas, by his son Edward, who himself died in 
1776, and in the church of St. John, by his son Charles, 
who resigned in 1777. Avison assisted in the publication 
of Marcello's music to the psalms adapted to English 
words. Of his own composition there are extant five col- 
lections of concertos for violins, forty- four in number; 
suid two sets of sonatas for the harpsichord, and two vio- 
lins, a species of composition little known in England till 
his time. The music of Avison is light and elegant, but 
wants originality, a consequence of his too close attach- 
ment to the style of Geminiani. ^ 

AVITUS (Sextus Alcimus Ecditius), son to the sena- 
tor* Isychius, and brother to Apollinaris, bishop of Valen^ 
tia, was promoted in the beginning of the sixth century to 
the archbishopric of Vienna, which his father had also held 
for some years. His principal object was the refutatioa 
and conversion of the Arians, and during his conferences 
for this purpose with the Arian bishops before Goudeband 
king of Burgundy, who was an Arian, he converted his 
son Sigismond. Cave thinks he converted the king him- 
self, and when he found him concealing his principles^ 
urged him to a public profession of them. He wrote also 
in defence of pope Symmachus, and died in the year 52S. 
His principal works were Letters, Sermons, and Poems : 
his Letters, 87 in number, contain many curious particu- 
lars of the civil and ecclesiastical history of the times. Of 
his Homilies, one only is extant on Rogation day, in 

1 Biog. Brit. vol. tl. p. 655, art. Browm. — Brand's Hist, of NewcastlejTol. I. 
f, 109« 26S, S69,*-Sir Joho Hawkins's Hist, of Music, ToLV, 

190 AVITUS. 

which he gires the origin of the days so called. In all hi^ 
works, his style is harsh, obscure, and intricate. His 
poems were printed at Francfort in 1 507, and at Paris and 
Lyons in 1508, 1509, and 1536 ; but his whole works were 
published at Paris by father Sirmond, in 1643, fol. and 
«ince that Luc d^Achery published in his Spicilegium, the 
conference with the Arian bishops. ^ 

AULISIO (DoMiNico), th.e son of Antonio Aulisio, was 
born at Naples, Jan. 14, 1649 (or 1639, according to Diet. 
Hist), studied Latin under Floriati and Marteua, and made 
$uch rapid and successful progress in his other studies, 
that at the age of nineteen, he taught rhetoric and poetry 
with reputation. We are also told, that he understood, 
and could write and speak all the languages of the East and 
West, and that he acquired a knowledge of them without 
the aid of a master. He was equally well acqviainted with 
the sciences, and yet with all ,this knowledge he was for a 
long time extremely poor, owing to the loss of his father 
and mother, and the charge of a younger brother and five 
sisters. At the age of twenty -six he taught as professor- 
extraordinary, without any salary, but about eight years 
after he obtained the chair of the institutes, which was 
worth about one hundred ducats, and at forty he held that 
of the code, worth one hundred and forty. From bis 
forty-sixth year to the end of his life, he was principal 
professor, of civil law, with a salary of 11 00 ducats. He 
died Jan. 29, 1717, in the sixty-eighth year of his age.. 
As he b^d been a public teacher at Naples about fifty years^ 
be acquired, according to custom, the title of Count Pala- 
tine, and was interred with the honours due to that rank, 
for twenty-three years, also, he had been superintendant 
of the school of military architecture, by order of Charles 
n. with a salary of twenty -five ducats per month. During^ 
all this time be lived a retired life, and had no ambition 
to exchange it for the bustle of ambition. In the course 
of his studies, he became a great admirer of Plato, and 
when his maternal uncle Leonard! di Capoa, wrote a work 
agreeable to the principles of Des Cartes, Aulisio became 
his antagoist ; but instead of argument, substituted satirical 
verses, which contributed^ little to his own fame, and ex« 
cited the displeasure of his uncle's learned friends. This 
dispute induced him to break off all correspondence with 

A U L I S I O. l$l 

them, and employ his time on several works, particularly, 
1.. *^ De Gymnasii constructione ; De Mausolei architec- 
tura ; de Harmonia Timaica, et numeris medicis.^* These 
three were printed in a quarto volume, Naples, 1694. 
2. ** Commentarii juris civilis ad tit. Pandect/' 3 vols. 4to. 
,3. " Delle Scuole sacre," 1723, 4to. 4. ** Historia deortu 
et progressu MedicinsB,'* Venice, 1700. His life is pre- 
fixed to the " Scuole sacre." * 


AUNGERVYLE (Richard), commonly known by the 
name of Richard de Bury, was born at St. Edmundsbury, 
in Suffolk, in 1281. His father, sir Richard Aungervyle, 
kut* dying when he was young, his uncle John de Wil« 
lowby, a priest, took particular care of his education ; and 
wheni he was fit sent him to Oxford, where he studied phi- 
losophy and divinity, and distinguished himself by his 
learning, and regular and exemplary life. When he had 
finished his studies there, he became a Benedictine monk 
at Durham, Soon after he wa$ made tutor to prince Ed- 
ward, afterwards king Edward III. Being treasurer of 
Guienne in 1325, he supplied queen Isobel, when she 
was plotting against her husband king Edward II. with a 
large sum of money out of that exchequer, for which be- 
ing questioned by the king^s party, he narrowly escaped 
to Paris, where he was forced to hide himself seven days 
in the tower of a church. When king Edward III. came 
to the crown, he loaded his tutor Aungervyle with honours 
and preferments, making him, first, his cofferer, then trea- 
surer of the wardrobe, archdeacon of Northampton, pre- 
bendary of Lincoln, Sarum, and Lichfield, and afterVvards 
keeper of the privy seal. This last place he enjoyed five 
years, and was in that time sent twice ambassador to the 
pope. In 1333 he was. promoted to the deanery of Wells, 
and before the end of the same year, being chosen bishop 
of Durham, he was consecrated about the end of Decem- 
ber, in the abbey of the black canons of Chertsey in 
Surrey. . He was soon afterwards enthroned at Durham, on 
which occasion he made a grand festival, and entertained 
in the haU of his palace at Durham, the king and queen of 
l^ngland, ^he queen-dowager of England, the king of Scot- 
land, the two archbishops, and five bishops, seven earls 
ivith their Udies^ ail the nobility north of Trent, with a 

I MoKcrU 


vast concourse of knights, esquires, and other persons^ cjf 
distinction. The next year he was appointed higb-chan* 
cellor, and in 1336, treasurer of England. In 1338 he 
was twice sent with other commissioners to treat of a peace 
with the king of France, though to no purpose. 

This prelate was not only one of the most learned men of 
his time, but also a very great patron and ^ncourager of 
learning. Petrarch he frequently corresponded with, and 
had for his chaplains and friends the most eminent men of 
the age. His custom was, to have some of his attendants 
read to him while he was at meals, and when they were 
over, to discourse with his chaplains upon the same sub« 
ject. He was likewise of a very bountiful temper. Every 
week he made eight quarters of wheat into bread, and gave 
it to the poor. Whenever he travelled between Durham 
and Newcastle, he distributed eight pounds sterling in alm»; 
between Durham and Stockton, five pounds; between 
Durham and Auckland, five marks ; and between Durham 
and Middleham', five pounds. But the noblest instance of 
his generosity and munificence was the public library he 
founded at Oxford, for the use of the students. This library 
he furnished with the best collection of books that was then 
in England, fixed it in the place where Durham, now Tri«» 
nity -^college, was built afterwards, and wrote a treatise con- 
taining rules for the management of the libra,ry, how the 
books were to be preserved, and upon what conditions lent 
out to scholars. The title o( this book is, ^< Philobiblon, 
sjeu de Amore Librorum et Institutione Bibliothecae,*^ cum 
Appendice de MSS. Oxoniensibus, per Thorn. Jame% 
printed at Oxford in 1599, 4to. It was, however, first 
printed at Spires in 1483, and there are several MS co« 
pies in the libraries of Oxford and Cambridge. This pre- 
late died at Auckland, April 24, 1345, and was buried ia 
the south part of the cross aile of the cathedral of Dur- 
ham. ' 

AUNOY (Marie Catherine Jumelle de Berneville, 
CoMTESSE d'), widow of the count d^Aunoy, and niece of 
ihe celebrated madame Desloges, died in 1 705. She wrote 
with ease, though negligently, in the departitient of ro^ 
mance. Readers of a frivolous taste still peruse with plea- 
sure her " Tales of the Fairies," 4 vols. l2mo, and espe- 
cially her ** Adventures of Hippolytus earl of Douglas/^ in 

1 Hutchinioo'f Hist of Durliam.— Biof . BriU 

A U W 6 V. id* 

l2mi>. a piede containing much warmth and nature in the 
style^ and abundance of the marvellous in the adventures. 
Her ** Memoires historiqiies de ce qui s'est passe de plus 
remitr(|uable en Europe depuis 1672^ jusqu^en 1679/' arel 
a medley of truth and falsehood. Her ** Memoirs of th^ 
court of Spain,*' where she had lived with her mother, ia 
2 vols, present us with no favourable id^a of the Spanish 
nation, which she undoubtedly treats with two much se- 
verity. Her " History of John de Bourboti, prince de 
Carency,** 1692, 3 vols. 12mo, is one of those historical 
romances that are the offspring of slender parts, in conjunc*^ 
tion with alluring effusions of gallantry* Her husband^ 
the count d*Aunoy, being accused of high treason by three 
Normans, very narrowly escaped with his h^ad. One o£ 
his accusers, struck with remorse of conscience, declared 
the whole charge to be groundless. ^ 

AVOGADRI (Lucia Albani) was born at 5ergamo, of 
an ancient and noble family, but derived greater renown 
from her talents than her birth. She excelled in Italian 
poetry, and merited such a commentator and admirer as 
Tasso. Her poems were collected in 1 56 1. She was mar-^ 
ried to a nobleman of Brescia in the Venetian state, where 
she died. Calvi has made very honourable mention of heif 
in his account of the writers of Bergamo. ^ 

AVOGADRO (Albert), of Verceil in Italy, Uved uhdet 
the government of Cosmo de Medicis, grand duke of Flo- 
rence, whose piety and magnificence he celebrated in a 
poem in elegiac verse, consisting of two books. It was 
printed in the 1 2th volume of Lamias " Delicise Erudito-* 
rum.'* The late edition of the Dictionnaire Historique gives 
tiie following brief notices of others of this name ; Jerome 
AvoGADRO, a patron of learning and learned men, who 
first edited the works of Vitruvius. — Nestor- Denis Ave- 
GADRO, a native of Novaro, who published a Lexicon, of 
which an edition was printed at Venice in 1488, fol. To 
th^ subsequent editions were added some treatises by the 
same author, on the eight parts of speech, on prosody, &.C. 
— ^Peter Avogadro, who lived at Verona about 1490. He 
wrete Literary Memoirs of the illustrious men of his coun- 
try ; an Essay on the origin of Mont-de-Piete in Italy,' and 
another ^' De Origine gentis Rizzonse." The marquis 


> MoNtko-OMU Di(!t.~.Siet. Hist. * DictHitW 

Vol. III. O 

194 A V O G A D R O. 

Maffei speaks in high praise of this author in his ^' Verontt 
Illustrata.'^ * 

, AURELIO (Lofus), a native of La Peroosa, and canoft 
of St. John of Lateran, died at Rome in 1637. His know- 
^ege of history-made him be t:onsidered by pope UrbanVIIL 
as one of the most learned historians of his age. tie pub- 
lished an " Abridgement of Tursellitfs Universal History,'* 
in 1623 ; another of " Baronius^s Annals,*' and another 
of Bzovius's great work on ecclesiastical history, in 9 vols, 
folio. He wrote also " A History of the Revolt of Bohemia 
against the Emperors Matthias and Ferdinand," Rome^l625. 
^his last is written in Italian, the others in Latin. ^ 



AURIA (Vincent), born at Palermo, in 1625, and died 
tn the same city in 1710,. quitted the bar, to devote himself 
to literature. He was but poorly provided with the goods 
pf fortune : but he comforted himself in his poetical studies* 
There ai*e a great number of works by him, several iti La« 
jtin, but most in Italian. The latter are more esteemed 
than the former. Among these are reckoned, a ** History" 
(in good repute) ** of the great men of Sicily/' Palermo, 
1704, 4to, and a ** Histoiy of the Viceroys of Sicily," ibid- 
1697, folio.* 

AURIGNI, or AVRIGNI (Gilles de), called also Pam^ 
PHILLE, a French poet of the sixteenth century, was born 
at Beauvais, but we have no particulars of his life^ except 
that be wa^ an advocate of parliament. The editors of the 
f* Annales Poetiques" have inserted his best productions in 
their collection, and among others his ^^ Tuteur d'Amour,'* 
in four cantos, praised for elegance, tenderness, and fancy. 
His other works are^ 1. ^^ Le cinquanbe*deuxieme Arret 
tl' Amour, avec les ordonnances sur le feit des ma^ques,*^ 
firo, 1528. 2; <^ La genealogie des dieiix poetiques,^^ 
12mo, 1545. 3, ** Aureus de utraque potestate libellus, 
in hunc usque diem non visus, Somniuin Viridarii vulgariter 
iiun£upat^s,'M jil 6, 4to. ^ 

\ AVRIGNY (Hyacinth Richari>^ or Hobillard d*>, « 
French historian, was born at Caen in 1675, and admitted 
^t Psuris into thesociety of the Jesuits, Sept 1-5^ 1691. Tl^ 

1 Diet Hjtt.. t. Ibid. f IbUL-^MoRsU-KkMitB, VAUIL 

4 Diet Hist 

A V R I G N y. i§5 

dPatigues lie undeni^ent in tbts society mjared his hlsahh, and 
After bis theological studies he was sent to Alen^on, where 
he was employed as procurator of tha college. He died 
/either there or at Quimp6r, April 2 4, 17 19, He is the 
•author of two works which have been often reprinted. 
1. '^ Memoires chronologiques et dogmatiques, pourseryir 
l Thistoire ecclesiastique, depuis 1600 jusqu^en 1716^ avec 
des reflexions et des remarques critiques,*^ 4 vols. 12ino, 
1720. 2. '^ Memoires pour servir a Phistoire universelle 
de I'Europe, depuis 1600 jusqu'eo/ 1716, &c,'' 4 volfi. 
l2mo, Paris, 1725, reprinted the same year at Amsterdam^ 
and again in 1757.* 

AVUILLON (John Baptist Elus), a French Francis* 
can of the order called Minimes, was bom at Paris Jan. 1, 
1652, and was educated in the Jesuits' college* In the 
course of his studies, and after taking orders, he acquired 
very high reputation for learning, and particularly for h^s 
^oquenoe and zeal as a preacher and devotionad writer, 
fie died at Paris, May 16, 1729. Moreri has given a long 
list of his religious treatises, all of which were frequ^eitly 
•reprinted, and admired in France, when religion was more 
-prevalent than now. He also wrote a work on Algebra, but 
committed it to the flames sometime before his death, and 
it was with much difficulty he was persuaded to publish his 
*^ Genealogie de la maison de Fontaine-Soliers, issue de b 
-Case Solare, souveraine d'Aste en Piemont," 1680, 4tj, 
.which has procured him a place in Le Long^s Bibliot^que 
c^the French historians. * 

AURISPA (John) was bom at Noto, a town of Sicily, 
ill 1369. He applied himself to the study* of the Greek 
ianguage^ and w^nt to Constantinople to collect Greek 
jnaooscripts. Here he became acquainted with, and was 
highly xiespected by, the emperor John Pals&ologus, who 
iound him afterwards at Ferrara when he went to assist at 
« council assembled by Eugene IV. Aurispa became se«- 
cretary to this pope and also to Nicholas V. his successor, 
twho bestowed upon him two rich abbeys. He died at 
Rome in 1459, in tjie 90th year of his age. He translated 
)>art of the wofks of Archimedes, Hierocles's Commentaty 
on the Golden verses of Pythagoras, and published some 
poems and letters. His translation of Hierocles was printed 

t Ditt Hilt— •Moreri— NouTeaux Memoires d'Artigni, voU I» p* 463. 
* Moreri* 

O 2 

J96 A U R I S P A. 

at Basle iii 1543, 8to. By a part of the preface, qnbted 
by Oesner, it appears that he made this translatfOfi wheh 
in his eightieth year. * 

AUROGALLUS (Matthew), a native of Bohemia^ of 
the sixteenth century, was teacher of languages in the uni- 
versity of Wittemberg. He compiled " Compendium He- 
brsea) Chaldeajque grammatices," Wittemberg, 8vo, 1525, 
Basle, 1539; and *< De Hebrseis urbium, regionum, &c. 
nominibus, liber e veteri instrumento congestus,^' ibid. 
1526, 1529, 8vo. This second edition was much enlarged 
by the author. He also assisted Luther in the translation 
of the Bible. He died in 1 543. * 

AUSONIUS (Decimus Magnvs), an eminent poet of the 
fourth century, was the son of a physician, and born at 
Bourdeaux. Great care was taken of his education, the 
M'hole family interesting themselves in it, either because his 
genius was very promising, or that the scheme of his na- 
tivity^ which had been cast by his grandfather on the mo^ ' 
therms side, led them to imagine that be would rise to great 
honour. Whatever their motive, it is allowed that be made 
an uncommon progress in classical learning, and at the age 
of thirty was chosen to teach grammar at Bourdeaux. He 
was promoted some time. after to be professor of rhetoric, 
in which office he acquired so great a reputation, that he 
Was sent for to court to be preceptor to Gratian the em- 
peror Valentiuian's son. The rewards and honours con- 
ferred on him for the faithful discharge of his office remind 
us of JuvenaPs maxim, that when fortune pleases she can 
raise a man from a rhetorician to a consul. He was actually 
appointed consul by the emperor Gratian, in the year 379, 
after having filled other considerable posts; for, besides 
the dignity of questor, to which he had been nominated 
by Valentinian,^ he was made prefect of the prsetorium in 
Italy and Gaul after that princess death. His speech re- 
turning thanks to Gratian on his promotion to the consul- 
ship is highly commended. The time of his death is un- 
certain ; he was living in 392, and lived to a great age. He 
had sereral children by his wife, who died young. The 
emperor Theodosius had a great esteem for Ausonius, and 
pressed him to publish his poems. There is a great in- 
equality in his product! ofis ; and in his style there is a 
Jiarshness, which was perhaps rather the defect of the times 

^ Morert— Gea. Dict.<*^ui Ooomartiooa* * Ibid. 

A U S O N I U S, 197 

he lived in, than of bis genius. Had he lived in Augustus's 
reign, his verses, according to good judges, would have, 
equalled the most finished of that age. . He is generally 
s^upposed to have been a Christian : some ingenious authors 
indeed have thought otherwise, and the indecency of many 
of his poeins make us not very anxious to claim him. The 
editio princeps of his works was published at Venice, 1 472, 
fol. of which there are four copies in this country, in the 
libraries of his majesty, the museum, earl Spencer, and 
Mr. WodhuIL De Bure was not able to iiiid one in France. 
The two best editions, the first very uncommon, are those 
of Amsterdam, 1671, iJvo, and Bipont, 1785, 8vo.* 

AUTELS (William des), a French and Latin poet, vo« 
luminous enough to require some notice, although his works 
are now perhaps but little known or valued even in his owa 
country, was born at Charolles about the year 1529, the 
son of Syacre or Fiacre des Autels, a gentleman of the 
same country. He inherited little from this father, except, 
^ he informs us, a chateau, rather noble than rich. For 
some time he studied law at Valencia, but it does not ap- 
pear with what view : poetry was his favourite pursuit, al- 
though he succeeded very seldom^; but what was wanting 
in genuine poetry was made up by an obtrusive display of 
Greek and Latin, in the manner of Ronsard, whon> he 
called his friend. Like other poets, he aflPected to have a 
mistress for whom he cherished a Platonic affection, but it 
appears that he was married at the age of twenty-four. 
His de^iti} is said to have happened about 1580. Moreri 
enumerates many volumes of his poems, sonnets, elegies, 
pieces in imitation of Rabelais, Ronsard, &c. The fol- 
lowing are of a different description, and respect a contro<^ 
versy ojn the orthography of the French language. 1* 
'* Trait6 touchant Tancienne ^criture de la Langue Fran- 
goise, et de sa Poesie," Lyons, 16mo, published under the 
anagrami;natical naqoe of Glauma^is de Vezelet LQuis 
Meigret, his opponent in the controversy, imipediately 
published his "Defenses touphant son Ortoeraphe Frangoise 
contre ]es censures et c^lomnies de Glaumalis,'' Paris, 1 550, 
4to, Autels followed this by " Repliques aux furieuses 
defenses de Louis Meigret,^' 16mo, ^yons, 1551, whicl^ 
Meigret answered the same year, Gruter thought son^e 

I G«p. Dict.^Moreri.— Cave> vol. L-HSasiiiOnomaitiGen.— Dibdin'9 0)a9sics, 

'i^» A U T E L S. 

<rf his Latin poetry of sufficient merit to obtain a place in 
the *^ DelicisB poetaruoi Gallorum," 1609. * 


AUTHON, or AUTON (John d*), historiographer of 
France under I^ouis XII. abbot of Angle in Poitou, was*, 
originally of Saintonge, and of the same family from which, 
according to some authors, the famous Barbarossa de-' 
scended. He wrote the history of France from 1490 to 
1508, with great fidelity, but M. Garnier says, that ** Louis • 
XIL who usually employed the most celebrated pens, chose, 
with less than his ordinary discernment, Jean d* Authon, to 
write the particular history of his reign : for, though he* 
bad bestowed several benefices upon him ; though he made 
him commonly travel in the suite of the army, and gave* 
orders to his ministers and generals to conceal nothing 
from him of all that was worthy of being handed down to 
posterity, he was less happy in this respect than a great 
number of his predecessors. Authon is but a cold proser, 
nice in giving the particulars of little matters, but deficient 
in unfolding motives, &c." Theodore Godefi-oi published 
Ae four first years of his history in 1620, 4'to, and the two 
last which had appeared in 1615, in 4to, with ^^ PHistoire 
de Louis XII.'' by Seyssel ; the three others, whieh have 
not yet been sent to the press, are now in the Imperial li- 
brary. This historian died in January 1523, according to 
Moreri, or 1527 in Diet. Hist, which gives the following 
productions from his pen : 1. " Les Epistres envoy^es au 
Toy par les ^tats de France, avec certaines ballades et ron- 
deaux," Lyons, 1509, 4to. 2. " L'exil de Gennes le Su- 
perbe," 1 508, 4to. 3. " Diverses pieces sur la mort de 
Thomassine Espinolle (Spinola) MS." * 

AUTOLYCUS, a philosopher who flourished about 340 
years before the Christian oera. He was the preceptor of 
Arcesilas, the son of Seuthes. He wrote several treatises 
on astronomy, of which Joseph Auria, of Naples, translated 
into Latin the only ones extant, on the sphere, and the 
stars. ' 

AUTOMNE (Bernard), advocate of the parliament of 
Bourdeaux, was born in 1587, at Agenois. He undertook 
an edition of the >*' Corps du Droit," the expence of which 

* Moreri. * Ibid. — Diet. Hist. 

9 Moreri. — ^VossiuB de Math. £. 33. § 1^. p. 154. — Fabrie. Bibl. 6r«c.-«- 

ii Onomast. 

A U T O M N E. iw 

tlte- chancellor had promised to defray^ but in this onr 
auihor was disappointed, and was exposed to the demands 
of his creditors, when he was relieved by the generosity of 
le Bret, a counsellor of state. Automne was a man of 
study, and wrote several works on professional subjects^ 
which were much approved. The most celebrated of these 
is his <' Commentaire surla Coutume de Bourdeaux,^' the 
best edition of which was published by Dupin, in 1728, fok 
with notes.' He wrote also a " Conference du Droit Ro- 
main avec le l^roit Francois," 1644, 2 vols. fol. and " Cen* 
siira^Gallica in Jos Civile Romanum," Paris, 1625, 8v6^ 
or according to Saxius, 1613. Some of these works ar^ 
thought to be deficient in judgment and in perspicuity of 
$irrangement. He is said to have been the editor of Ju<- 
veflal anjd Persius, with copious notes in Latin, 2 vols. 8vo^ 
Paris, 1607, which we do not find mentioned in any of the 
lists of editions of those poets, yet it is noticed by Saxius. 
Moreri thinks he died about 1 629, but in the Diet His- 
torique it is said he died in 1666 at the age of ninety-nine 
years, i^hich does not correspond with the date of his birth^ 
which we have given from Moreri. ^ 

AUTREAU (Jacques d'), a painter from necessity and a 
poet by taste, died in indigence, in constant attachment 
to his two professions, at Paris, his birth*place, in the hos-^ 
pital of Incurables, in 1745. D'Autreau, although of a 
gloomy and melancholy character, wrote comedies that 
excited laughter, and continue ^o amuse upon the stage. 
He was almost sixty when he first turned his thoughts to 
the drama, an employment that demands all the vivacity 
and imagination of youth ; but his plots are too simple, the 
catastrophe is immediately perceived, and the pleasure of 
surprise is lost. His dialogue, however, is natural, his 6tyle 
easy, and some of his scenes are in the true comic taste. 
The Italian theatre has preserved his " Port a TAnglois,*^ 
in prose ; *^ Deihocrite pr6tendu fou," in three acts, and 
in verse. The theatres of France have represented " Clo* 
tinda," a tragedy in five acts ; the " Chevalier Bayard," in 
five acts ; and the " Magie de PAmour," a pastoral in one 
act, in verse. He gave at the opera, *^ Plat6e, ou la Nais* 
sance. de la Com^die," the music by the celebrated Ra- 
meau. " Le Port i I'Anglois" is the first piece in which 
the Italian players spoke Prench. The works of d'Au* 

* Moreri.-^Dict. Hi»t.— Saxii Onomast. 

eoo A U T R E A U. 

treau were collected in 1749, in 4 vols. l:2mo> with agoo4 
preface by Pesselier. The most known of .the pictures of 
this painter, is that of Diogenes, with the lanthem in bis 
hand, in search of an honest man, and finding him in the 
cardinal de Fleury. D'Autreau lived very retired, dc*» 
spising all that the generality of mankind esteem, and 
agreeing with the public in no one thing except in the lit<p 
tie concern he took about himself. ^ 

AUVERGNE (Antoine d'), an eminent French mxm^ 
cian and composer, was born at Clermont in Auvergnie, 
.Oct. 4, 1713. Instead of giving any extraordinary proofs 
of voluntary application, or early pregnancy of genius, he 
merely complied with the desire of bis father, who was a 
musician, in turning his thoughts, or rather employing his 
jtime, in that pursuit. About his eighteenth year, how^ 
ever, an entire change appeared to have taken place in his 
mind, which became suddenly seized with the most vio? 
lent enthusiasm, and such was his application night and 
day, that he soon became a capital performer on the vior 
}in, and was in 1739 thought worthy of the honour of bet 
ing admitted into his majesty^s chamber band. With no 
other help in composition than the works of Rameau, he 
composed a trio for two violins and a bass, which he pre<f 
sented tp that celebrated author, who, flattered by such a 
mark of respect, offered the young composer iiis advice 
and friendship. Auvergne began to compose a number 
of works for the court and the opera, which were much 
admired. In 1766, having the direction of the spiritual 
concert entrusted to him, and being unable tp treat with 
Mpndonville, who asked an exorbitant price for his Motets, 
Auvergne, undismayed by thje vast reput^itiou which the 
Orpheus of Languedoc (as Mpndonville was called) bad 
;^cquired in that species of composition, turned bis own 
talents to it, and with such success,. that his ^'Te Deum,** 
f*De Profundis,'* and his ^^Miserefe," were considered as 
first-rate work^. In 1753, he composed the music of the 
first jcpmic opera tliat was exhibited in France, and tbu$ 
prepared the way for that style in which Monsigny, Gretry^ 
itnd Daleyr^c have since so ably distinguished themselves. 
Auvergne w^ director of the opera from 1767 to 1775, 
^nd from 1785 to 1790. Although in this time he had not 
^tudii^d to accumulate a fortune, be lived in v^ry e^sy 

} Moreri.7— Diet Jf 1st. 

A U V E B G N E. 201 

eu^cuitistafices until the revolution, when be lost all hU 
pkces, and jw^s thrown into a state approaching to indi« 
getice. In 1796, he went to Lyons, and was consoled in 
his age and poverty by his sisters and his second wife, and 
here he died Feb. 12, 1797, justly regretted by all who 
knew him. Besides the music already mentioned, he 
composed the following operas, ** Canente,^* ^* Enee et 
Lavinia," and ^^ Hercule mourant,'* all in his younger days, 
but the dates not specified ; ** Les Amours de Tempe,*' 
1752 ; ** Les Ffetcs d'Euterpe," 1758; « PolyXene," 1763; 
^' La Venitienne.'* He also retouched some former 
operas, and composed the music of several ballets per-* 
formed at Versailles and Fontainbleau. It seems remarks- 
able that so popular a composer, and one who had contri- 
buted so much to *^ gladden life*^ in the gay metropolis of 
France, should Jiave been left to end his days in obscurity 
and poverty, ' 

AUVIGNY (N. Castres d'), born in the Hainaut, lived 
some time with th& abb^ des Fontaines, who formed his 
taste. He entered afterwards into the light ^horse-guards^ 
.and was killed in the battle of Dettingen, in 1743, at the 
age of 3 1 . He was a man of genius and imagination. His 
' writings are : L ^^ Memoirs of madame de Barneveldt,'' a 
roaiiu^e, 2 vols. 12mo. 2. ^* An abridgment of the his- 
tory of France and of the Roman history,*' by question 
and « answer, 2 vols. 12mo. which was recommended as 
useful to young persons. It used to be, and sometimes yet 
is, attributed to the abb6 des Fontaines, who only revised it, 
but overlooked several inaccuracies in the dates and 
njsgiigences in the style. 3. The three 6rst volumes, and 
Jupif , of the fourth, of the ^^ History of Paris,** in 5 vols. 
l;2mo. 4. Tl^e eight first volumes of the ^^ Lives of the 
illjustrious men of France,'* in 12mo. The ninth, and the 
tenth were published in 1744, by his brother, canon of 
Pr^montr^. The work was continued by the abb^ Pereau 
;ind M. Turpin. D*Auvigny*8 part is written with spirit, 
and contains curious anecdotes and facts but little known. 
But the author prefers the ornaments of style to historical 
pr^ci^iou, and sometimes adopts the romantic tone. His 
jdictipil is ii^ geneiral either laboriously inflated, or too neg« 
ligent* * 

AUZOUT (Adrian) was a French astronomer, and a 
jpember of the old academy of France, into wliich he was 

» Diet. Hist. « ibid.—Moreri. 

20* A U Z O U T. 

^received in 1666, He is principally knomi fdr licivitigf 
brought to perfection the micrometer, an instrument 
tisuaUy fitted to a telescope, in the focus of the object- 
glass, for measuring small angles or distances. This be 
published in 1666, but Mr. Townley, in the«Philosophical 
Transactions, claims it for one of our countrymen. Mi*. 
Gascoigne. He relates that from some scattered letters 
and papers of this gentlemen, who was killed in the grand 
rebellion, he had learned that before its breaking out, he 
had invented a micrometer, of as much effect as that made 
by M. Auzout, and had made use of it for some years '; 
not only in taking the diameters of the planets^ and distan- 
ces upon land, but in determining other matters of nice 
importance in the heavens, as the moon's distance, &c, 
Mr. Gascoigne's instrument also fell into the hands of Mr. 
Townley, who says ferther, that by the help of it he could 
make above 40,000 divisions in a foot. The French writ- 
ers endeavour to deny all this, and conclude with an as* 
sertion, as illiberal as it is false, that every nation has a 
zeal for its literary glory, but that in England alone this- 
zeal is pushed to ardour and to injustice. Auzout, l)ow^ 
ever, was an astronomer of acknowledged abilities. He 
died in 1691.* 

• AYALA (Gabriel), a physician, of a Spanish family, 
iitudied at Antwerp, about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, and took bis doctor's degree in medicine at Loa- 
vain in 1556. He practised chiefly at Brussels, and was 
appointed physician-pensionary to that city. He was also 
esteemed among his learned contemporaries, on account of 
his poetical talents, and taste in polite literature, Hia 
works are : 1 . " Popular ia epigrammata medica." 2. ^* Car* 
men pro vera Medicina." 3. " De Lue pestilenti." 4. 
** Elegiarum liber unus," printed together, Antwerp, 1562, 
4to. * 

AYLESBURY (Thomas), a patron of learning, was the 
second son of William Aylesbury by his wife Anne, daugh- 
ter of John Poole, esq. and was born in London in 1576: 
He was educated at Westminster school, and, in 1598, be* 
came a student of Christ church, Oxford ; where he dis- 
tinguished himself by his assiduous application to bis stu- 

1 Httiton*8 Mathematical Diet, in art» Micrometer.-^-Eloges dei Acadeniciens, 
▼ol. I. p. 1781 edit. 1799— Diet. Hist, 

• Antonio Bibl. Hist.— Foppen 13ibl. Belg.— Vander Linden de Script. M«d.— 
Diet Hist. 

A Y L E S B- U R V. 80* 

dresi especially the mathematics In June 1605, be took 
his degree of M. A, After he quitted the university, he 
was employed as secretary to Charles earl of Nottingham^ 
then lord high admiral of England, in which post he had* 
an opportunity of improving his mathematical knowledge, 
as well as of giving many proofs of it. On this account 
when George VillierS| duke of Buckingham, succeeded 
the earl of Nottingham as high admiral, Mr. Aylesbuiy 
not only kept his employment, but was also, by the favotir 
of that powerful duke, created a baronet, April 19, 1627, 
having been before made master of requests, and master 
of the mint. These lucrative employments furnished him 
with the means of expressing his regard for learned men« 
He not only made all men of science welcome at his table, 
and afforded them all the countenance he could ; but like* 
wise gave to such of them as were in narrow circumstances, 
regular pensions out of his own fortune, and entertained 
them at his bouse in Windsor-park, where he usually spent 
Ae sumnxer. Walter Warner, who, at his request, wrote 
a treatise on coins and coinage, and the famous Mr. Tho- 
mas Harriot, were among the persons to whom he extended 
his patronage, and Harriot left him (in conjunction with* 
Robert Sidney and viscount Lisle) all his writings and all 
the MSS. he had collected. Mr. Thomas Allen of Oxford, 
likewise, whom he had recommended to the duke of Buck- 
ingham, confided his manuscripts to sir Thomas, who is 
said to have been one of the most acute and candid critics 
of his time. By this means he accumulated a valuable li- 
brary of scarce books and MSS. which were either lost at 
home during the civil wars, or sold abroad to relieve his 
distresses; for in 1642 his adherence to the king, occa- 
sioned his being turned out of his places, and plundered of 
kis estates. This he bore with some fortitude, but the mur- 
der of his sovereign gave him a distaste of his country, and 
vetiring with his family to F4anders, he lived for some time 
at Brussels, and afterwards at Breda, where in 1657 he 
died. He left a son William, who, at the request of 
Charles I. undertook to translate D'Avila's History of the 
Givil Wars of France, which appeared in 1647 ; but in the 
second edition, published in 1678, the merit of the whole 
translation is given to sir Charles Cotterel, except a few 
passages in the first four books. The calamities of his* 
country affected this gentleman too, and in 1657, when 
Cromwell fitted out a fleet to ^o on an expedition to the 

90* A Y L E S B U.R Y, 

West Indies, and to carry a supply to the isknd of Ja- 
maica, Mr. Aylesbury, from pure necessity, engaged him- 
self as secretary to the governor, and died on the island 
soon after. His surviving sister, the countess of Claren- 
don, became heiress of what could be recovered of the 
family estate. * 

AY LETT (Robert), master in chancery, was educated 
in Trinity hall, Cambridge, wherein 1 6 1 4 he commenced 
LL. D. It was his usual practice to relax himself after bis 
severer studies with poetry. Besides his " Divine and 
Moral Speculations" in verse, London, 1654, 8vo, he 
wrote " Susanna, or the Arraignment of the two Elders,'* 
in verse, Lond. 1622, Svo. Mr. Wood starts a question 
whether he was author of " Britannia Antiqua illustrata,'* 
published under the name of Aylett Sammes, but said to 
be written by his uncle. Certain it is that the nominal 
author was unequal to it, though much learning and la- 
bour have been spent on it to very little purpose. The 
Ceusura Literaria attributes to Dr. Aylett four pastoral 
eclogues, entitled " A Wife not ready made, but be- 
spoken :" the dedication of which is signed R. A. and the 
second edition was pubhsbed in 1653, 8vo. ^ 

AYLMER, or ^LMER (John), an eminent English 
prelate, descended from a very ancient and honourable fa- 
in ily, seated at Aylmer-hall, in Norfolk, was born in 1521, 
and being a younger brother, was either recommiended hy 
his relations, or recommended himself by his pregnant 
parts, to the marquis of Dorset (Henry Grey), ^fter^ards 
duke of Suffolk, who honoured him with the title of his 
Scholar, and gave him an exhibition fit the university of 
Cambridge. When he had there stained competent 
learning, the marquis took him home, where he became 
tutor to his children, amongst whom was the lady Jane, 
whp for some days was styled queen, and who, under 
Aylmer's tuition, acquired the Latin and Greek tongues, 
reading and writing in the latter with ease and elegance. 
By his care also, she received right principles of religion, 
as he imbibed the opinions of the primitive reformers ; and 
haying for his patrons the duke of Suffolk and tbe ea,rl of 
Huntingdon, in the reign of Edward VI„ was for some time 
the only preacher in Leicestershire ; where he hfid great suc- 
cess in inculcating the Protestant religion. When the cele? 

» Biog. Brit.— At^. Ox. vol. I.— Lloyd's Memoirs, fol p. 699. 
: « GrtDger'sfiios. Hist.— Wood's At|i»n», vol. II.— Ceaiura Literaria, vol. V.' 

A Y L M E R. «<5* 

bnUe'd Asoham, in a visit to lady Jane in 1550, asked her 
how so young a lady (not then above fourteen) could have 
arrived at such perfection both in philosophy and the 
Greek language, she bore the following testimony to the 
merit of her tutor ; << I will tell you/' said she, *^ and tell 
you truth, . which, perchance, you will marvel at. One of 
the greatest benefits which ever God gave me, is that he 
sent so sharp and severe parents, and so gentle a schooK 
master. For when I am in presence either of father or 
member, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand, or go ; 
eat, drink, be merry or sad; be sewing, playing, dancing, 
or doing any thing else, I must do it, as it were, in such 
weight, measure, and number, and even so perfectly, as 
God made the world, or else, I am so sharply taunted, so 
cruelly threatened, yea, presently sometimes with pinches, 
nips, and bobs (or other ways, which I will not name, for 
the honour I bear them), so without measure misordered, 
that I think myself in hell, till time come that I must go 
to Mr. ElmeVj who teacheth me so gently, so pleasantly, 
with fiatir allurements to learning, that I think all the time 
nothing while I am with him ; and when I am called from 
him, I fall a weeping, because whatsoever I do ehe but 
learning, is full of grief, trouble, fear, and wholly mislik- 
ing unto me ; and this my book hath been so much my 
pleasure, and bringeth daily to me more pleasure, and 
more yet, in respect to it, all other pleasures, in very 
deed, be but trifles and troubles unto me.*' Mr. Ascham 
was so affected with this interview, that in a letter to lady 
Jane, dated the eighteenth of January, 1551, be speaks of 
it in rapture, and by a beautiful apostrophe, addressing 
himself to Mr. Aylmer; felicitates him on his having so in- 
genious, a scholar, in a strain of compliment, which he 
saysr the great Sturmius made use of to him, speaking of 
his happiness, in having the lady Elizabeth for his pupil. 
]n this letter it is, that he desires Mr. Aylroer, to whom 
he foresaw it would be shewn, to engage the lady Jane, 
to write ^ letter in Greek to himself, and another to Stur* 
mius, and also desires they might continue to live in the 
same learned friendship and intercourse, which they had 
hiiherto 4otie- 

The first preferment bestowed upon Aylmer, was the 
archdeaconry of Stow, in the diocese of Lincoln, which 
giving him a seat in the convocation, held in the first year 
of queen Mary, be boldly opposed that return to Popery, 

3^06 A y-L M E ft. 

•which he s^w apjiroaching. He was ooe of &x^ whd^ in 
the midst of all the violence of that assembly, offered to 
dispute all the controverted points in religion, against the 
most learned champions of the Papists. But when the>8U<- 
preme power began to employ force, archdeacon Ayimer 
withdrew^ and escaped abroad in almost a miraculous man- 
ser^* He resided first at Strasbourg, afterwards at Zu- 
jrick in Switzerland, and there in peace followed his studies, 
employing all his time in acquiring knowledge, or inaseost- 
ing other men of study. His thoughts, though in a distant 
country, were continually employed in the service of £ng« 
land, and of Englishmen. He published (as Strype sup* 
.poses) lady Jane Grey's letter to Harding, who had been 
her father's chaplain, and who apostatized. He -assisted 
Fox in translating the History of English Martyrs into 
JLatin, and also in the version of archbishop Cranoier's 
Vindication of the book on the Sacram^it, against GardU 
uer, bishop of Winchester, which, however, was never 
printed. Duruig these employments he found leisure to 
visit mx)6t of the universities of Italy and Gemany, and 
had an offer from the duke of Saxooy, of the Hebrew pro^ 
fessor^p of Jena, which he refused, on the project of 
speedily returning home. It was during his exile likewise 
ihat he wrote the only work of consequence which he ever 
published, in answer to the famous Scotch reformer, John 
Knox. In 1556, John Knox printed, at Geneva, a trea- 
tise under this title : ^* The first Blast against the mon* 
«trous regiment and eoopire of Women," to shew that, 
by the laws of God, women could not exercise sovareiga 
Buthorityk' The ofa^ts of this attack were the two <{ueens, 
Mary of Lorrain, then regent of Scotland, and Mary quecoi 
of England. It was violent, but iiot xmarg^umentative, aii4l 
he could s^opeal with ^ect to the laws of Frauoe, and to 
the recent proposal of Edward VI. to adopt the same lai#. 
He intended a second, and a third part ; but findii^g k 
.gave offence to many of his brethren, and being desirous 
to strengthen rather than invalidate the authority of Eliza*- 
beth, he relinquished his design. ^11 as this first taadedi 
to injure the Protestant religion in the minds of Princes, 
and those in authority, Mr. Aylmer resolved to employ his 

* Fuller says that the ship in whieh and that Aylmer, who was a man sf 

he embarked was searched, and that he low stature, sat on one side of it, while 

was concealed in a very laiye wine ves" the searchers 4lnAk w'me out of Ul0 

stl, with a partition in Hkt middle ; other. 

A t L M £ ft. m07 

peo in die performance of a duty incumbent opon fabn^ Ms 
a Christian divine, and a good subject. His piece was en- 
titled, '< An Harborowe for faitbfuU and trewe subjects^ 
against the late blowne Blaste, concerning the government 
of Women. Wherein bee confuted al such reasons as n 
atraunger of late made in that behalfe* With a briefe Ex^ ' 
hortatton to obedience.^' Strasbourg, April 26, 1559, de^ 
dicated to the earl of Bedford, and Icnrd Bobert Dudl^ 
{afterwards earl' of Leicester, then) master of the queen^js 
horse. This hook is written with great vivacity, and at 
Ae same time discovers its author's deep and general learn- 
ing. It contains, however, some sentiments rather more 
in favour of the Puritans than he afterwards held, a cir- 
cumstance whfich was objected to him by some of that 
party, when in discharge of his episcopal duty he found 
it necessary to repress their endeavours to assimilate the 
church of Eugkud with that of Geneva. 

After the iu:ccsssion of queen Elizabeth, Aylmer returned 
home, and was one of the eight divines appointed to dis-- 
pute with as many popish bishops at Westminster, in the 
presence of a great assembly. In 1562, he obtained the 
archdeaconry of Lincoln, by the favour of Mr. secretary 
Cecil ; and in right of this dignity, sat in the famous sy- 
nod held the saxae year, wherein the doctrine and disci- 
pline of the church, and its reformation from the abuses of 
pop^y, were carefully examined and settled. In this 
fituatton he continued for many years, and discharged the 
duty of a good subject to the government under which hh 
lively in church and state ; being one of the cfueen's jus'- 
lices of the peace, as also an ecclesiastical commissioner. 
In October, 1573, he accumulated the degrees of bachelor 
aad doctor in divinity, in the university of Oxford. The 
next year the archbidKip of Canterbury made choice of 
kim, to answer a book written in Latin against the govern- 
ment of the eharch of England ; but after thoroughly con« 
nderiag it. Dr. Aylmer declined the task, which some iit 
those days (perhaps unjustly) attributed to discontent, be «• 
canse he was not made a bishop. To this dignity he had 
been often named by Parker, then archbishop of Canter- 
bury^ but always prevented either by the interest of the 
aroMBU^op's enemies, or his own, the latter never failing 
to suggest, that in the same book where Aylmer had mide 
his court to the queen, he had also shewn his spleen 
agaiast^efiiscojiacy. At W, in tkeye^t 1 57 6, on Dr. Ed^ 

SM A Y L M £ IL 

win Sandys b^ing promoted to the archbishopric df Vort^r 
Dr. Aylixier was made bishop of London, not without ihm 
furtherance of his predecessor, who was his intimate friend^ 
and had been his fellow^exile. Yet, immediately after bis 
.promotion, bishop Aylmer found, or thought he found, 
cause to complain of the archbishop ; and although bis 
^race assisted at his consecration, on the 24th of March, 
J 576, bishop Aylmer sued him for dilapidations, which 
after some years prosecution he recovered. In 1577, our 
bishop began his first visitation, wherein he urged sub- 
scriptions, which some ministers refused, and reviled such 
as complied, calling them dissemblers, a^d comparing 
them to Arians and Anabaptists. He was also extremely 
assiduous in public preaching, took much pains in exa* 
mining such as came to him for ordination, and kept a 
strict eye over the Papists and Puritans ; in which he acted 
not only to the extent of episcopal authority, but wrote 
freely to the treasurer Burleigh, as to what he thought 
farther necessary. When the plague raged in London, in 
the year 1578, our bishop shewed a paternal care of his 
clergy and people, and without exposing the former to^ 
needless perils, took care that these last should not be 
without spiritual comforts. In 1581 came out Campion^s 
book, shewing the reasons why he had deserted the re* 
formed, . aud returned to the popish communion. It was 
written in very elegant Latin, and dedicated to the scho* 
lars of both universities ; and the treasurer Burleigh thought 
that it should be answered, and referred the care thereof 
to our bishop, who though he gave his opinion freely upon 
the subject, as to the mode in which it should be done, yet 
declined the task himself on account of the great business 
he had upon his hands, and it was undertaken and ably 
executed by Dr. Whitaker. Aylmer was indeed no great 
friend to controversy, which he thought turned the minds 
of the people too much from the essence of religion, made, 
them quarrelsome and captious, indifferent subjects, and 
not very good Christians. On this account, he was mor^ 
severe with the Puritans than the Papists, imprisoning one 
Woodcock, a stationer or bookseller, for vending a trea* 
tise, entitled *< An Admonition to Parliament,'* which 
tended to subvert the church as it was then constituted: 
He had likewise some disputes with one Mn Welden, a 
person of a good estate and interest, in Berkshire^ wn6ai 
he procured tp be conunitt^d by the ecc^siastioal cOob^ 


A V L M E R.^ 209 

xniiisioners. These proceedings roused the Puritans, who 
treated him as a persecutor, and an enemy to true reli- 
gion ; but this did not discourage the bishop^ who thought 
the peace of the church was to be secured by the authority 
of its fathers) and therefore he executed his episcopal 
power^ as far and as often as he thought necessary. Thu3 
he suddenly summoned the clergy of London to his p^* 
lace on Sunday, September 27, 1379, at one o^ clock. On 
this summons forty appeared; and the dean being likewise 
present, the bishop cautioned them of two things, one was, 
not to meddle with the Ubiquitarian controversy; the 
other, to avoid meddling with the points treated in Stubb's 
book, entitled " The Discovery of a gaping Gulph," &c: 
written against the queen's marriage with Monsieur, the 
French king^s brother, and in which it was suggested, that 
the queen wavered in her religion. This method being 
found very effectual, he summoned his clergy often, and 
made strict inquiries into their conduct, a practice as 
much approved by some, as censured by others ; and his 
unpopularity, perhaps, might occasion, in some measure, 
that violence with which he was prosecuted before the 
council, in May 1579, for cutting down his woods, when 
he was severely checked by the lord treasurer ; but not- 
withstanding his angry letters to that great nobleman, and 
his long and laboured defence of himself, he was, at 
length, by the queen's command, forbidden to fell any 

On the 6th of April, in the same year, there was a dread- 
ful earthquake ; and in the dead of the night of the 1st of 
May, it was felt again, which, as it exceedingly terrified 
the people, so the bishop, that he might turn their con- 
cern to a proper object, and at the same time exhibit to 
them reasonable grounds of comfort, composed certain 
prayers to be made use of in the public service. In 1581, 
the bishop had an angry contest with the lord RicI^, who 
kept one Wright a puritan minister in his house, and would 
have compelled the bisliop to license him to preach in his 
diocese ; but on a hearing before the ecclesiastical com- 
shis^ioners, Wright was committed to the Fleet, and others 
who had interfered in this afFairi to other prisons. This 
increased the number of his enemies, of whom he had not 
a ^few before, who daily suggested that he was a violent 
iQSui> aud sought to vest too great a power in churchmen ; 
ahdTthese representations had such effect, that sometimes 

Vol. III. P 

210 - A Y L M E R. 

snessages were sent to hioiy to abate somewhat of the rigour 
of his proceedings. His lordship, however, still supported 
the ecclesiastical commission, by his presence and autho- 
rity ; and though a milder course might have made him 
ipore popular, yet he thought it better to suffer himself, 
than that the church should. He began, however^ to have 
many doubts ooncerning the treasurer, from whose hands 
his re.proofs usually came : but upon the winding up of his 
catise before the council about felling of woods, he ^aw 
clearly^ that he had no friend equal to the treasurer, who, 
though he endeavoured by his admonitions to prevent his 
falling into difficulties, yet generously exerted his utmost 
power to help him out of them, so &r as« was consistent 
with equity, and the good of the common weal. From this 
time forward, therefore, the bishop applied chiefly to the 
treasurer, for any favours he expected from court, par- 
ticularly with regard to the business of his translation. He 
became exceedingly solicitous to be removed from Lon- 
don, either to Winchester or Ely ; but, though he had 
many fair promises, his interest was insufficient, and iii the 
mean time new- informations, some with little, many with 
no cause at all, were exhibited against him, and gave him 
not a little uneasiness, although, on a thorough examina- 
tion, his conduct escaped the censure of his superiors. In 
1583 he performed his triennial visitation, and having dis- 
covered many scandalous corruptions in the ecclesiastical 
courts, especially in the business of commuting penances, 
he honestly represented what came to his knowledge to 
the privy council. About this time also he suspended 
certain ministers, accused of nonconformity; and it ap* 
pears, that upon a thorough examination of the matter, his 
lordship did impartial justice, in restoring one Mr. GifFard, 
whom he had twice suspended, when those who had 
charged him were able to make nothing out. In this year 
also he committed Mr. Thomas Cartwright, the celebrated 
Puritan minister, who had written against the hierarchy. 
Yet for this his lordship incurred the queen's displeasure ; 
and a little after was informed that he stood accused to her 
majesty, for impairing the revenues of his bishopric, of 
which iie purged himself, by exhibiting a state of. the 
bishopric as it then stood, compared with the condition it 
was in when he became bishop. Other difficulties he oiet 
with, on account of the share he had in executing.' ber 
majesty's ecclesiastical commission, from which theve were 


4Y. tMEB, au 

who &voured tlia. Pqrii^na^ did not &ii to ot^ecttto* (b^ 
bi9hap^9 eond^P^ which qontribute^DOtaEliUl^.to imtate 
hh w^ni temper. lu 158^ b^s compiQ8^4 & pv»it|(6r. to Imis 
used W account. of the rainy tlnaeasQ^abl^ .weather, whick 
ha recominend^ to .priviite femiliefly a» well as dicc^tedl to 
be read with theppblic pnayer^, > He aUo used hfis interest 
tp quiet the murnlurs of the coDimoD people in Londooy 
against the crowda of strangers who fled hither, to avoid' 
the persecutioa3 raised against them, for emii^raGing the 
Protestant religion. In the summer of the year 1586, the 
bishop went his next triennial viiutation, and at Maiden iu 
{Issex, narrowly escaped, an outrageous insult, intended 
against him by some disaffected persons. In 1587, the 
bishop entered into a new scei^e of trpuble, on account o£ 
one Mr. Robert Cawdry, schoolmaster, whotti the lorcl 
Surleigh had presented to the living of South Luffenhaai 
in Kutiandshire, where, after preaching sixteen years,, he 
WBS convened before the ecclesiastical eommtssion^ and at 
length, the bishop sitting as Judge, deprived. Cawdryi 
would not submit to the sentence ; upon which the ipat-« 
ter was re*-examined by the ecclesiastical commission^ »t 
Lambeth, where to. deprivation, degradation was added. 
Cawdry, however, .still refusing to submit, made: new and 
warm representations to the lord Budeighi who favoured 
him as much as with justice he could : but. after near five 
years contest, the bishop's and ai^bishop's sentences were 
3upp(»rted, both by the civil and common lawyera. In 
1588, his lordship restored one Mr. Henry. Smith, a very 
eloquent and much admired preachev, whom he bad sus-> 
pended for contemptuous expressions against the bodk of 
Conunoa Prayer, which Smith denied. In 1539, he ex- 
pressed his dislike of certain libels against the king of 
Spain, giving it as his reason, that on so glorious a victory, 
k was better to thank God, than insult men, especially 
princes. That year also he visited his diocescj^ though he 
was grown old and veiy infirm, and suspended one Dyke 
at St. Alban*s, though he had becjn recommended by the 
lord treasurer. In 1591 be caused the above-mentioned 
Mr. Cartwrigbt to be brought before him out of the Fleet, 
and expostuTa];ed with him rouixdly, on the disturbance he 
bad given the church. Ta 159i2, be strongly solicited in 
fevburof Dr. BuHtagham,\and Dr. Cole, that they might 
W preferred to, bi^jhoprlcs^ bujii .without success, which his 


312 A Y L M E R. 

lordship foresaw. For he observed when he applied for 
them, that he was not so happy as to do much good for hi9 
friends ; yet he added, he would never be wanting in shew- 
ing his good will, both to them and to the church. About 
this time, casting his eye on Dr. Bancroft, a rising and very 
active man, be endeavoured to obtain leave to resign his 
bishopric to him, as a man every way (it for such a charge ; 
but in this also he was disappointed, which it seems lay 
heavy at his heart ; for even on his death-bed, he express- 
ed his earnest desire that Bancroft might succeed him. 
In 1592, the bishop assisted at his son's visitation, as arch- 
deacon of London, and exerted himself with as much zeal 
and spirit as he had ever shewn in his life. His great age, 
and great labours, however, weighed him down by^^rees, 
iaind he died June 3, 1594, and bis body being brou^t> 
from his palace at Fulham, was interred in St. Paul's ca« 
thedral before St. George's chapel, under a fair stone ef 
grey marble, with an inscription which was demolished by- 
the republicans in Cromwell's time. Bishop Aylmer mar- 
ried Judith Bures, or Buers, of a very good family in S.uf- 
folk^ by whom he had a very numerous offspring, viz. seven 
sons, ^nd two or three daughters. As to the personal, 
qualities of the bishop, they were, as those of most men 
are, good and bad, the former, perhaps, too muchmagni^ 
fied by his friends, as the latter were By his enemies. He 
was solidly and extensively learned in all things that be-* 
came either a great churchman, or a polite man, to know* 
He was very well versed in the three learned languages, 
had read much history, was a good logician, and very well 
skilled in the civil law. As a divine, he had studied, and 
understood the scripture thoroughly ; could preach, not 
only rhetorically but pathetically ; and in the course of his 
life*time, never buried his talent *. He was in his heart, 

* The bishop wa8 not only well of the damned ; but Christ's pasf in£ 

versed ia Hebrew literature himself^ into Paradise, agreeable to the Greek 

but also a great friend of all such as word Hades, and the Hebrew Schoel ; 

applied thsinseUes to the study of that which are often rendered into English 

tongue. Amon^g otliers, he was re- by the ^rave^ and do not strictly, or 

markably kind to the celebrated Mr. properly, signify hell. ' When he ob* 

Broughton, and warmly espoused his serred the thoughts of the congregs^ 

interpretation of that article in the tiou to wander while he was preaching. 

Creed, which respects Christ's descent he' would take a Hebrew Bible out of 

into hell, a point in those days very his breast, and read a chapter out of 
Warmly disputed. Broughton^s inter- ' it, «at which when the people naturally 

pretation, to which the bishop adhered, gaped and looked astonished, he put? . 

was this : That the descent spoken of^ Mng it up again, shewed ' them, th^ . 

was not a local descK^nt into the prison folly of IjHtening greedily to ncw^ aa^l 

A Y L M E R. ^ 213 

from the conviction of his head, a Protestant, and opposed 
Popery warmly, from a just sense of its errors, which he 
had the conrage to combat openly in the days of queen 
Mary, and the honesty to suppress in the reign of queen 
EKzabetb. With all this, and indeed with a temper occa- 
sionally soured and irritable, he was a good-natured, face* 
tious man, one^ extremely diligent and painful in the sevo* 
rai employments he went through ; of too generous a tem- 
per to be corrupted, and of much too stout a one to be 
brow-beaten. He was a magnificent man in his house, as 
appears by his household, which consisted of fourscore 
persons, to whom he was a liberal and kind master. After 
his fatigues he was .wont to refresh himself, either with 
con^'ersation or at bowls. As to his failings, his temper 
wa« without doubt warm, his expressions sometimes too 
blunt, and his zeal not guided by wisdom. His enemies 
charged him with an exorbitant love of power, which dis*- 
ptayed itself in various extraordinary acts of severity, with* 
covetousness, which prompted him to spoil his see, and 
injure a private man; with intemperate heat against Puri* 
tans, with a slight regard of the Lord's day, aud with in- 
decencies in ordinary speech ; some of which charges must 
be allowed a foundation, while on the other hand' they 
appear to have been greatly exaggerated. But upon the 
whole there must have been many errors in a conduct which 
his superiors so often reproved. At the time of his decease 
he left seven sons, and either two^ or three daughters. His 
sons were, first, Samuel, who was bred to the law. He 
was stiled, of Claydon-hall iu the county of Suffolk, and 
was high-sheriff of that county innhe reign of king Charles 
I. and by two wives left a numerous posterity. His second, 
TSieophilus, a most worthy divine, archdeacon of Lon- 
don, rector of Much-Hadham in Hertfordshire, and doctor 
of divinity. He was chaplain to king James, an able and 
zealous preacher, and^ like his father, zealous against the 
Puritans, but so charitable, that he left his own family in 
indifferent circumstances. • He lived a true pattern of 
Christian piety, and died heroically, closing his own eye^ 
lids, and with these words in his inouth, ^^ Let my people 
know that their pastor died undaunted, and not afraid of 
death : I bless my God, I have no fear, no doubt, no re- 
strange thififf, and giving inian at- tetvet, «a4 of Um mtiBMl ii|»port« 
tcfttioA'U mattcrt rcgardiiDg tbeob* aac*. 


A Y L M E U. 

iJdctaRcy^ but a sure •confideiice in the sin-bTereomiiig me^^ 
rits of Jesus Cbrist.'' This faappeaed January 1^25. He 
ma» buried in bis own parish church, and the excellent pri- 
mate Usher preached his funeral sermon) no inconsiderable 
proof of his merit. His third, John, who for some eminent 
seryiee was knighted, and styled sir John Aylmer, of Rigby 
in the ocMsnty of Lincoln^ knt. Fourth, fifth, and sixth,- 
Zacfaaiy, Nathaniel, and Edmund, of whom we know no« 
tbing particalarly, except that Zachary and Edmund were 
the warmest friends that age produced. When Edmund 
layfisck^ Eachary continued, with.him night and day till bis 
death, and when a person came to measure the body, in 
ohier to nfake a coffin, Zachaty would be measured also^ 
and in a very short space took possession of the coffin made 
for him at the same time with that of bis deceased brotben 
These gentlemen seem to have been divines. « His seventh^ 
Tobel, i^e. God is good. Atchbishop Whitgift was his 
gbd&ther, and the reason he was thus namted, was his mo« 
tiler's being orert;urned ia a coach, widK>ut receiving any 
hurt, wiien she was big with child. He wrote himself To« 
bcl Aylm^7 o£ Writtle, ih the domity of Essex, gentleman; 
He married a gientleman's. daughter in that county, and had 
by ber several children. As to the bishop's daughters, Ju-? 
dllih, the eldest, .married WiUtiam Lynch, iof the county of 
Kent, esq! ; the second, Elizadbetb, morriediCor John Foliot^ 
of f erton, in the county of Woro^er, knt. Either a third 
daughter, ;or else iady Foliot, took for her second husband 
Hr. Sqtriiie, a clerg^main, .^ man . of. JiK^it, bat yeiy debauched^ 
ihd a gc^at spendthrift^ thouf|;ih .he had iairge preferments^ 
Hb made a viery unktRd hu^and to bis wife, which her 
{atber, the. bishop, so much resented^ that^ as^Martin M^x^ 
Bvelite phvases it, ** He went to huSeto. wit^ bis son-in- 
law, for a bloody-nose *." This Sqtiir^ died poor, leaving 
1 son named John, who was well educated, and provided 

♦ Jt is reported, that when he con^ 
ceivefd liimself very ill-treated by his 
son-io-laiw^ Sqfoitfe,'«ho by k base con- 
trivance wowld baf^e tarnished the re- 
putation of his wife, the bishop's daugh- 
ter; the old'man took him into a pri- 
T«te:T00in, »nd ba^intrjreproathed hm 
for his wickedness and ingratitude, af- 
terwards disd{)lined him stoutly with 
a cudgel. Another instance of his 
GDumge M& Strype gives Us a loag ac- 
count of, which, in few words, amduato 
to this. Queen ^izabetli was once 

grievously tormented with the tooth- 
ache, and though it was absolutely ne^ 
cestory, was yet afraid to bave her 
tooth drawn : bishop Aylmer being by» 
to encouirage her jnajesty, sat down in 
a chair, and calling the tootb-drawerk 
** Come,^' »aid he, ** though I am ail 
^old man, and have but kw teeth to 
spare, draw me tbi^ ;** whfch was ac- 
cordingly done, and the queen, seeing 
hfim make so slight a matter of it, siat 
4smtL ai|d had h9t'§ drawn aUo. r. 

A Y L M E H. 213 

for as a clergyman, at the expence, and by tbe procnre- 
tnent of his uncle, Dr. Theophilos Aylmer, which he repaid 
with the utmost gratitude. To all his children our bishop, 
by his will, bearing date the 22d of April, 1 594, bequeathed 
large legacies, as also some to his grand-children, appoint- 
ing his two sons, Samuel and TheophiIi>s, his executors^ 
with Dr. Richard Vaughan, who was k\%o his relation. ^ 

AYLMER (John), was of a good fdmily in Kampshirei 
and educated at Winchester school. He then went to Ox"- 
ford, and was admitted perpetual fellow of New college^ 
after he had served two years of a probation; this was \k 
1652. He took his degrees in civil law, and that of doctor 
in 1663. He was esteettved an exrcellent Greek scholar, 
and a good Greek and Latin poet, as appears by a book 
which he composed when a young man, entitled ^^ Muss^ 
Sacrae : seu Jonas, Jeremi^e threni, et Daniel, Gr«cb red-* 
diti carmine,'^ Oxon. 1652. He also wrote many Gfciek 
and Latin verses, which are dispersed in various book^. *lf e 
died at Peter^field, April 6, 1672, and was buiri^d in thd 
church of Havant in Hampshire:^ i »* 

AYLOFFE (Sir Joseph), bin. V.P. A.S. and T.ft. S| 
of Framfield in Sussex, was descended from si Sdxbn fa- 
mily, anciently seated at Bocton Alof nestr Wye, in the 
county of Kent, in the reig^n of Henry ni< vfrho rtjmbved td 
Hornchurcfa, in tte county of £s^k, in that of Henry TV: 
and to Sudbury in that of Edward IV. Sir William AylcflFy 
of Great Braxtead, in the county 'of Esse^, was knighted 
by James I. May 1, 160S, and ^^eseted Ibdi^onet, Nov. '25^ 
1612 ; and from his eldest sott by his third wife, the ikt^ 
baronet was the fourth in desfcebt, a\id fif^ti in' title. His 
father Joseph, a barrister, who- married a daughter of Brr^ 
an Ayliffe, an eminent mert:liatlt bf Loncfen, and died lit 
1717, and' his grandfather, vTer^ bbth oi 6i<Ay*s Inn. fii 
was born about 1708, received^, the early part of his edtr- 
cation at Westmilisier iscbool,- lakltifiltted of Lincoln's Inif 
1 724, and in th^ samd' y e4r Waa eti tclred t gientlbtm^n-com^ 
moner at Sti Johti'» -^e^lkge^ ' Oirford; Wkidi college 'bd 
quitted about 1*^28 yetettfed F.A.S: Feb. 10, ;i73l.2, dlifef 

of tbe first eotmcil under Hhfeir charter, 1751; vice-^piresli 

- . • .. •■ •. ' ,-1. ' ... , • • ) 

1 Strype'i Life of lAjjImer, Siro,' t^fOJ.^-Strjrpe'ft Craiimdis ppl '9l4,' 0il^.'<^' 
Strype's AaDiils, see iadex. — Strype's Parker, pp.2^7»S46.r-iB^« 9fila|intcB|.-M 
fuller's Worthies.- 
4tia»/— Ath. Ojt. 
\ a Alb. P4. 

mis, see mnex. — dtrype's marker, pp.v^i» J4o.r-ii>9]i9« Jw^^fiDtcBi.-^ 
rthies. — Keale's Puritan^.— Harrington^s Brief View in Kvigse Aoiv^ 
Ojt. vol: li andl'asti/vol. II.---M*fiife*sLi^eof^Kn6iu •' . , 

316 AY L O F F E. 

dent, 17 ..; and F.R.S. June 3, 1731. He prevailed on 
Mr. Kirby, painter in Ipswich, to make, drawings of a great 
number of monuments and buildings in Suffolk, of which' 
twelve were engi^aved, with a description, 1748, and others 
remain unpublished. He had at that time an intention to 
write a history of the county, and had drawn up proposals 
for that purpose ; but, being disappointed of the materials 
which he had reason to expect for so laborious a work, they 
wjBre never published. . On the building of Westminster* 
bridge he was. appointed secretary to the commissioners, 
1737 ; and^n the establishment of the Paper-office on the 
respectable footing it at present is, by the removal of the 
state-papers from the old gate at Whitehall to new apart^r 
ments at the Treasury, he was nominated the first in the 
commission for the care and preservation of them. In 1 747 
ht circulated '^ Proposals for printing by subscription, £n<« 
cyclopuedia; or, a rational Dictionaiy of Arts, Sciences, 
and Trade. By several eminent hands. Methodized, di^ 
gested, and now publishing at Paris, by M. Diderot, fellow 
of the imperial and Royal Academies of Paris and St. Pe- 
terd>urgh ; and, as to the math^ematical part, by M. d*Alem* 
bert, member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris 
au^ Berlin, and F. R. S. TramJated.from the French,, with 
additions apd.impxxivements;'^ in which was to be included 
a great variety of n^w articles, tending to explain and iU 
lustrate the antiquities, history ebclesiastical,'civil, and mili* 
tary, law3scustoms,mariufa(?tiires,commercei curiosities, &c. 
of .Gre?tt Britain and Ireland ;^ by sir Joseph AylofFe, hart. 
F.R.S.:and of , the Society pf j^ntiquarie3 of London, and 
author of, 'f.Th^ Universal Librarism." Of this work a 
prof|>ectu& was. published, jn one, large sheet, dated Dec. 
14, 17 5\; and the first number of the work itself, June 1 1, 
1752. .Th]s number being badly received by the public, 
the f urt^e;* prosecution of the business seems to have been 
dropped* S^e some account of it in the Gentleman's Mag. 
1752, PL 46.^. It w^ prppoaed to have been finished by 
Christm^u; .1766, in teu quarto volumes, price nine guinea^ 
the .last tw9jtp(Cpn^ip upwards. of six hundred plates. In 
177^ h^ pubii^l^ed, in 4tp, ^^C^lfodars of the Ancient 
Charters, &c, and of the Welsh and Scottish Rolls now re- 
mdimiig in the Tower of London^ &c." (which was begun 
to be primed by the late Rev. Mr. Morant), and in the in•^ 
ti-oduction' giy^s a n^qst judicious aqd es^^ict account of ou^ 
]^ublic records. He drew up the accouut of the chapel of 

i A Y L O F F £• 517 

London*bridge» of which an engraving was published by 
Veitue, I748y and agiain by the Society of Antiquarves^ 
1777. His historical description of the interview between 
Henry VIIL and Francis I. on the Champ de Drap d'Or, 
from an original painting at Windsor, and his account of 
the paintings of the same age at Cowdray, were inserted in 
the third volume of the Archaeologia, and printed separate* 
ly, to accompany engravings of two of these pictures by 
the Society of Antiquaries, 1775. His account of the liody 
of Edward L as it appeared on opening his tomb, 1774, was 
printed in the same volume, p. S76. Having been edu- 
cated, as has been observed, at Westminster, he acquired 
an early affection for that venerable cathedral; and his in- 
timate acquaintance with every part of it displayed itself iti 
his accurate description of five monuments in the choir^ 
engraved in 1779 by the same society; who must reckon, 
among the many obligations which they owe to his zeal and 
attention to their interests, the last exertions of his life to 
put their af&irs on the most respectable and advantageous 
footing, on their removal to their new apartments in So- 
merset Place. He superintended the new editic^n of Le- 
Jaod's Collectanea, in 9 vols. 8vo, 1770, and also of the 
Liber Niger Scaccarii, in 2 vols. 8vo, 1771, to eqch of 
which Jie added a valuable appendix ; to the latter the 
charter^ of Kingston-on-Thames, of which his father was 
recorder. He also revised through the press a new edition 
of Hearne's *^ Curious Discourses," 1771, 2 vols. 8vo; 
and likewise the ^* Registrum Roffense,'' published by Mr. 
Thorpe in 1769, folio. At the beginning of the seventh 
voluqae of Somers's Tracts is advertised, "A Collection of 
Debates in Parliament before the Restoration, from MSS; 
by sir Joseph Ayloffe, hart" which is supposed never to 
have appeared. In January 1734, he married Mrs. Marga- 
ret Railton (daughter and heiress of Thomas Railton, esq. 
of Carlisle, in the county of Cumberland, and relict of 
Thomas Railton, esq. who died in the commission of the 
peaoe for the city of Westminster, Sept« 4, 1732) ; and by 
this lady he had one son of his own name, who died of the 
small^pox, at Trinity hall, Cambridge, at the age of twenty- 
one, Dj5c. 19, 1756. Sir Joseph died at his house at Ken- 
(lington-lane, Lambeth, April 19, 1731, aged seventy-two ; 
and was buried in a vault in Hendon church, with his 6Etther 
and his only son. His extensive knowledge of our national 
antiquities and municipal rights, and the agreeable manner 

il8 A Y L O F F E. 

in which he comniunicatf^d it to his friends and the public^ 
made bioi sinoevely regretted by all who bad the pleasure 
of bis acquaintance* Such of his^ MSS. as had not been 
claimed by his friends, were sold by auction, February 27^ 

AYMON (John), a Piedmontese author, accompanied 
the bishop of Maurienne into France in quality of chap-^ 
lain. He afterwards retired to Holland, where be embraced 
the Calvinistic persuasion, but some years after be feigned 
a. desire to re-enter the Romish communion* Clement^ 
keeper of the king's library, procured him a passport for 
returning to France. The cardinal de Noailles obtained a 
pension for him, and placed him in the seminary of foreign 
missions. In the mean time Clement gave him fall liberty 
in the king's library; but,, so ungrateful was be for all the 
advantages he derived from it, that he purloined several of 
the books, end among others, the original of the synod of 
Jerusal^a, bdd in 1672. He got this manuscript printed 
in Holland, with the letters of Cyril Lucar, and some other 
pieces, under the title of >^ Monumens anthentiques de la 
F^igion des Grecs, et de la fiuisset^ de plusieurs confes-^ 
sions de foi,". i713, in 4to. This work was answered in a, 
spirited' manner by the abb^ Henaudot. We have likewise^ 
by Aymon, i. " Les Synodes nationaux des Eglises refor- 
miSes de France," printed in 1710, 2vols. 4to. 2; " Ta- 
bleau de la ConlD derRome," 1707, 12mo, a satirical work. 
9. A bad translation of the ^^ Letters and memoirs of the 
nuncio Visoonti,^' L7I9, 2 vols^tsn^o. * 

AYRAULT (Peter), in Latin JErodius, lieutenant-cri- 
minal in the presidial of Angers, was- born there in 1536. 
He studied Latin and pbilosopby at Paris, and l&w at Tou- 
louse V fzoih thence he went to Botirges for the advantage 
of the public lectures of Diiarentss, Cujas, and Doneau, 
three of the most eificellent oivilitms of that age. Havings 
tak^i the degree of bachelor at Bourges, he returned to his" 
own country, where ha read public lectures upon the civil 
law, and pleaded sciveral causes. He returned to Parid 
some time after, and became one of the most famous advo-^ 
Gates in the. parliament. He published thei^e, in 1563, 
^^ The Declamations of Quintilian,"- which be corrected in a 
variety of places, and illustrated with notes. The year fo)-^ 
lowing he published, in the same city, a treatise ^ con- 

* 1 Nichols's Life of Bowyer.— Morant's Hist, of Essex* 

: s Mareti, in wt. Aii^oii.— PieU Hist. . * 

A Y R A U L T. 219 

ceiming tKe power of Bedemptioh/' written by FraiM:i$ 
Grimaudet, th^ king^s advocate at Angers, and wrote a pre** 
face to it concerning *^ the nature, variety, and change of 
Laws.-* In 1567 he published " Decretorum Remove 
apud diversos popnlos et onini antiquitate judicatarum libri 
duo — accedit trac^tatus de origine et auctoritate rerum ju- 
dicatarum," which be much enlarged in the subsequent 
editions. He left Paris the year following, in order to tak^ 
upon him the office of/ lieutenant^criminal in his 'cH^n 
country, and performed it in such k manner as to ac<)uire 
the name of ^^ the rock of the accused." Some other 
writings came from his pen, political or controversial, but 
that which acquired most fame among foreigners was hh 
treatise ** De Patrio Jure," on the power of fathers, written 
in French and Latin, and occasioned by his son having 
been seduced by the Jesuits. His father, for the purposes 
of education, Jaad put him under their tuition^ btit perceiv-^ 
ing that he bad a lively genius^ a strong memory, and other 
excellent qualifications, he very earnestly desired both the 
provincial of that order, and the rector of the college, not 
to solicit him to enter into their society, which they readily 
promised, but soon broke their word ; and, though he made 
die greatest interest, and even prevailed on .the king of 
France and the pope to take his part^ be could never re<» 
cover him from their snares. The young man answered his 
fatber^s book,- but his superiors were ashamed to publish it^ 
and employed Ricbeome, the provincial of the Jesuits at 
Paris, to answer it, bat even this they did not venture to 
publish. Peter Ay rault died July 21, 1601. His son not 
until 1644.* 

AYRES (John), an eminent English penman of tb« 
seventeenth century. It is difficult to fix the time and 
place of his birth ; we find him, early in life, in a menial 
capacity with sir William Ashurst, who was lord mayor in 
1694, to whom, and in which year, he dedicated his '^Arith-» 
metic made easy," a book which was well received by the 
public^ and has passed through several editions ; the twelfth 
was printed in 1714, with an addition in book-keeping by 
Charles Snell. In 1695, he published his " Tutor to Pen- 
manship,^' engraved by John Sturt, in oblong folio. It is 
dedicated to king William III, and though a very pompous 
book^ is valuable on many accounts; the writing being 

> Gen, Diet— i>Moreri> in Aiiaalfc* 

«20 A Y K E S; ' 

plain and practical, and much more useful than Us ^^ A^la- 
mode Secretary/' another writing-book he published from 
the hand of the same engraver. In 1 700 he published his 
** Paul's school round hand/' It is no more than a set of 
.copies, ornamented; but is clear and bold, and was en-' 
graved by Sturt. He lived then at the Hand and Pen in' 
St. Paul's Church-yard, and is said to have gained 800A 
per annum by teaching and the sale of his works. We have 
. aqother of his performances under the title of the " Pen- 
man's Daily Practice,'* wliich he calls a cyphering book ; 
it contains examples of all the hands now in use, in thirty- 
four plates done by the same engraver, but has no date. 
He died about 1705, of an apoplexy. * / . 

AYSCOUGH (George Edward), esq. a lieutenant in 
the first regiment of foot-guards, only son of the rev* Dr. 
Francis Ayscough (who was tutor to lord Lyttelton at Ox- 
ford, and at length dean of Bristol) by Anne, fifth sister to 
bis lordship, who addressed a poem to the doctor from Pa- 
ris, in 1728, printed in Dodsley's second volume. And 
there are some verses to captain Ayscough in the second 
lord Lyttelton's poems, 1780. Captain Ayscough was also 
author of Semiramis, a tragedy, 1777, and the editor of the 
greiat lord Lyttelton's works. In September, 1777, he 
went to the continent for the recovery of his health, and 
wrote an account of his journey, which, on his return, he 
published under the title of " Letters from an Officer in 
the Guards to his Friend in England, containing some ac* 
counts of France and Italy, 1778," 8to. He received, 
however, but a temporary relief from the air of the conti-* 
nent. After lingering for a short time, he died Oct. 14, 
1779, a few weeks only before his cousin, the second lord 
Lyttelton, whose family owes little to his character, or that 
of the subject of this short article. Two young men of 
more profligate morals have seldom insulted public de- 
cency, by calling the public attention to their many licen- 
tious amours and adventures. ^ ' 

AYSCOUGH (Samuel), a very useful contributor to 
the literary history of his country, was the son of George 
Ayscough of Nottingham, a respectable tradesman, who 
unfortunately launched into speculations which impaired 

1 Massey's Orig^in and Prog^rest of Letters, part II. p. 13. 

* Nicholi'i Bowyer, vol. HI. p. ISO. For au excellent character of hi».fi»tber,- 
Dr. Ayscough, see London Magazine for 1766, p. 532; and for a very iuterefU 
'm$ letter from him, see Doddritlfe's Mttecsi p. 321, 8voy 1790. . . 

A y s c o u G h; ssv 

bis fortune* Ris son Samuel, after receiving a school 
education, assisted his father in the business of a farm for 
some time, and afterwards was reduced to work as a labour- 
ing miller for the maintenance of his father and sister. 
While at this humble occupation, which didf not procure 
the very moderate advantage he exp^ted, an old school- 
fellow and friend, hearing of his distress, about 1770, sent 
for him to London, and obtained for him at first the office 
of an overlooker of some paviours in the street. Soon after, 
^wever, he assisted in the shop of Mr. Rivington, book- 
seller, of St. Paul's Church-yard, and then obtained an 
employment in the British Museum, at a small weekly sti- 
pend. Here he discovered a degree of knowledge, which^ 
if not profound, was highly useful, in arranging and cata^ 
loguihg books and MSS. and his services soon recom- 
mended him to an increase of salary, and to some extra 
employment in reg:ulating the libraries of private gCntler- 
men^ the profits of which he shared with his father, whoih 
he sent for to town, and maintained comfortably until his 
death, Nov. 18, 1783. 

About 1785 he was appointed assistant-librarian to the 
British Museum, on the establishment, and soon after went 
into orders, and was ordained to the curacy of Normanton 
upon Soar in Nottinghamshire. He was also appointed 
assistant-curate of St. Giles's in the Fields; and in all these 
situations conducted himself in such a manner as to gain 
the friendship of many distinguished characters. In 1790 
he was appointed to preach the Fairchild lecture* on Whit- 
Tuesday, at Shoreditch church, before the Royal Society, 
which he continued^ to do till 1 804, when he completed the 
series of the discourses in fifteen sermons. 

His labours in literature were of the most useful cast, and 
manifested a patience and assiduity seldom to be met with, 
and his laborious exertions in the vast and invaluable li- 
brary of the British Museum form a striking instance of 
bis zeal and indefatigable attention. He soon acquired 
that slight degree of knowledge in several languages, and 
that technical knowledge of old books and of their authors, 
and particularly that skill in decyphering difficult writing, 
which amply- answered the most useful purposes of the li- 

* In 1739Thoina8 Fairchild.of Shore- God io the Creation," &c. It has been 

ditch parish, gardener, bequeathed a preached by some very eminent men. 

Mm of n^ney for a smmon on Whit- a list of whom may be seen in ElHs*! 

Tuesday, oa " The wondtrful worki of History of Shoreditch, p. 288. 

322 A Y S C O U G H. 

brarias, us well «» the vbitipg scholar. He assisted also in 
the a<lj ustinent of the records in the Tower, and in the forma-* 
tioii of many useful indexes and catalogues, some of which 
will be noticed hereafter. By these meana his situation 
becaine very comfortable, and about a year before bis death 
it was rendered yet, more so, by his being presented with 
the living of CudJ^m in Kent, by lord chancel l<»r Eldon, 
He wrote a very accurate account of this parish in the 
Gentleman's Magazine a few weeks before be died, and by 
an affeQtipg coincidence, it appeared in that excellent re^ 
pository the same month in which his death was announced. 
This ev^nt happened on the 30th of October, 1804, at bi» 
apartments in the British Museum, in the fifty^ninth year 
of his age. 

. Mr. Ayscough was a man of a benevolent and, charitable 
disposition, and frequently consulted how he might exer-« 
cise these virtues, without rejecting that his means were 
circumscribed. Having experienced much distress himself 
with regard to pecuniajy matters, he was ever ready to al^ 
leviate it in others, and became a patron almost before he 
ceased to be a dependant. In his office in the Museum he 
will long be remembered for the pleasure he seemed to 
take in assisting the researches of the curious, and impart- 
ing the knowledge he had acquired of the vast resources in 
that national repository. With somewhat of roughness, or 
bluntness, in his manner, he delighted in volunteering his 
services in all cases where the visitors wished for informa- 
tion ; and there was a preciseness and regularity in all the 
arrangements he had made, which enabled him to do this 
with a facility which oftdn cannot be acquired by veteran 

In 1783 Mr. Ayscough published a small political pam- 
phlet, entitled " Remarks on the Letters of an American 
Farmer ; or, a detection of the errors of Mr. J. Hector Str 
John ; pointing out the pernicious tendency of those let- 
ters to Great Britain." But among his more useful labours 
must be particularly distinguished his ^^ Catalogue of the 
Manuscripts preserved in the British Museum, hitherto un- 
described, consisting of five thousand volumes, including 
the collections of sir Hans Sloane, hart, and the Rev. Tho- 
xuas Birch, D. D. and about five hundred volumes be- 
queathed, presented, or purchased at various^ times^** 2 vo^s 
17 Si?, 4to. This elaborate catalogue is upon a new plan, 
for the excellence of which an appeal may safely be made 

A Y S C O U G H. 223 

%o every visitor of die Museum since the date of its puUi^ 
cation. Mr. Aysicough assisted afterwards in the catalogue 
of printed books, 2 vols. fqUo, 1787^ of which about two- 
thirds were compiled by Dr. Maty and Mr. Harper, and 
the remainder by Mr. Ayscough. He was also, at the tim/e 
of his death, employed in preparing a new catalogue of the 
printed books, and had completed a catalogue of the an- 
cient charters in the Museum, amounting to about sixteen 
thousand. As an index-maker his talents are well known 
by the indexes he made for the Monthly Review, the 
Gentleman^s Magazine, the British Critic, &c. and espe- 
cially by a verbal index to Shakspeare, a work of prodigious 
labour. It remains to be added, that his knowledge of to- 
pographical antiquities was very considerable, and that per- 
haps no man, in so short a space of time, emerging too 
from personal diiEculties, and contending with many disad- 
vantages, ever acquired so much general knowledge,' or 
knew how to apply it to more useful purposes. The lead- 
ing facts in this sketch are taken from the Gentleman's 
Magazine for December 1 804. To that miscellany, we be- 
lieve, he was a very frequent contributor, and what ha 
wrote was in a style which would not have discredited ta- 
lents of which the world has a higher opinion. 

• AYSCUE, AYSCOUGH, or ASKEW (Sir George), an 
eminent English admiral in the last century, descended 
from a very good family in Lincolnshire, and entered early 
into the sea-service, where he obtained the character of 
an able and experienced officer, and the honour of knight- 
hood from king Charles I. Tjiis, however, did not hin- 
der him from adhering to, the parliament, when by a very 
singular intrigue he got possession of the fleet, and so 
zealous he was in the service o^ his masters, that when in 
1648, the greatest part of the navy went over to the prince 
of Wales, he, who then commanded the Lion, secured 
that ship for the parliament, which was by them esteemed 
an action of great importance. As this was a sufficient 
proof of his fidelity, he had the command given him in a 
squadron, that was emplo3^ed to watch the motions of the 
prince of Wales; and accordingly sailed to the coast of 
Ireland, where he prevented his highness from landing, 
and drew many of the seamen to that service from which 
they had deserted. The parliament next j^ar. sent him 
with a considerable number of ships, and tb^ %\x\e of ad- 
miral^ to the coast of Ireland, which comrpiysion be dis*^ 



22* • A Y S C U E. 

charged with such vigour, that the parliament conthiueJ 
him in his command for another year, and ordered an inn* 
mediate proirision to be made for the payment of his arrears^ 
and presented him with one hundred pounds. After the 
war was finished in Ireland, sir George Ayscue had orders^ 
to sail with a small squadron, to reduce the island of Bar- 
badoes ; but his orders were countermanded, as the par- 
h'ament received information, that the Dutch were treating 
with sir John Grenville, in order to have the isles of Scilly 
put into their hands, and therefore it was thought neces- 
sary to reduce these islands first. Blake and Ayscue were 
employed in this expedition, in the spring of 1651, and 
performed it with honour and success, sir John Grenville 
entering into a treaty with them, who used him very ho- 
nourably, and gave him fair conditions, after which Blake 
returned to England, and Ayscue proceeded on his voyage 
to Barbadoes. The parliament were at first pleased, but 
when the conditions were known, Blake and Ayscue were 
accused of being too liberal. Blake resented this, and 
threatened to lay down his commission, which he said he 
was sure Ayscue would also do. Upon this, the articles 
were honourably complied with, and sir George received 
orders to sail immediately to the West Indies. Sir George 
continued his voyage, and arrived at Barbadoes October 
26, 1651. He then found his enterprize would be attended 
with great difficulties, and such as had not been foreseen 
at home. The lord Willoughby, of Parham, commanded 
there for the king, and had assembled a body of 5,000 
men for the defence of thejsland. He was a nobleman of 
gVeat parts and greater probity, one who had been ex- 
tremely reverenced by the parliament, before he quitted 
their party, and was now extremely popular oii the island. 
Sir George, however, shewed no signs of concern, but 
boldly forced his passage into the harbour, and made him- 
self master of twelve sail of Dutch merchantmen that lay 
there, and next morning be sent a summons to the lord 
Willoughby, requiring him*to submit to the authority of 
the parliament of England, to which his lordship answered, 
that he knew no such authority, that he bad a commission 
from king Charles II. to be governor of that island, and 
that he would keep it for his majesty's service at the hazard 
of his life. On this, sir George thought it not prudent to 
land the few troops he had, and thereby discover his w^eak- 
ness to so cautions an enemy. In the moan time, he re- 

A Y S C U E. S2S 

eeived ft letter by an advice-boat from Eiigladd, v^ith the » 
news' of the king's being defeated at Worcester, and one 
intercepted from lady Willoughby, containing a very par- 
ticular account of that unhappy affair. He now summoned 
lord Willoughby a second time, and accompanied his sum- 
Aions with lady Willoughby^s letter, but his lordship con- 
tinued firm id his resolution. All this time, sir George 
anchored in Speights bay, and stayed there till December,' 
when the Virginia merchant fleet arriving, he made As if 
thery were a reinforcement that had been sent him^ but in 
fdct, he had not above 2000 men, and the sight of fiie. 
little army on shore made him cautious of venturing his 
men, till he thought the inhabitants had conceived a great 
idea of his strength. The Virginia ships were welcomed 
at their coming in, as a supply of men of war,, and he pre- 
sently ordered his men on shore : 1 50 Scotch servants 
aboard that fleet, were added to a regiment of 700 m^n, 
and som& seamen, to make their number look more for- 
n\idable. One colonel Allen landed with them on the 17th 
of December, and found lord Willoughby'g forces well en- 
trenched, near a fort they had upon the sea- coast* They 
attacked him, however, and, in a sharp dispute, wherein 
about sixty men were killed on both sides, had so much the 
advantage, that they drove them to the fort, notwithstand- 
ing that colonel Allen, their commander, was killed by a' 
miisket shot, as he attempted to land« After other at- 
tempts, sir George procured colonel Moddiford, who was 
one of the most leading men on the place, to enter into a' 
treaty with him, and this negociation succeeded so well> 
that JRSloddiford declared publiqly for a peace, and joinecF 
with sir George to bring lord Willoughby, the governor^ 
to reason, as they phrased it ; but lord Willoughby never 
would have consented if an accident had not happened^ 
which put most of the gentlemen about him into such con- 
fusion, that he could no longer depend upon their advice 
Or assistance. He had called together his officers, and 
while they were sitting in council, a cannon-ball beat 
open the door of the room, and took off the head of the 
eehtinel posted before it, which so frighted all the gentle- 
Aien of the island, that they not only compelled their go- 
vernor to lay aside his former design; but to retire to a 
place two miles farther from the harbour. Sir. George 
Ayscne,' takine advantage of this unexpected good fortune, 
ifmihediately ordered all bis forces on shore/ as if he in- 
Vet. III. Q 

226 A Y S C U E. 

tended to have attacked them in their entreiicbnieiits, which 
' struck such a terror into some of the principal persons 
about the governor, that, after itiature deliberation on his 
own circumstances, and their disposition, he began to alter 
his mind, and thereupon, to avoid the effusion of bloody 
both parties appointed commissaries to treat. Sir George 
named captain Peck, Mr. Searl, colonel Thomas Mod- 
diford, and James Colliton, esq. ; the lord Willoughby, sir 
Richard Peers, Charles Pim, esq. colonel EUice, and major 
Byham, who on the 17th of January agreed on articles of 
rendition, which were alike comprehensive and honourable. 
The lord Willoughby had what he most desired, indemnity, 
and freedom of estate and person, upon which, soon after, 
he returned to England. The islands of Nevis, Antigua, 
and St. Christopher, were, by the same capitulation, sur- 
rendered to the parliament. After this, sir George, con- 
sidering that he had fully executed his commission, re- 
turned with the squadron under his command to England, 
and arriving at Plymouth on the 25th of May, 1652, was re- 
ceived with all imaginable testimonies of joy and satisfac- 
tion by the people there, to whom he was well known 
before, as his late success also served not a little to raise 
and heighten his reputation. It was not long after his ar- 
rival, before he found himself again obliged to enter upon 
action ; for the Dutch war which broke out in his absence, 
was then become extremely warm, and he was forced to 
take a share in it, though bis ships were so extremely foul, 
that they were much fitter to be laid up, than to be em- 
ployed in any farther service. On the 2 1st of June, 1652, 
he came to Dover, with his squadron of eleven sail, and 
there joined his old friend admiral Blake, but Blake having 
received orders to sail northward, and destroy the Dutch 
herring fishery, sir George Ayscue was left to command 
the fleet in the Downs. Within a few days after Blake's 
departure he took five sail of Dutch mejrchantmen, and 
had scarcely brought them in before he received advice 
« that a fleet of forty sail had been seen not far from the coast, 
upon which he gave chace, fell in amongst them, took 
seven, sunk four, and ran twenty- four upon the French 
shore^ all the rest being separated from their convoy. The 
' Dutch admiral. Van Tromp, who was at sea with a great 
Beet, having information of sir George Ayscue's situation, 
resolved to take advantage of him, and with no less than 
one hiondred sail^ clipped in between him and the rirpr^ 

A Y S C U E. 287 

^ad reaotved to surprize suqb ships as should attempt to go 
out ; or, if that design failed, to go in and .sink sir Qeorge. 
and his squadron. The English admiral soon discovered^ 
their intention, and causing a signal to. be m^de from Dof 
xer castle, for all ships to keep to sea, he thereby defeated 
the first part of their project. Hovirevev^ Van Jromp at- 
tempted the second part of his scheme, in hopps.of better 
success, and on the 8th of July, when it.was ebb, be bjegan 
to sail towards the English fleet ; but, the wind dying away, 
he was obliged to come to an anch9r about a league off, in 
order to expect the next ebb. Sir Geoi^e, in the mean 
time, caused a strong raised between Deal, 
and Sandown castles, well furnished with artillery, so 
pointed, as to bear directly upon the Dutch as they came 
in ; die militia of the county of Kent were also prdered 
down to the sea-shore : notwithstanding which preparation, 
the Dutch admiral did not recede from his point, but at 
the next ebb weighed anchor, and would baye stood into 
the port; but the wind coming about south-west, and 
blowing directly in his teeth, constrained him to keep out, 
and being straightened for time, he was obliged tp sail 
away, and leave sir George safe in the harbour, with the 
small squadron he commanded. He was soon after ordered 
to Plymouth, to bring in under his convoy five East-India 
ships, which he did in the latter end of July ; and in the 
firit week of Auguist, brought in four French and Dutch 
prizes, for which activity and vigilance in his command 
be was universally commended. In. a few days after this, 
intelligence was received, that Ysm Tromp^s fleet was seen 
off the back of the isle of Wight, and it was thereupon re- 
solved, th^t sir George with his fleet of forty men of war,, 
most of them hired merchantmen, except flag ships, should 
stretch over to the coast of France to meet them. Accord- 
ingly, on the 16th of August, between one and two oVlock 
at noon, they got sight of the enemy, who quitted their 
merchantmen, being .fifty in number. About fopr the 
fight began, the ]ISnglish Admiral with nine others charging, 
through their flieet; his ships rec^ved n^ost damage, ia 
the shrouds, masts, sails, and rigging,. w)^ich was repaid 
the Dutch in their, hulls. Sir George haying thus passed 
through them, got the weather-^age, and c;barged them 
again, but all his fleet not coming up, .and the night al- 
ready entered, they parted with a drawn battle. Captaia 
Peck, the rear-adoura}, lost his le^ ol.whidi, swu after. 

228- A Y S C U'E; 

hfe died. Several captains were wounded, but no ship lost. 
Of the Dutch, not one was said to be lost, though many 
\^ere shot throrugh and through, biit so that they were able 
t6 proceed oit their voyage, and anchored the next day 
after, being followed by the English to the isle of Bassa; 
but nx) farther attempt was made by our fleet, on account, 
as it vi^as pr^end^, of the danger of the French coasts, 
from whence thfey rfetam^d to Plymouth- Sound to repair. 
The truth of the Matter was, some of sir George's captains 
^ere a little bashful rn this aflalr, aild the fleet was in so 
iridiflFerent af condition, that if was absolutely neces^ry to 
rfefit before they proceeded again to aetion. He proceeded 
riextto join Blake in the northern seas, where he con- 
tinued during the best part of the month of September, and 
took seVeVal prizes ; and towards the latter end of that 
]iit)nlli he returned with general Blake into the Downs, 
with one hundred and* twenty sail of men of war. On the 
^th of that month a great Dutch fleet appeared, after' 
vrtlich^ Blake with his fleet sailed, and sir George Ayscue, 
pmtSliant to the orders he had i^eceived, returned to Chat- 
ham with hi§ own ship, and sent the rest of his squadron 
into several ports to bd careened. Towards the end of 
l^ovember, 1652, general Blalce lying at the mouth of 
cmr river, began' tb think that the season of the year left 
no rooita to expect farthei* action, for which reason he de- 
tfeched^ twenty of his' ships to bring up a fleet of colliers 
fk)m Newta«tle, twelve more he had sent to Plynlouth, and 
ooridm/iral, as before dbserviSd, with fifteen sail, liad pro- 
cteeded lip the rivelr in order to their being careened. Such 
wa^ t!he situatibn of things, when Van Trorap appeared with 
9 Met of eighty- five sail. U^oti thiis Blake sent fbr the 
most experienced oflicers on board his own ship, where, 
aAer a lon^ consultation, it was agreed, that he should 
wait for, aiid fight the enemy, though he had but thirty- 
seveni^il of nien of war, and a few sihall' ships. Accord- 
ingly,' oti the ^i^th of Nt>vel]aber, a general en^gement 
ensued; which lasted with great fuiy from one in the after- 
noon till itl^ was dkrit; Blake in the iViiith^h, with his se- 
conds the Victoty' anatd the' Vanguard, engaged for a con- 
siderable lime neartwenty sail of Dutch meti of war, and 
Aey were in the utmost dangei: of being oppressed and 
destroyed by so iinequal a force. This, however, did not 
hinder Blakt; 'firotn' forcing his way into a throfig of enemies, 
tordievetheOai'land And Bons^dventure^ in doing wfaiicliL 

A y S C U E. 22d 

Jbe was attacked by many of their stoutest sbip^5,,'wliiph 
likewise boarded bim> but after several times beatiixg tUeii}L 
off, he at last found an .opportunity to rejoin bis fleet. Thj? 
loss sustained by the English cpnsisted in fiveibips^ either 
taken or sunk; and several others disabled. The Dutch 
confess, that one of their men oi war was burnt toward^ 
Ithe end of the fight, and the captain aud most of his meff^ 
drowned; and also that the sliips of Tromp and Evert^w 
were much disabled, At iast| night having parried the itwf) 
fleets, Blake supposing he bad ^iifficiently secured th^ 
nation^s honour and bis own, by waiting the attack of ai|i 
enemy;, so much superior, and seeing no prospect of ad- 
vantage by r^uewinfg the fighl^i retiredup the river : but sir 
George Ay^cue, who iq|y|^Lned to the bolder but l^ss prudent 
pounsel, was so 4isfi;ust€|| at this reti^eat, th^j^.b^ laidjdown 
his commijssion. The sernq^s thbs great map. ha4. r^t^^^ 
bis country, were none pf tjl^€;m mote acc/eptable to tbie 
parliament, than thi^ act.of layjng down Jais pbrnixi^ 
They had long wished aiicf waited for an opportuaity of 
dismissing him ifrom their service, and were therefore e:^f 
tremely pleased that l}e had savefl them t}ii^ tp^bl^ : bawt 
^ver, to shew their gratitude for past servic^g^ labd tb pr^ 
yent his falling into absolute di^cpntent, ttejy , vpted bimj^ 
present of three hundred pounds in xnou^y^jm^ likewise; 
bestowed upon .him three .^u\ndr^d pounds p^t jafintiflji, ,i^ 
Ireland. There is good reasiajn to believje^ tiiat Cro^wel) 
and his faction were as. well pleased with this g^i^tleq^i^^s 
quitting the sea-service : for as they were then pi^e^^tating^ 
what they soon afterwards pfit in execuition^ tbe,|:urning 
the parliament out of doors, it could not l^qt bi3 agreeable 
to them, to see an officer who had so gr^^^t creipit in the 
pavy, and who was so generally esteemed ^y the nation^ 
laid aside m such a manner^ both as it. g^v^ them au pp» 
portuni^y of insinuating the ingratitude pf Jtbft.^ssepdbiy 
p} so worthy a person, and as it freed them frppii t);^japr 
prehension of his disturbing their measures^ in.q^s^ be bWi 
continued intbeBe^t; which it is highly p^ob4)ie i^g|^( 
have come to pass, considering that Blake was %;.paq\igji^ 
frgm being of tiieir party, and only submitted tp s^rve th^ 
protector, because he saw no other way left tq $^ve his 
countiy, and did not think he had interest enough fp pr^ei' 
^erve the fleet, after the .defection of the armjf, whicl^ 
perhaps might not have been the ca^, if sir Geprge «Ayscui$ 
iiad continued in bis command. This is so much the more 


230 A Y S C U E. 

J>robablc, as it is very certain that he never entered intd 
the ][)rotector*s service, or shewed himself at all willing to 
concur in his measures ; though there is no doubt that 
Cromwell would have been extremely glad of so expe- 
rienced an officer in his Spanish war. He retired after 
liiis to his country-seat in the county of Surrey, and lived 
there in jgreat. honour and splendor, visiting, and being 
visited by persons of the greatest distinction, both natives 
and foreigners, and passing in the general opinion of both, 
for one of the ablest sea-captains,of that age. Yet there 
i^ some reason to believe that he had a particular corre* 
spondence with, the protector*^ second son, Henry ; since 
there is still aietter in being from him to seolretiary Thur- 
loe, wbi9h shews that he had xerj^ jtst notions of the worth 
of this gentleman, and of the expe^ency of consulting him 
in all such matters as had a relation to maritime power. The 
protector, towards the latter end of his Ufe, began to grow 
dissatisfied with the Dutch, and resolved to destroy their 
system without entering immediately into, a war with them. 
It ws^ with this view, that he encouraged the Swedes to cul-^ 
tivate, yvith the utmost^ diligence, a maritime force, pro- 
mising in'duie tipie to assist them with a sufficient number 
bf able '^lid exp'erienced officers, and with an admiral to 
iep'mmand them, who, in point of reputation, was not in* 
ferior to anv then living. Fot tjiis reason', he prevailed 
on sir George, by tbe intervention of the Swedish ambas- 
isador and of Wfaitelock, and sir George from that tim0 
bi^gan to enterbiin favourable thoughts of the design, and 
brought hiknself lyy degrees to think of accepting the offei 
made iiini, and bf going over for that purpose to SAveden ; 
and aldioughh^ bad not' absolutely complied during the 
life of the protector, he closed at last with the proposals 
madt^ him from Sweden, and putting every thing in order 
lor his journey, towards the latter end of the year 1658, 
]3nd as soon as he had seen the officers embarked, and had 
^dispatched some private bnsiqess of his own, he prosecuted 
his voyage, though in th|p very depth of winter. This ex-i 
i>os«d' him to great hardships, but on his arrival in Sweden^ 
he was received with all imaginable demonstrations of ci<^ 
vility and respect by the king, who might very probably 
have made good his promise, of promoting him to the 
rank of hig}>admiral of Sweden, if he had not been taken 
off by an unexpected deatl^ This put ah end to his hopes 

A Y S C U E. 23i 

in that country, and disposed sir George Ayscue to return 
home, where a great change had been working in his ab- 
sence, which was that of restoring king Charles IL It 
does not at all appear, that sir George had any concern iii 
this great affair ; but the contrary may be rather presumedi 
'from his former attachment to the parliament, and his 
making it his choice to have remained in Sweden, if the 
death of the monarch, who invited him thither, had not 
prevented him. On his return, however, he not only sub- 
mitted to the government then established^ but gg^ve the 
strongest assurances to the administration, that he should 
be at all times ready to serve the public, if ever there 
should be occasion, which was very kindly taken, and h^ 
had the honour to be introduced to his majesty, and to 
kiss his hand. It was not long before he was called to the 
performance of his promise ; for the Dutch war breaking 
out in 1664, he was immediately put into commission by 
the direction of the duke of York, who then commanded 
the English fleet. In the spring of the year 1665, he 
hoisted his flag as rear-admiral of the blue, under the earl 
of Sandwich, and in the great battle that was fought the 
third of June in the same year, that squadron had the 
honour to break through the centre of the Dutch fleet, and 
thereby made way for one of the most glorious victories 
ever obtained by this nation at sea. For in this battle^, 
the Dutch had ten of their largest ships sunk or burned^ 
besides their admiral Opdam's, that blew up in the midst 
of the. engagement, by which the admiral himself, and- up- 
wards of five hundred men perished. Eighteen men of 
war weire taken, four fire-ships destroyed, thirteen cap* 
tains, and two thousand and fifty private men made pri- 
soners ; ^nd this with so inconsideriable lods^ as that of ohe 
ship only, ahd three hundred private men.^ The fleet 
being again in a conditiot) to put to sea, was ordered to 
rendezvous in Southwold-ba^, from whence, to the nuhi- 
berof sixty sail, they weighed on the fifth of* July, and 
stood over for the coast of Holland. The standard was 
borne by the gallant earl of SaVidwich, to whom was vi^e- 
admiral sir George Ayscue, and sir Thomas . Tyddiman 
rear-admiral, sir William Pemi was admiral of the white,* 
sir William Berkley vice-admiral, and sir Joseph Jordan 
jrear-admiral. The blue flag 'Was carried by sir Thomas 
4^l\e^, whose vice and rear, were sir Christopher Mimms^ 

^32 A Y S C U £• 

jsmd sic John Harmah. The design was^ to intercept de 
Buyter in his return, or, at least, to take and burn the 
Turkey and East-India fleets, of which they bad certain 
iptelligence, but they succeeded in neither of these 
'schemes } de Euyter arrived safely in Holland, and the 
^Turkey and India fleets took shelter in the port of Bergeu 
in Norway. The earl of Sandwich having detached sir 
trhoma^i Tyddiman to attaqk them there, returned home^ 
ajid ip his passage took eight Dutch men of war, which 
served as convoys to their East and West India fleets^ and 
^fveral merchantmen richly laden, which finished the 
^lumpbs of that year. The plain superiority of the English 
pver the Dutcii at sea, engage4 the French, in order to 
l^eep up the w^r between tne maritime powers, and make 
ihem do their businesii by destroying each other, to declare 
on the »ide of the weakest^ as did the king of Denmark 
^IsQ, which, nevertheless, had no effect upon the English^ 
fi^ho detenx^ined to carry on the war against the allies, with 
tibbe same spirit they had done against the Dutch alone. 
in the spring, therefore, of the year 1666, the fleet was 
very early at sea, under die command of tibe joint admi- 
xsl^ ; for f( rfsolution haying been taken at Court, iiot to 
^xpqife tia^ pierspn of the duke of York any more, and the 
,earl of Sandwiph being then in Spain, with the character 
of ambass^dor-^extraordinaryi prince Rupert, and old gef 
jferal M9nk, now duke of Albemarle, were appointed tp 
coo^^iand tl^Q fleet; having under them as gallant and pru- 
^Qt officers ^ ever distinguished themselves in the Engr 
li^l) navy^ ^d, amongst t^es^, sir William Berkley cou^r 
pwided ^e blue, and sir George Ayscue the white squa:<^ 
^rojn. Prince Rupert, and the duke of Albemfrle, went 
pa board the fleet, the twenty-third of April, i666y and 
ffijif d in the beginning of May. Towards the latter end 
(Of that mpntb, the court wa^ informed, that the French 
&(f^tji under the cQOun^nd of the duke of Beaufort, were 
coming ogt to the assistance of the Dutch, and upon receiv* 
^g this news, the court sent orders to prince Rupert to sail 
i^dtb the y^hhe squadron, the admirals excepted, to look 
{)^t ^nd fight the French, lyhich coDomand that brave 
prince obeyed, but found it a n^ere bravado, intended to 
r^ise th^ courage of their new allies, and thereby bring 
(hem into the gi^eater dangier. At the sanie tinie prince 
Rupert sailed froqi the Downs, ]the Dutch put out to sea^ 
the wind at north-east, and a fresh gale.. This brought 

iik Y S C U H 2M 

thie Dutch fleet pn the coast of Dunkirk, aod .carried Jiis 
highness towards the Isle of Wight ; but the wind suddeol^ 
shifting to the south-west, and blowing hard^ brougUt 
both the Dutch and the duke to an anchor* Captain Ba- 
con, in the Bristol, first discovered the enemy, jand by 
firing his guns, gave notice of it to the English fleet. 
Upon this a council of war was called, wherein it was r^-* 
solyed to fight the enemy, notwithstanding their great su« 

Seriority. After the departure of prince Kupert, the duke 
ad with him only the red and blue squadrons, making 
about sixty sail, whereas the Dutch fleet consisted of 
ninety-one men of war, carrying 4716 guns, and 22,460 
men. It was the first of June when they were discerned^ 
and the duke was so warm for engaging, that he attacke^i 
the enemy before they bd-d time to weigh anchor* and, as 
de Euyter himself says in his letter, they were obliged to 
cut their cables ; and in the same letter he owns, that to 
the last the English were the aggressors, notwithstandiag 
their inferiority and other disadvantages. This da^y's fight 
was very fierce and bloody ; for the Dutch, confidincr ia 
their numbers, pressed furiously upon the English neet^ 
while the English officers, being men of determined reso- 
lation^ foifght with such courage and constancy, that they 
not only repulsed the Dutch, but renewed the attack, and 
forced the enemy to maintain the fight longer than- they 
were inclined to do, so that it was ten in the evening be- 
fore their Cjannon ^ere silent The fpllqwipg night was 
^pent in repairing the dafnages suffered on both sides,, and 
next morning the fight was renewed by the Engtisb with 
fresh vigour. Admir^il . Yan Tromp, with * vice-adpiiral 
Vander HuUt, being on board one ship, rashly engaged 
amon^ the English, and were in the utmost dai^ger, either 
of being taken or burnt. The Dutch affairs, according to 
their own account, were now in a desperate condition; 
jbut admiral de Ruyter at last disengaged them, thougli 
pot till his ship was disabled, ahd vice^adpiiral Vander 
Hulst killed. This only changed the scene ^ for de Ruy« 
ter was npw as hard pushed as Tromp had hfspn before ; 
but a reinforcement arriving, preserved him also, and so 
the second day's fight ended earlier than the first. Th^ 
duke finding that the Dutch had received a reii^orcemeot^ 
and that his sniall fleet, on the contrary, was much weakr 
lened, through the damages sustained by some, and the 
}03s s^nd ab^nc^ of others of his shipsi took, tow^ds th^ 

•534 A Y S C U « 

.... ' ... 

'evening, the ^•esolution to retire, and endeavour to join 
-prince Rupert, who was coming to his assistance. The 
retreat was performed in good order, twenty-six or twenty- 
eight men of war that had suffered least, brought up the 
rear, interposing between the enemy and the disabled 
ships,' three of which, being very much shattered, were 
burnt by the English themselves, and the men taken on 
* board the dther ships. The Dutch fleet followed, but at a 
distance. As they thus sailed on, it happened on the third 
day that sir George Ayscue, admiral of the white, who 
commanded the Royal Prince (being the largest and hea- 
viest ship of the whole fleet) unfortunately struck upon the 
'Sand called the Galloper, where being threatened by the 
*enemy*s fire-ships, and hopeless of assistance from his 
•friends (whose timely return, the near approach of the 
'enemy, and the contrary tide, had absolutely rendered im- 
possible), he was forced to surrender. The Dutch admiral 
tde Ruyter, in his letter to the States-general, says, in few 
words, that sir George Ayscue, adniiral of the white, hav- 
'ing ran upon a sand-bank, fell into their hand^, and that 
tafter taking out the commanders, and the men that were 
left, they set the ship on fire. But the large relation, 
collected by order of the States out of all the letters writ- 
ten to them upon that occasion, informs us, that sir 
'George Ayscue, in the Royal Prince, ran upon the GaU 
loper, an unhappy accident^ say^ that relation, for an oflS.- 
•cer who bad behaved very gallantly during the whole en- 
'gagement, and who only retired in obedience to his admi- 
-raPs . orders. The unfortunate admiral made signals for 
assistance; but the English fleet' continned their route; 
*so that he was left quite alone, and without hope of suc- 
cour ; in which situation he was attacked by two Dutch 
'flre-ships, by which; without doubt, he had been burnt, 
•if Keutenant-adrniral Tromp; v^iio was on board the ship of 
rear-admiral 'Sweers, had not made a signal to call off the 
•fire-ships, perceiving that his flag was already struck, and 
*a signal made for quarter, upon which rear-admiral Sweers, 
iby order of Trorop, went on board the English ship, and 
brought off sir George Ayscue, his officers, and some of 
'his^ men, on board his own vessel, and the next morning 
«ir George was sent to the Dutch coast, in order to go to 
the Hague in a galliot, by order of general de Ruyter. 
The English ship was afterwards gotofi'the sands, notwith- 
standing which, general de Ruyter ordered the rest of the 

X Y s c U E. ais 

^rew to be taken out, and the vessel set on fire, that bii 
fleet might be the less embarrassed, which was accordingly 
done. But in the French relation, published by order df 
that court, we have another circumstance, which the Dutch 
liave thought fit to omit,' and it is this, that the crew gave 
up the ship against the admiral's will, wh6 had given orders 
for setting her on fire.- There were some circumstancet 
which made the loss of this ship, in this manner, vei^ dis- 
agreeable to the English <!K)Uirt, and peibaps this may be 
the reiason that so little is said of it in our own relations* 
In all probability general de Ruyter to6k the opportunity 
of Bending sir George Ayscue to the Dutch coast the next 
morning, from an apprehension that he might be retaken in 
the next day's fight. ' On his arrival at the Hague he was 
Very civilly treated ; but to raise the spirits of their people, 
and to make the most of- this dubious kind of victory, the 
states ordered sir George to be carried as it were in tri- 
umph, through the several towns of Holland, and then con- 
fined him in the castle of Louvestein, so famous in the Dutch 
histories for having been the prison of some of their most 
eminent patriots, and from whence the party which opposed 
the prince of Orange were styled the Louvestein faction* 
As sooii as sir George Ayscue came to this castle, he wrote 
a letter to kitig Charles II. to acquaint him with the coiidi*' 
tion he was in, which letter is still preserved in the life of 
the Dutch admiral, de Ruyter. How long he remained 
there, or whether he continued a prisoner to the end of the 
war/ is uncertain, but it id said that he afterwards returned to 
England, and spent the remainder of his days in peace. 
Granger observes very justly, that it is scarcely possible to 
give a higher character of the courage of this brave ad- 
miral, thanf. to say that he was a match for Van Tromp or de 
Buyter. * 

AZARA (Don Joseph Nicolas d'), a Spanish states* 
man and writer, was born in 1731, at Barbansdes, near Bal« 
bastro in Aragon. An early enthusiasm for the fine arts 
procured him the friendship of the celebrated artist Mengs^ 
who was first painter to the king of Spain. After the death 
bf Charles III. Azara constructed, in honour of his memory, 
a tiemple, in an antique form, in the church of St. James* 
which, although not faultless, discovered very considerable 

1 Biog. 3riX 

836 A Z A R A.^ 

(3jlent$ and taste in architecture. He was, ii^weveri sqoq 
employed in political concerns, and was sent to Rome, un-' 
der tl^ pontificate of Clement XIII. as ecclesiastical agent 
at the chancery of Rome. He was afterwards attached ta 
tt^e Spanish embaiisy, and took a very active part in various 
important negociations between the courts of .Spain aD4 
S^me. In 1796 he was employed in a more difficult un- 
dertaking! to solicit the clemency of the conqueror of Italy 
in behalf of l^ome, wher^ the French nation h^ad been m^ 
suited, 9«id he at least acquired the esteem of general Bua« 
fiaparte. About the same time he became acquainted with 
Joseph Bonaparte, then French ambassador at Rome, fil- 
ing afterwards sent to Paris, in a diplomatic character, he 
y^as favourably recd^ved, and found some relief frpm th^ rer 
collection that he bad left behind him his valued friends^ 
)ii3. ^ne library, and museum of paintings and antiques* 
I>i}ring thijs mission he experienced alterns|te favoujr and 
disgrace, being recalled by his court, exiled to Barcelona, 
^i)d isent again to Paris with the rank of ambassador. His 
health, hovioever, was ik>w much impaired, and ^^ea b^ was 
Indulging the hope of being able to return ^o Italy, an4 
pa«a the rest of bis titoe in the enjoyment of hi^ friends 
and favourite pursuits, his constitution suddenly gave way, 
apd be expired January 26, 1797. He left a viqiy con^i<- 
der^le fortune in furniture, pictures, busts, ^. but ap-» 
pears to have lost his other property. He translated, 1^ 
Middleton's life of Cicero, and some frs^ments of P|uiy 
and Seneca> under the title of ^f Historia delk Vida di AJ. 
T. Ciceroni," Madrid, 1790, 4 vols. 4to ; and also pi^ib- 
Usbed, 2. ^^ Introduzione alia storia naturale e alia Geo* 
grafia fisica di $pagna," Parma, 1784, 2 vols. 9vo. 3. 
^^ Qpere di Antonio*Raffaele Mengs," Parmay. by Bodoni, 
1780, 2 vols. 4to, of which a copious account may be seen 
in the .Monthly Review, vol. LXV. 1781. This was after* 
wards translated into English, and published 1796| 2 vols» 

AZARIAS, an Italian rabbi of the sixteenth century^ 
published bis works in one volume, at Mantua, in )^74. 
The book is entitled " Meor ei^ ajim," or " Light of thjB 
t^yes.". It discusses several points ^ history apd criticism, 
and proves that the author is much better acquainted witlji 
Christian learning and literary matters than the Jews in ge« 

' » Diet. Hist. 

A Z A R I A S. 237 

heral, whose reading is confined to their own authors. He 
examines abo some points of chronology, and has trans- 
lated into Hebrew, a piece of Aristeus*s ponceruing thd 
Sej^tuagint version. * 

AZON, or AZO FORTIUS, a celebrated laji^yer of the 
twelfth century y distinguished himself first at Bologna, 
id>out 1 1 93. He had studied under John Bosiani of Cre- 
nionay and acquired such reputation, that he was called 
•* Master of the Law," and " the Source of Law." The 
envy, however, which such merit attracted, made him leave 
Italy, and go to Montpellier, where he succeeded Placenti- 
nus. He was afterwards recalled to Bologna, and became 
yet more celebrated. It is said that he had a thousand 
auditors. In the warmth of dispute he threw a candlestick 
at the head of his. antagonist, who died in consequence. 
Azon was then taken up, and tried, although the accident 
happened without any evil intent The action, however, 
might be pardoned according to the intent of the. law ad 
bestias de pcenisj which moderates the punishment to any 
person who excels in any science or art. Azon, whether 
from the length of his imprisonment, or from his mind be- 
ing occupied or abstracted, cried out, ad bestiaSf ad bestias, 
meaning that his acquittal would be found in that law. But 
^is being reported to the judges, who were ignorant of it, 
ttey imagined that he insulted them, and treated them like 
beasts, and not only condemned him to death, but de- 
prived him of the honour of burial. This sentence was ex-* 
ecuted in 1200, or according to some, in 1225. Others 
deny that this was the end of Azon, aiid treat the story as 
what it very much resembles, a fiction. Contius published 
bis " Law Commentaries" in 1577.* 

AZORIU8 (John), a learned Jesuit of the sixteenth 
oentury, was a native of Lucca, in the diocese of Carttia- 
gena^ iii Spain. His merit preferred him to eminence in 
his society, whcfre he was rector of several colleges. He 
professed numanity with reputation in many other places, 
particularly at Alcala^ and at Rome, where he died in 
1603. He published *^ lAstitutionum Moralium, tomi 
tres,'* Rome, 1600, fol. often reprinted at Leyden, Venice, 
Cologne, &c. He wrote also '^ In CaiHica Canticoram 
oommentaria juxta historicum et allegoricum sensum," 
which does not appear to have been printed. ' 

> Moreri. > Moreri.— Fabr.B'i*)!. Lat Xtd.'—Saxu OnomMticoii. 

> Aiitoaio Bibl Hisp,-— Moreri, 


AZPILCUETA (Martin de), cotmnonly called Navarre 
(doctor Navarrus), was born of a noble family, Dec. 13/ 
1491, at Varasayn, near Panapeluiia in Navarr^. He wa». 
£rst educated, and took the habit, in the monastery of re-* 
gular canons at Roncevaux^ and afterwards studied at Al- 
cala and at Ferrara, where he made such progress in law, 
as to be employed in teaching that science s^t Toulouse 
and Cahors. Some time after, he returned to Spain, and 
was appointed 6rst professor of canon law at Salamanca^ iiti 
office he filled with high reputation for fourteen years, at 
the end of which John IlL king of Portugal, chose hiKi* 
law-professor of his new-founded university . at Coimbf^ 
and gave him a larger salary than had ever been enjoyed 
by any French or Spanish professor^ After filling this clkair 
also, with increasing reputation, for sixteen years, he was. 
permitted to resign, and went first into Castile, and after-* 
wards to Rome, on purpose, although in his eightieth 
year, to plead the cau^e of Bartholomew de Caranza, arch- 
bishop , of Toledo, who was accused of heresy before the 
inquisition, and whose cause, first argued in Spain, was by 
the pope^s order removed to Rome. Azpilcueta exerted 
himself to the utmost, but without success, which we can- 
not be surprised at when we consider that the inquisitors 
were his opponents ; and although they could prove nothing 
against Caranza, they contrived that he should die in pri- 
son. Azpilcueta, however, was honourably received at 
Home ; pope Pius V. appointed him assistant to cardinal 
Francis Alciat, his vice-penitentiary, and Gregory XIII. 
. never passed his door .without a visit, or met him in the 
street, without enjoying some conversation with him. 
He was much consulted, and universally esteemed for 
learning, probity, piety, and charity. Antonio informs us 
that he used to ride on a mule through the city, and relieve 
^ every poor .person be met, and that the crea.turi| of itself 
would stop at the sight of a poor person untU jts master. 
relieved him. He died June 21, 1586, then in his ninety* 
fourth year. His works, which are either, on jnorals or 
common law, weje published^ Rome^ 1590, 3 vols. Lyons^ 
1591; Venice, 1602.* . , ■ 

^ AntoDio Bibl. Hisp.— Gen. Diet. 

» • ♦ • 

( 239. y 



AAN (JoHi^ de), nn eminent Dutch pointer, wtis bom 
at HaerleiDy Feb. 20, 1633, and at a very early age placed 
under, the care of his uncle Piemans, who painted in the 
manner of Velvet Brueghel, and soon inspired his nephew 
with a taste for the art. Baan afterwards studied under 
Bakker at Amsterdam, with whom he practised assiduously 
every particular from which he could receive improvement, 
spending the whole day at the pencil, and the evenings in 
designing. At that time the works of Vandyck and Kern- 
brand t. were in great vx)gue, and after much consideration 
he aj^pears to have leaned towards an imitation of Vandyck, 
whom, some thought, he equalled. Houbraken says be 
was invited by Charles II. to come to £ngland, where be^ ^ 
made portraits of the king, queen, and principal nobility, 
at court, and was much admired for the elegance of his at- 
titudes, and for his clear, natural, and lively tone of colour- 
ing. After continuing some time in England, he went to 
the Hague, and tliere painted a noble portrait of the duke 
of Zell, for which he received a thousand Hungarian du- 
cats, amounting to near 50QL He then painted for the 
duke of Tuscany, who placed his portrait among those of 
other famous painters in the Florence gallery. When Louis 
XIV. was at Utrecht, he sent for him, but Baan declined* 
the invitation for political reasons. This did not lessen 
him, however, in the opinion of that monarch, who fire- 
'queutly consulted him on the purchase of pictures. These 
marks of distinction, and his fame as a painter, created faini 
many enemies, one of whom, an artist of Friesland, formed 
the execrable desigivof assassinating him, and came to Am- 
sterdam for that purpose. After being long disappointed 
in an opportunity in the streets, he asked permission to see 
Baan^s paintings, and while the latter was showing them, 
drew )a poijgnard to stab him, but. a friend of Baan's, who 
happebed to enter the room at the instant, laid hold of his 
arm ; the yillaio, • ho wey^r^ escaped, and conld not afce^ - 

-240 S A-A N. 

wards be found. Baan was of an amiable disrprositionV so^ 
cial and obliging. He died at Amitei'daai in 1702. ' 

BAAN (Jacob de), son of the above, was born at the 
Hague in 1673, learned the art of painting from his father^ 
and became very early an artist of distinction. In 1693 he 
came to England, and painted several excellent portraits 
for the nobility, particularly one of the duke of Gloucester. 
He was much solicited to remain in England, but had pre* 
determined to visit Rome, where, and at Florence, his ta* 
lents procured him great fame, and nmch money, the lat- 
ter t)f which he had not the prudencJe to keefp. His pictures 
are excellently handled, and he approached near to the 
merit of his father in portraits, and in other branches, of 
tlie art he probably wouM have far surpassed him, if he faadf 
appropriated more of his time to his studies, and had not 
died at so early a period of fife. He only reached birf 
twenty-seventh year. ' 

BABIN (Francis), a native of Angers, born in 1651, 
was canon, grand vicar, and dean, of the faculty of theo-'- 
logy in that city, and much noted for his learning and vir-' 
tues. He arranged and transcribed, into 18 voh. the^ 
•'Conferences" of the diocese of Angers, a work muclf 
esteemed in France. His style is clear, neat, and method*' 
ical, without any of the jargon of the schools. La Blandi* 
niere, who continued this work by adding ten volumes, doe^ 
not deserve so much praise. Babin published also, in 
1679, btit without bis name, ** An account of the proceed- 
ings of the university of Angers, respecting Jansenism anct 
Cartesian Jsm," 4td. He died Dec. 19, 1734, in his eighty- 
third year. * . 

-BABIN6TON (Gekvase), a learned English prelate' 
in the^ehd of the sixteenth and beginning of the sev^- 
teetith century*, was bom in NottinghaAishtre, according t^ 
FuHeif, but in IXevonshire, according to Izacke and Prince/ 
After having received die first rudiments of learning, he 
was sent to Trinity college, Cambridge, of which he be- 
came fellow. On the 1531 of July, 1578, he^ was iricorpo-* 
med M. A. at Oxford, as be stood irt his own tiniversity? 
After study iiig other branches of leariring, he applied W 
divinity, and became a favourite preacher in Cambridge',* 
the place of his residence. When he was D. D. he wst 
jAaade domestic chapkin tb Henry earl of Pembroke^ pre- 

1 ^reri.-.P8kiiigtpii,^l)ict Itist,^ t Jbidi , 

* Moreri.— Journal <!• Trevoux, 1*743, p. 1I575, 

ndent of tbd council in the marches of WaTes, and is sup« 
posed to have assisted lady Mary Sidney, countess of Pem- 
broke, in her version of the psalrbs into English metfel By 
bis lordship's interest, however, he was constituted trbasu- 
rerbf the church of Landaff, and in 1588 was installed 
into the prebend of Wellington, in the cathedml of Here- 
ford. Through his patrou*s further interest, he was ad- 
vanced to the bishopric of Landaff,. and was consecrated 
Aug. 29, 1591. In Feb. 1594, he was translated' to thie see^ 
• of Exeter, to which he did an irreparable injuty 'by alienat- 
ing from it the rich manor of Creditdn in' Devonshire.' la 
1597 he was translated to Worcester, and was Kkewis6' 
made one of the queen's council for the marches' of Wales* • 
To the library of Worcester cathedral he ^as a very gre,at' 
benefactor, for he not only fitted and repsiired the edifice, 
but also bequeathed to it all his books. After having con- 
jtinued bishop of Worcester near thirteen years, he died* of 
the jaundice, May 17, 1610, and was buried in the cathe-^ 
dral of Worcester, without any monument 

As. to his character, it is agreed, that in the midst of all 
his preferments he was neither tainted with idleness, pride, 
' nor covetousness, and was not only diligent in preaching- 
but in writing books, for the understanding of the holy 
$criptures. He was an excellent and animating preacher. 
His works were printed first in '4to; then, with additions, 
in folio, in 1615; ahd a'gairi in 1637, under this title: 
" Th6 works of Gervase Babington, &c: containing com- 
fortable notes upon the five books of Moses.' Ais also an 
exposition upon the Creed, the Commandments, the Lord's 
Prayer.' With a conference betwixt Mail's fVailtyand faith j 
and three Sermons.''^ His style is good, although not with- 
out the quaintnesses peculiar to the times. - ]\Iiles Smith, 
afterwards bishop of Gloucester, wrote a preface to ^ this 

BABRIA8, or BABR1U8, was a Gteck poet who turned 
Esop^s fables into choliambiCs, that is, verse9with an iambic 
foot in the Aftb place, and a spondee in the sixth or last. 
. Suidas frequently quotes him, but the age and comitry m 
which he lived are unknown. Avienus the fabulist, in Prseif; 
JFab* seegis to intimate, that Babrius^ was. prior to Phsdr^Sy 
who wrote under the r^ign of ijLugustus or Tiberius. Mr. 

1 Bk>9. Brit.-^FaUer'« Abd Redivtvai.— Prtoce>s Worthiet.— .Wood's Ftsti^ 
▼ol. I.— U»rrtDi{ton's Br^of View.-^S^pe'g Life of Wbdtgift, p. Q^Z, ^, 5XS, 
«74, 579. 


24S^ IB A BR 1 A S. 

Tjmrhitti the learned author of tbe ^^ Di$sertalio de 9a- 
brxoi'^i publisfa^d at Londkm in 1776) produces a passage 
from the Boi^^ric lexicon of AppUoniusy ^hick appears to 
be & quojtation f roni Babrius^ ^d as Apolloniys is supposed 
tp have Ut^^ ^bout the time of Augustuf^ or 9bme^hai ear-, 
lier, Babriufl must have written before tl^at period. From, 
the fragments published in the above-mentioned work, Ba** 
brius appeals tO) have been i^ valuable writer > liis repre- 
8jentatio9s ar^ natural, his expressiojns lively, and hU versi^ 
fication haivnonious. > 

BABYLAJS^ a Christian blsh<q> and martyr, of tbe third 
century, became hishop of Ant^ocl^ in the year 238, and^ 
govemjed that see thirteen years. It is said he died fiir 
maintaining the Christian faith, but authors are not agreed- 
about the time or manner of his martyrdom. £usebius| 
a^d St. Jerom say^ that upon his professing himself a Chris-*, 
tian, ia the reign of Deciys, he was put in prison ^^d died| 
there* St. Chrysostom,^ vrho lyrote a panc^ric upon Ba-, 
by las, relates that be was brought out of pcispn and publiclj^ 
executed. This is supposed to have, taken place in tbe 
year ^50. His relica were highly respected a,^ Antioch^ 
yhere two churches were l;>uilt m honour of his meijoory^j 
and it is said, that when his relics, wer^ brought tfaiith^r^ tho 
ciracle of Apollo waa struck dumb. ' 

BACCALAE.Y-&ANNA (Don Vincent), marquis of 
St Philippo, i^aa born in Sardinia, of in ancient family, 
originally Spanish, ^d rendened his name known, upt only 
by his mining, bat by his important employments und^^ 
Charles II. and l^hilip V. After the death of Charles IL 
Jdp served under the duke pf ilnjou his su.ccessor^ and du-r 
ting the revolj; in^ Sardinia conducted himself with wisckm 
and Ipyalty. * Philip Y. sewarded Us services by creatiug 
^im a ^arquis. Hedied stMadrid in 1726, much esteemed. 
His learned '^ History of the Monarchy of the Hebrews'*, 
waa translated into Fr^ench, and published in 2 vols. 4tp, 
and 4 vols. Syo. He wrote also ^^ Memoirs of ^e historjf 
of Philip v. frotfi 1699 to 1725,'* which abound rather toa 
much in military relations, but the whole is said to be scru^^ 
pulously exact in point of fact. ^ 
• ■• 

>. Diflsertatio de Babrio, fabulariiiD.iBsopearam scripton^, lu;. 8yo« 17*76.— > 
SaxU Onomatticony who does not appear to hate teen the Oifteirtatio.-^Ftfhrift'. 
Bibl. Qmc, 

.* i)i«t..Iiiit^rique* 


BA€CHINI (BEKKAK0IN, dr Bjbn£PicT)> a reffy learned 
Italian sobolar* of the seventeenth century, was born Aug^ 
Si, 1651, at Borgo-san^Donuio, in the ducby of Panna^ 
In 1653 bis father went to reside at Parma> wbere be sptreA 
flo expence in the education of Ibis son, although bis for^ 
tune was considerably reduced by family imprudence^ For 
five years be studied the classics, under the tuition of the 
Jesuks, and in his sixteenth year /entered the order of St; 
Benedict, dn which occasion he adopted the naiae of that 
saint, in lieu of Bemardine, his baptismal name. Soon 
after, his father died, leaving his widow and three childrett 
with very little provision. Ehucchini, however^ pursued bk 
studies, and took lessons in scholastic philosophy fifom 
Maurice Zapata; bat by the advice of Chrysogonus Fa<i> 
bius, master of the novices of his convent^ be studied ma^ 
tbematics, as the foundation of a more useful species of 
knowledge than the physics and metaphysics of the aii#> 
cients. He afterwards applied to divinity with equal judg« 
ment, confining his researches to the fathers^ councils^ ai^4 
ecclesiastical history. When he had completed bis coujv^ 
his abb£ wished faim to teach pbiloaopby, but he bad no 
inclination to teach that scholastic philosophy which be did 
not think worth learning ; . and bavikig obtained leave^ on 
account of his health, to retire to a moniuteryin the cottn* 
try, he reaMined there two y^irs,. during which be studieA 
the scienoeof music, and on bis recovery began to preachy 
agreeably to the desire o£ bis superiors. In 1677, Axeio*> 
ni, abbd of St* Benedict at Ferrara^ having appointed him 
bis seevetary, he was obliged to foUow htm to Aref zo> Ye* 
nice, Piaeentia> Padua, and Parma. While at Placenda^ 
in 1679, be pronounced a funeral oration on Margaret de 
Medicis, mother of the duke of Parma, which was printed 
th^re. In 1681 he formed an acquaintance with Maglia^ 
beccbi) the cardinal Noti% and many other eminent men of 
|he age.. In 1683, on, acceunt of his healthy he solicited 
permission to resign bis office as secretary to the abb6, and 
as public pveacher, which was granted; and having haa 
time, again in bis own hands, be began to arrange the li^* 
brarybdoiigingto bis monastery, and to consult tibe fiitbers 
and sacred critics, and studied with assiduity and succesa 
the Greek and Hebrew languages. In 1685 he was ap^ 
pointed counsellor of the inquisition at Parma, and next 
year had a visit of three' days from father Mabillon and fa- 
^r# Germain, and about the same time began to ooadttflt 

a 2 

244 B A C C H I K I. 

the '^ Diofnale de Letterati.'' In this he was encouraged 
and assisted by Gaudentio Robert!, who -was eminent in. pcM^ 
lite literature. Bacchini accordingly began the JParma 
journal, in imitation of that published at Rome, and conti^ 
nued it monthlyi but without his name, until 1690. .But 
afterwards,, when at Modena, he resumed it for 1 692 and 
1693,' after which, the death of Roberti, who defrayed all 
^ t}ie expence, obliged, him. again to discontinue it. In 1 69 5^ 
liowever, Capponi epgaged to furnish the books and all ne* 
cessary expences^^d he edited it for 1696. and 1697, whea^ 
it was concluded. The whole make nine small volumes 
4to, the first five printed at Parma,, and the rest at Modena/ 

In the mean time, in 1688, the duke of Parma appointed 
him his theologian, at the request of Roberti ; and the same 
year, at the solicitation of Leo Strozza, he wrote his dis-» 
sertation on the ancient sistrum, a musical instrument, 
whicJi was published under the title, ^* De Sistrorum figu- 
iris ae differentia ad illustriss. D. D. Leonem Strozza, ob 
jSistri Romani efBgiem communicatum, dissertatio," Bono* 
nia, 1691, 4to. The deaxh.of tlie abbe Arcioni, and some 
disputes with his, brethren at Panua, rendering it neceasMry 
lor him to leave that city, the duke of Modena invited liim 
chitber in 1690, and soon after he was appointed .first* ex* 
aniiner, and then one of the counsellors of die inqnisition* 
Me had also the appointment of professor of sacred' litera* 
ture at Bologna, but on account of the distance he gave but 
few lectures, although he retained the title of professor* 
On the death of the duke of Modena, Sept 1694, his uncle 
the cardinal d'£st succeeded him, .and became a yet more 
liberal patron to Bacchini^ 

In 1696 he published his monastic history^ under .the 
title of << Deir Istoria del Monasterio di S. Benedetto di 
Polirone nella State di Mantoua Libri cinque,'' . Modena^ 
1696, 4 to. This was to have been succeeded by .a second 
volume, but some unwelcome truths in the first, having 
given oiFence, what be had prepared remained in matu** 
script. The same year he tnrvelled over various parts of 
Italy, visiting chiefly the libraries and the learnedf who re** 
ceived him witii the respect due to bis talent^. At Florence 
lie p^sed some days with his friend Magliabeccbl; at Moujst 
Ca^sin, and at Su Severin, the libraries were laid open, witlt. 
permission, to copy what he pleased ; and the cardinal 
d'Agttiire wished much to have procured him a place in the 
.VaUcan library , b^tt being unsuccessful^ Sacchioi retu^ed 

B A C C H I N L 24a 

ta Mod^na, where the duke made him his librarian. While 
puttiiig tlie booics in order here, he found the lives of the 
btshops of Ravenna by Agnelli (see Aonelli],. which he 
comnutted to the press, with chronological disseitations and 
remarks^ and the whole was ready for pablicalion in 1702| 
but the censors at Rome hesitated »o long in granting their 
permission, that it was not published before 1708. In the 
course of preparing this work, he wrote a dissertation on 
ecclesiastical hierarchy, entitled " l>e £cclesiasticae Hie* 
i^rehtsB origine dissertatio,'' Mutitia (ie. Modena), 1703, 
4to. In 1704 he was elected prior of the monastery of 
Modena, and in 1705 he published, under the name of the 
abb^.and monks of the monastery of Parma, ** Isidori Cia- 
rii ex Monacbo Episcopi Fulginatis EpistolsB ad amicos, 
bacteuus ineditas,'' Modena, 1705. Two years after, he 
was made chancellor of his order, and in 1708 was elected, 
in the general chapter, abb6 of the monastery of St. Mary 
^t Ragusa. In 1711 and 1719, other promotions of a simi* 
lar kind were conferred upon him, but he was obliged ta 
^remove from place to place on account of his health, in- 
juoed *by a complication of disorders, which at last proved 

. fatal; at Bologna, Sept. 1^ 1721. Bacehini) according to 
the report of all his biographers, was one of the mo^t learned 

' vneit ojThis time; few equalled and none surpassed him in 
Italy. ' His learning was universal, and his taste exquisite. 
When. young hewas much admired for his pulpit eloquence, 
and it was thought would have proved one of the first 
preachers of bis time, if his delicate temperament could 
have permitted that exertion. He was' critically skilled in 
X>reek 'find Hebrew, ancient and modem philosophy, and 
inathfsmatics, bujb wa^ perhaps most deeply conversant in 
sacred and prof{9,ne history ^nd chronology^ and he was re- 
/ua^kably expert in decyphering ancient manuscripts. Few 
nien, it may be added, were moi*e admired in their time, or 

. could enumerate among their friends so many men of high 
jranl^ and learning ; of the latter, Bacchini lived in habits of 
intimacy with Ciampini, Magliabecchi, MuratOri, Gimma, 
Fontamni, Mabillon, M ontfaucon, and the marquis Scipio 
JVlaffei, and in all his intercourse with the great orth^ le0.rned| 

be preserves the character of a modest a^id humble mail. ] 

. r 

^ Life 19 Latin by feimself, in the Venice journal, vol. XXXIV.— Nlceron, vol. 
XII.— Fabroni Vitae Italoriim, vol. VII. who gives the most comptete collectioii 
o#' bis^forks, pabltshed and in manuscript.— Ma2zucheUi; vol. II. — Saxii Onq*- 
masUtiOu.:— I)upin.^-Chaufepie« 

U€ 6 A C C H Y L I D £ S. 

BACCHYLIDES, the Greek lyric poet, was borii ai 
Jolis, a town in the isle of Ceos. He was the nephew of 
Simonides, and the contemporary and rival of Pindar*. 
Both snng.the victories of Hiero at the public games. Be<* 
sides odes to athletic victors, be was author of love verses^ 
l^osodies, dithynunbics, hymns, &c. The emperor Ju-* 
lian was a great admirer of his writings, and Hiero pre- 
ferred him to Pindar. He flourished .452 B. C. and was 
the last of the nine lyric famous in Greece. There 
are some fragments of his still in being, printed along with 
those of Akseus, at the end of an edition of Pindar, An^ 
twerp, 1567, 16mo.* 

BACCI (Andrew), an eminent Italian physician, wai 
bom at St. Elpidio, in the march of Ancona. He became 
professor of medicine at Rome, and first physician to pope 
Sixtus V. and was celebrated for great skill : and his works 
prove that he had great learning. The time of his death 
is uncertain, but he was alive in 1 596. His works are^ 
J. "DeThermis, libri septero," Venice^ 1571, 1588, foh 
and at Padua, 1711. The first is a rare book, and the last 
has the addition of an eighth book. That printed in 1 623 
Id mutilated. 3. ^' De Naturali Vinorum Historia,'' Rome, 
1596, fol. a Tery scarce book, of which, however, there is 
a copy in the British Museum. 3. ** De Venenis et Aoti* 
dotis Prolegomena,'* Rome, 1586, 4to. 4. ** De Gemrais 
ac lapidibus pretiosis in S, Scriptura relatis," Rome, 1577, 
4to, and Franc. 1 643, 8vo, by Gabelchoterus. 5. << Ta- 
bula simplieiom Medicamentorum,** Rome, 1577> 4td. 
6. ** De Conviviis Antiquorunl/' * 

BACH (John Sebastian), an eminent German muei^ 
^ian, was born at Eisenach in 1685, and made such pro« 
ficieney in his art that at the age of eighteen, he was ap-> 
pointed organist of the new church of Amstadt In 170S, 
he settled at Weimar, where he was appointed court musi- 
cian and director of the duke^s concert, and in a trial of 
skill, he obtained a victory over the celebrated French or* 
ganist, who had previously challenged and conquered all 
the organists of France and Italy. This happened at Dres* 
^len, to which Bach went on purpose to contend with this 

^ Moreri.— Fabr. Bibl. Grac— ^xii Onomast. 

s Morcru^Srythrvi PmM»Uieca.-*liiU«r Bikl. Ji6iL-Jtf«^et.«-Saxii 

BACH. ' ^4t 

ttiiusical Goliath. He afterwards became master of thb 
thapel to the prince of Anhait Cothen, and to the duke of 
Weissenfets. As a performer oh the organ, as well as '^ 
bomposer for that instrument, he long stood unrivalled. 
He died at Leipsic in 17 $4, and left four sons all eminent 
ihiisicians, of whom some account is given hy Dr. Burtiey 
in his History of Music, vol. IV. and in his Musical Tomr 
?n Germany.* 

BACHAUMdNT (Louis Petit de), a French miscel- 
laneoti^ writer, iv^ a native of Paris, and a man of ge- 
neral ktidwhsdge. ' In 1762, he comnienced a journ^ 
** Historique et Litteralre,** and after his death in 177 i, 
one of his friends collected his manuscript notes, arid pub- 
lished them in 1777, in 6 to4s. l^mo, under the title df 
^ Memdites Secrets," which Kave been continued since as 
far sd tliit*ty volumes. There is much political histoiy m 
these memoirs, with many private anecdotes of the prirt- 
icipal personages concerned : they contstin lilso driticisni^, 
|K>etry, temporary history, and such materials as generally 
fill our magazines and ireviews, but with a good dea4 of 
ihith, they contain a certain pro{>ortion of scandal. B^^ 
chauixioht tdib piiBlisbed *^ Lettre Critique sur le Louvre, 
L^Ojieri, la Pl^cfe Louis XV. et les Salles de Spectacle,^* 
1752, 8vo ; :*« Essai dur la pelntiir^, la sculpture,* et Parchi- 
tecture,^* 1752, 8vo ; and an edition of Qntntilian, with a 
trandation by O^doyn, and a Jife of the translator, 1752, 
4 vols. 12mo.^ 

' BACHELlEtt (NldilOLAS), cffTholonsei but originally 
^f Lu^ca^ studied scul^ure* and architecture at Rome 
under Michael Arigelo. On returning to his native coun- 
try, h6 rtitrodtced it true taste in those arts, instead of the 
birbarous manner which had till theit prevailed. His works 
in sculpture that still subsist in several churches of that 
ci^, always excite admiration, though some of them have 
since been ^ilt, which has deprived them of that grace and 
delicacy v^hich Bacheli^r had given them. He was still 
exercising hi^ art in 1553.* 

BACHIUS (John Augustus), an eminent fawyer and 
critic, was bom in 1721 iat Hoh'endorp, and sent in his 
twelfth year to Liipsic, where he was etjudated under 
i^esner and Ernest, wbo was particularly fond of him, ancl 

» BuAicy's Hist!; Tof. 111. ana fr. t Diet. Higt.* » jStorcri. 

24S B A C .H I U S. 

encouraged bis studies witb a fatherly care^ Having goi^ 
tbroygh a course of classical learning, philosophy, and aia« 
tbeinatics, he applied, to the study of law, audio 1750, he 
yrsis created doctor in that faculty and professor of law^ tq 
which in 1753,j¥^ added the place of ecclesiastical assessor 
at Leipsic. Ail these offices he .discharged with the iif^est 
public replication and personal ^steem^ but was cut on by 
a premature death in 1756. He was a man of e:( tensive 
Jeamiog,- critically acquainted with Greek and Latiu^.and 
W^U versed, in history and antiquities. His principal pub^ 
)ications were, 1. *' Dissertatio de Mysteriis JLleusinis^^^ 
Xreipsic, 1745, 4to. 2.. " Divus Trajanus, sive de legir 
l^us Tr^ani commentarius," 1747, 8vo. 3. " Historia ju- 
psprudeotisB Roman a^, I7^^i ^^^' ^' ^ ■ X^nophontis Oe* 
conomioum/' 1749, 8vp. ^. ** Brissonlus de formuUs>'* 
1754, fol. 6. " J3ergeri oecor^omia Juris," 1755,. 4tq. 
7* ^^Opuscula ^d historiamet jurisprudentiam spectantia," 
collected ^nd publis^hed by Christ, ^dpljph. Klo|z^ Hallcn 
1767, 8vo.> . . ^ . 

BACHOVIUS (Reiner), was born ^t Cologne in 1554, 
and brought.up to business. He went to Leipsic, where 
be married ; but bis tranquillity was soon disturbed, owing 
;io hjs having e^^changed the opinions of Luther for those 
of Calvin. At first there were nothing but 8uspiqiqi\s 
against him, and his (snemi^s ^er^ ^tisfied witb removing 
him from his public employjoients ; but the times chang- 
ing, he obtained the onice of senator, and afterwards in 
the year 1585 that of Ecbevin, and about three years after 
that of consul. The Elector Christian I. dying in 159^1 
Bachovius was iipportun^ profess Lutberanism, and on 
Refusing, they obliged hiifi to quit bis posts. He bad jqo 
Regard, Of the advice which was given him to retire, though 
they represented to him th^ danger of a prison ; be thought 
. th^t this flight would give occasion to bis enemies to tell 
the world, that he was uot copscious of his innocence ; but 
jn the year 1593 he was forced to give v^ay to t];ie popular 
commotions, and to depart from Leipsic. H^ went first tp 
Serveste, nnd the y^ar followiiig to the Palatinate, not with-* 
put the loss of almost all his efiC^cts. He found a kind prq* 
.Rector in the elector Palatini, and he executed s;everal 
pffices of profit and l^pnour at Heidelberg till his dipatb^ 

1 l^lu de ViUs PbilQlogorum> vol. I. i^nd UI,«-'Six\i (^iiomait. 


v^hich bappened the 27rii of February, 1614. He pvhr 
lished a coiDmentary on the <:atechisin of the Palatioale. * 
. BACHOVIUS (llEiNER or Reinharp), a very able 
lawyer of the seventeenth century, was the son of ithe 
preceding, and was born at Heidelberg, and probably edu-* 
cated there. He was, however, celebrated for his knoW* 
Jedge of the civil lave, when Heidelberg was taVcn by count 
Tilly in 1622, and the university dissolved. This obliged 
bim to leave the place, but he appears to have .returned 
,sooH after, and to have endeavoured to support himself 
for some time by giving private lessons to the few pupils 
whom the siege had not driven away. In 1624', he pub- 
lished his ^* Exercitationes ad partem posteriorem Cbi« 
liados Antonii Fabri, de erroribus interpretum, et de inter* 
piretibus juris,'' fol. The same year he entered into a 
^ correspondence with the learned Cuneus of Leyden, to 
whom he communicated his intention of leaving Heidel* 
berg, as the university, then about to be restored, was to 
be composed of catholics, while be was disposed towards 
tlie principles of the reformed religion. He intimated also 
to Cuneus that he had no higher ambition, should he come 
to Leyden^ than to give private lessons. . During this cor- 
respondencp an pffer wa? made to Cuneus of a professors 
ship ii? the ^ademy of Franeker, and as he could not ac-rr 
cept it, he took this opportunity of recommending Bacho* 
vius, but the latter had rendered himself obnoxious there 
by ^writing against Mark Lycklama, formerly one of the 
professors, ^nd still one of the isurators of the academy. 

In 1627, Bacbovius pyblished his treatise *^ De.PigilD* 
ribus et Hyp^othecis ;" atd about the same time, Otto Ta-» 
bor, a young Lutheran, and a student at Strasburgh, sent 
bim a treatise on law which he had written, and requested 
bis advicp concernipg it. Bacbovius, on reading the ma- 
nuscripty conceived a very high opinion of the author, and 
imparted to him bis wish to come to Strasburgh, provided 
he could gain a subsistence by private teaching, and at the 
same time assured him that although he was of the re- 
formed religion, he shoi^ld give no person any reason to 
pomplain on that head, as his opinions. were rather of the 
Lutheran than the C^alyinistic system. The academy bav« 
' )og beard of bis intentions, desired Tabor to assure him that 

' ^ (B«n. J>ict.— Mor^ri,-— "Melchior Adaip jri Vitis Jurrsc««suU, 

fiS5 B A C H O ▼ I U S. 

lie should iKieet with a kind reception, but they afterwafdl 
so entirely changed their sentiments, that when he arrived^ 
the law professors forbid his private teaching, much to the 
disappointment of many of the students. He then returned 
to Spires, and afterwards to Heidelbei^, wherie he pro-* 
fbssed his return to the Catholic religion, and the univer* 
sity being restored, was again appointed to a professor^s 
chair. What became of him afterwards is not known. 
Besides the works alrei^ly mentioned, he published <^ Di^« 
|)utatidnum Miscellanearum de variis Juris Civilis materiis^ 
llbcr linus," Heid. 1604^ 8vo ; " Not® in Paratitla We- 
setnbeeii super Pandectas,^' Cologne, 1611, 4to; '^ Exa« 
itten iiationalium Antonii Fabri," 1612, 8vo ; " Notae et 
animadrersioties ad disputationes Hieronymi-Trentleni^'* 
f rancfort, 1617, 4to ; the fourth edition of this work, print- 
ed at Cologne in 168S, was enlarged to 3 vols. 4to ; *^Ob- 
servatioties ad Joannis Paponis arresta;" Francf. 1628^ foK 
*' In Institntionuid Justiniani jus LibrosIV. Commentarii 
Theorici et Practici,** Francf. 1628, 4to. Four of his let- 
ters to Cuneus are i» Burman^s edition of Cuneus^s Letters^ 
published at Leyden in 1725, 8vo. ' 

BACICI (John Baptist Gauli), su^iamed the Painter, 
born at Genoa in 1639, went to Rome about his fourteenth 
year, where he placed himself with a dealer in pictures, at 
whose house he had frequent opportunities of seeing Ber- 
inm,«of whom he received good advice in his art and as- 
isistance in his fortune. His first essays were the strokes of 
a masterly pencil, and he was thenceforward employed in 
capital works ; among others the cupola of Jesus at Rome^ 
a grand and complicated performance, which it is impos- 
sible sufficiently to admire. But Bacici^s chief exc^lehce 
lay in portrait-painting. He drew that of a man who had 
been dead twenty years. He began by chalking out a head 
^rom his own imagination ; then, retouching his work by 
tittle and little, according to the suggestions of those who 
had seen the person while alive, he at length succeeded in 
finishing a portrait acknowledged to be a complete resem- 
blance. Bacici painted with so much ease, that his hand • 
in a considerable degree kept pace with the impetuosity 
of his genius. His ide^s were great and bold, sometimes 
fantastical ; his figures have an astonishing relief. He was 
a good colourist, and excellent in foreshortening^ but he 

1 Gen. I]dct.«i->M9rer].«»NiceroB« toL XLI. 


B A C I C L 251 

< ... 

is reproached with incorrectness in his drawing, and a bad 
tiuite in his draperies. Nevertheless his works are much 
esteemed. He died in 1709. ' 

BACKER, or BARKER (Jacob), an eminent portrait 
and historical painter, was born at Harlingen, in 1609, but 
spent the greatiest part of his life at Amsterdam : and by 
all the writers on this subject, he is mentioned as an ex- 
traordinary painter, particularly of portraits, which he 
executed with strength, spirit, and a graceful resemblance. 
He was remarkable for an uncommon readiness of hand, 
and freedom of pencil : and his incredible expedition in 
his manner of painting appeared in the portrait of a lady 
from Haerlem, that he painted at half-length, which was 
begun and finished *in one day, though he adorned the 
figure with rich drapery, and several ornamental jewels. 
He also painted historical subjects with good success : and 
in that style there is a fine picture of Cimon and Iphigenia, 
which is accounted by the connoisseurs an excellent per- 
formance. In designing academy figures, bis expression 
was so just, and his outline so correct, that he obtained the 
prize from all his competitors : and his works are still 
bought up at very high prices in the Low Countries. In 
the collection of the elector Palatine, there is an excellent 
head of Brouwer, painted by this master : and in the Car- 
melites' church at Antwerp is preserved a capital picture 
of the Last Judgment, which is well designed and coloured, 
Backer died at the age of 42, in 1651, but according to 
Descamps, in 1641, at the age of 33. ^ 

BACKER, or BAKKER (James), a painter, born at 
Antwerp in 1530, learned the principles of painting froni 
his father, who was a much inferior artist. After his father^ 
death, be lived in the house of Jacomo Palermo, a dealer 
in pictures, who avariciously took care to keep him inces- 
santly employed, and sent his paintings to Paris to be dis- 
posed of, where they were much admired. He had a clean 
light manner of pencilling, and a tint of colour that vva^ 
extremely agreeable. The judicious were very eager to. 
purchase them at high prices, of which, however, the poor 
artist was not suffered to avail himself; and although his 
merit was universally allowed, Palermo took care that his 
siame and his circumstances should not be known. He 

> PilkiDgton in Gauli.— Diet Hist.— 'Abre^je des Vies des Pt Intrei^ rol. II. 

2St B A C K E E. 

died in this obscure and depressed condition iii 1560, only^ 
30 years old. * 

BACKHOUSE (William), a younger son of Samuel 
Backhouse of Swallowfield in Berkshire, esq. (who died in 
1626), was born in that county in 1593, became a com^ 
xnoner of Christ church, Oxford, in 1610, in bis seven- 
teentb year, left it without a degree, and attp^cbed himself 
to the study of chemistry and astroloey then so much. in 
vogue. He adopted the celebrated Ashmole as hii^ son, 
and imparted to him those absurd secrets which were to 
produce wonders. Mr. Backhouse died May 30, 1662, ^^nd 
was buried in Swallowfield church. He published a transla- 
tion from the French of " The pleasant Fountain of Know- 
ledge," 16^4, 8vo : this was written by John de la poqn- 
taino in 1413; "The Complaint of Nature,'.' find "The 
Golden Fleece," a translation from Solomon Trisniosin, 
ynaster to Paracelsus. Mr. Aubrey speaks of tbi& gentle- 
man in his Collection of Hermetic Philosophy, chap. XII. * 

BACKHUYSKN (J^UDOtPU), a very celebrated Dutch 
painter, was born in 1631, in the city of JEmbden ; his fa- 
thef was secretary of state, and his grandfather had held a 
post in administration. The first sixteen years of his life 
were employed in studies suitable to the intentions of his 
family, which were to breed him up to commerce, and for 
that purpose he was sent to Amsterdam, where it would 
appear he first caught an inclination for painting. The 
earliest instructions he received in this art were from Al- 
bert Van Evcrdingen, but he acquired his principal knowr 
ledge by frequenting the paintjng-rooms of different great 
masters, and observing their various metl^ods of touching 
and colouriug. One of these m^stevs was Henry Dubbels, 
whose knowledge of his art was very extensive, and who 
was very communicative of what he knew. From hipi 
Backhuysen obtained more real benefit, than from all the 
painters of his time, and he had not availed himself long 
of such an instructor before he became the subject qf ge- 
neral admiration, so that even his drawings were sought 
after, and one of his earliest performance^ was sold for que 
hundred florins. — It was observed of him, that while he was 
painting, he would not suffer evjen his most intimate friends 
to have acc,ess |o him, Ipst his fancy rnight be disturbed^ 
and the ideas he had formed in his mind might be iuter^ 

1 Ibid. » AtK Ox. vol. II. 

B A C K H U Y S E N. t53 

mpted. He studied nature' ftttentively in all her forms ; 
in gales^ cairns, storms^ clouds, rocks, skies, Itgiits and 
shadows : aiid he expressed every subject with so sweet a 
pencil, and soch transparence and lustre, as placed htm' 
above all the artists of his time in that style, except tile 
younger Vandervelde* It was a frequent custom with 
Backhuysen whenever he could procure resolute mariners, 
to go'out to sea in a storm, in order to store his mfnd with 
grand images, directly copied from nature, of such scenes 
as woftld have filled any other head and heart with terror 
and dismay : and the moment he landed, Ue always impa- 
tiently ran to his palette, to secure* those incidents <rf which 
the traces might, by delay, be obliterated. He perfectly 
understood the management of the cbiaro-scuro, and 
strictly observed the truth of perspective. His works may 
be easily distinguished by an observant eye, from the 
freedom and neatness of his touch, from the clearness and 
natural agitation or quiescence of the water, from a pecu- 
liar tint in his clouds and skies, and also from the exact 
proportions of his ships, and the gracefulness of their posi- 

Fdr the burgomasters of Amsterdam he painted a pic- 
ture, with a multitude of large vessels, and a view of the 
city at a distance, for which they gave him thirteen hun- 
dr^ guilders, and a considerable present. This picture 
they afterwards presented to the king of Fratice, who 
placed it in the Louvre. No painter was ever more ho- 
noured by the visits of kings and princes than Backhuysen ; 
the king of Prussia was one of the pumber; and the czar 
Peter took delist to see him paint, and often endeavoured 
to .draw, after vessels which he had designed, ' Backhuy^ 
sen was remarkably assiduous ; and yet it seeim astonishing 
to consider the number of pictures which he finished, ^la 
the exquisite manner in which they are painted. He is 
said to have had some taste for poetry, and such was his 
industry that at bis leisure hours he taughir writing in the 
families of the principal merchants. He was the greater 
part of his life much afflicted with the stone and gravel, yet 
reached a very advanced age, as his death did not happen 
till 1709. Strutt places him among bis engravers, as faav«> 
ing published some.^ etchings of the Y, a small arm of 
the sea near Amsterdam. ^ 

> D'ArfenTille.-^PiikiD|^oa,«-Strttt^ 



BACON (I.ADY Ann£)i the second dauf htet of $ir Aa« 
tHopy Copke, was bom about the year 1529. She WM 
liberally educated by her father, and haying added much 
acqiiired knowledge to her natural endowments^ she b^-^ 
came highly distinguished among the learned pefsooagea 
q! the time^ and, it is even said, . was constituted governess 
toking Edward VI. She was^ however, eminent for piety^ 
virtue, and learning, and well versed in the Greek, Latin^ 
and Italian tongues. She gave an early specimen of her 
iud^slry, piety, and learning, by translating out of italiaa 
into English twenty-*iive sernions, written by BarnardiiHi 
Ochine, concerning '^ The Predestination and Election of 
^od ;,'' this was published about the year 1550 in Svo. 
When the learned bishop Jewel wrote his ^' Apology £b£ 
the Church of England,^' which had a conuderable effect 
i^ quieting the clamours of the Roman Catholie wiritera 
Against the reformed religion, this lady undertook t» trsna^ 
late it from the Latin into English, that it might be accesHf 
^ible to the common people, and considering the style, of 
the ^ge, her translation is both filithful an4 elegant A&« 
Strype informs us that after she had finished the trahslatioa 
she sent the copy %o the ajUth€Mr, accompanied with .an 
f pintle to him in Greek;, which he answered in the samer 
language, and was so satisfied with her translation that he 
4id ^ot ^\tex a .^ngle word. The archbishop Parker^ to 
whom she had likewise submitted her work, bestowed the 
highest praise on it, which' he confirmed by a compliment 
9f much elegance. He retujrned it to her printed, << know-* 
ing,'* as he said ia his letter to her, ^^ that^e had thereby 
4one for the biest, afid in this point used a reasonable pot 
liey ; that is, to prevent such excuses as her modesty woiiU 
have made m stay of pubUshiAg it^^ It was printed in 
)a$4, 4to, and in 1600, l2mo. That bee literary reputa<* 
tion extended beyond her own country is evident from 
Beza'a dedication to her of his Meditations. lu Birch^^ 
<^ iMemoirs of ^e reign of queen Elizabeth,'* her namei 
frequently occurs, wd lie has given some of her letters at 
£jU lengeh^ and extracts from rodiers, which confirm heir 
character for learning. Her temper in her latter yeaim 
appears to have been affected by ill health* At what time 
ahe w^ ouMTied t;a sir Kicholas Bacon cannot be ascer^ 
tainied. It is a more important record, however, that she 
was mother of the illustrious sir Francis Bacon, lord Veru- 
lam, Th^ time of her death, too, has escaped the re« 

B A C O N* ^55 

9afijr(!hes of her biograpbera. She appears to have hee^ 
l{mg in 1596, and Ballard comectures thaf she died abou^ 
the b^gihniqg of the reign q;i James I. at Gorh^ii^l^iiry^ 
i^ear St. Alban's, and^ according to Dr. Rawley, was buriefl 
ax &u Michael's church in that town^ but neither , n^ooM* 
ment nor inscription have, been discovered. ' 

3ACQN (Francis), Viscount St. A^^ban's, an4 higU- 

cbancellor of England in the reign of Jaqies L justly styled, 

the glory and ornament of his age i^nd nation, waa the sgoj 

of sir Mcholas Bacon, and Anue, the subject of the pre*. 

ce(}iag article, and was born at York House, in tl^e Strand^ 

qn the 22d of January 156D-i. He gave early proofs of ^ 

s.urprizing strength and pregnancy of genius, and when ^ 

mei^e boy, was distinguished by persons of worth find dig^ 

nity fiar something far beyond his years. Queen Elizabeth^ 

1^ very acute discerner of mei'it, was so charmed with the 

solidity of his sense and the gravity of his behayioiir, thai} 

she would often call him ^' her young lord ke^er,*' aq 

office which be eventually reached, although not in her 

roigOi When qu^ified for academical l&tudies, he wasisent^ 

tp^e ufidiKersity of Cambridge, where, June^ 10, 1573, het 

was entered of Trinity college, u^der Dr. John Whitgiftj^ 

i^tencards archbishop, of Cai;Lterbury. Such was bis pro-i 

gress under, this able tutor, and such the vigour of his in^ 

telleot,. that before h^ had completed his sixteenth year, 

kp had not only run through the whole circle of the liberal 

arts, .as they were then taught, but began to perceive the^ 

imperfections of. the reigning philo^opby, and meditated 

that phi^ige of lyfstem which has since immortalized hif 

i)ame| and has pUced knowledge upon its most firm foun^ 

4a,tiODu Extraordinary as this may appear, he was beard 

Qven a^ ^^ early ^ge, to object to the Aristotelian system, 

^^ea\y qne-t^ga in repute,^ aijid to say, tba^t hisi^^ excep*« 

tlpos against th^ great philosopher were not founded upoa 

t|ie wortblessnef s of the author, to whom he would ever as^ 

oabe.aU high attributes, but for the unfruitfulness pf the 

way. :. beinj^ a 'phildsophy only for disputations^ and conteai^ 

I^QiMI, buj^ barren in the production of works for the benefit; 

ofxbe life of man*'- 

: Si^ch.^^ady jjudgn\ent determined his father to send hin^ 

ta^Jfrnofepr that ^; flight iipprove hiouelf under that able 

* .' <'• • 

^« Biilard^g MemoiV,— Bigj. Britrtol. IV. art. Cooke, , p. 79, note— Strype'* 
Life of Parker, p..l7S. 


256 BACON. 

and botiest statesman, sir Amias Powlet, then the qacen^s 
ambassador at Paris, and his behaviour while nitaef the^ 
roof of that minister, was so pradent as to inddce sir Amias^ 
to intrust him with a commission of importance to th^ 
queen, which required both secrecy and dispatch : and tht* 
he executed so as to gain much credit both t6 the ambas- 
sador and to himself. He afterw*ards returned to Paris, 
but made occasional excursions into the provinces, where 
his attention appears to have been principaHy directed to- 
wards men and manners. He applied also with, great as'^ 
siduity to such studies as he conceived came within hi^s 
father's intention, and when he was but nineteen, wrote a 
very ingenious work, entitled, " A succinct view of the 
state of Europe," which, it is plain, be had surveyed' not 
only with the eye of a politician, but also of a philosopher. 
This work, it is probable, he improved on his return, when 
he was settled in Gray's Inn. While thus employed 
abroad, the death of his father obliged him to return, and 
apply to some profession for his maintenance, as the mo- 
ney he inherited formed a very narrow provision. Accord- 
ingly? on his return, he resolved on the study of the cofti- 
inon law, and for that purpose entered himself of the ho- 
nourable society of Gray's Inn, where his superior talents 
rendered him the ornament of the house, and thie gentle- 
^ness and affability of his deportment procured him the af«-x 
fection of all its members. The place itself was so agreeable 
to him, that he erected there a very elegant structure, 
which many years Jtfter was knowix by the name of " Lord 
Bacon^s Lodgings," which he inhabited occasionally thrbugli 
the greatest part of his life. During the first years of his 
residence here, he did not confine his studies entirely to 
law, but indulged his excursive genius in a survey of the 
whole circle of science. It was here, and at that earljr 
age, where he formed, at least, if he did not mature, tfaie 
plan of that great philosophical work, which has distitt* 
guisbed his name with such superior honour. Whether 
this first plan, or outlines, have descended tons, is a point 
upon which his* biographers are not agreed. It was pfO*' 
bably, however, the " Temporis Partus Masculus," sqme 
part of which is preserved by Gruter in the Latin wodts of 
Bacon, which he published. The eurioua reader tfiay fe« 
ceive much satisfaction on this subject from note D. of tho 
Life of Bacon in the ^* Biographia Britannica.'' ' 

His progress in his professional studies/ )K>w^er^ iwi 

BACON. 257 

fiever tntemipted, and bis practice became considerable. 
in \5S9, he discharged the office of reader at Gray's InOi 
i^nd such was his fame^ that the queen honoured him by 
94>pointing him her counsel learned in the law extraor* 
dinary, but whatever reputation he derived frdifk this ap« 
]>pintment, and to a young man of only twenty-eight years 
of age, it must have been of great importance, it is said 
he detived from her majesty very little accession of fortune. 
As a candidate for court-prefennent, and a lawyer already 
distinguished by acknowledged talents, it might be expected 
thai the road to advancement would have been easy, espect« 
ally if we consider his &mily interest, as the son of a lord* 
keeper, and nephew to Wiliiam lord Burleigh, and first cou« 
sin ^o sir Robert Cecil, principal secretary of state. But it 
appears that bis merit rendered his court-patrons somewhat 
jealous, and that h-is interest, clashing with that of the two 
Cecils, and the ^aris of Leicester and Essex, who formed 
the two principal parties in queen Elizabetfa^s reign, was 
rather an obstruction to him, as he forsook its natural chan« 
nel in the Cecils, and attached himself and his brother 
Anthony to the earl of Essex. Sir Robert Cecil is conse* 
queiitly represented as preventing his attaining any very 
high s^pointment, although, that he might not seem to 
slight so near a relation, he procured him the reversion of 
the place of register of the court of Star-chamber, which, 
however, he did not enjoy until the next reign, nearly 
twenty years after. This made him say, with some pleasantry, 
that *^ it was like another man's ground buttalling upon 
his bouse, which might mend his prospect, but did not fill 
hiS'faam.'' It was in gi^atitude for obtaining for him this 
ceyersion that, in 1592, he published ^^ Certain observa* 
tioos upon a libel entitled A Declaration of the true causes 
o|4he great Troubles,'' in which he warmly vindicates the 
lord treasurer particularly, and his own father; and the 
s^tof queen Elizabeth's ministers occasionally. This is 
]^(Miglit' to have been his first political production. 
.^••Sis lather patron, Robert earl of Essex, proved atvarm, 
V ajpid indefatigable friend, and earnestly strove to 
vqueeu*s solicitor, in 1594, although unsuccess^ 
fuUjV .#c^;:J^ superior influence of the Cecils. He en- 
^lfftV^rec(^,-however,. to make him amends for his disap<- 
pointment out qC his own fortune. This, it might be sv^ 
l^ocuedjr^^djWftnded on the part of Mr. Bacon, a high sense 
of obligation, and such he probably felt at the time ; bat 
Vol. III. S 

5R* B A C Q N. 

it is much to be Iswented, tbat he aft^rwardk^ s^uUied H^ 
character by taking a most forw£ird and acUve pa^ in 
bringing that unfof lunate noblemao to tb^ block ; for bet 
Bot only appeared against hini a» a lawyer for the ^rowa^ 
but after hia death, endeavoured to perpetuate tbe »hanie 
of it, by drawing a declaration of the treasons of the eaii 
of Essex, which was calculated to justify the goveraoae^t 
in- a very unpopular measi:^re, and to turn the public ce9-« 
aure from those who had ruined the earl of Essex, aind had 
sever dene Mr. Bacon any good. It is but fair, however^ 
that we should give the outUne of the apology whiicbbe 
found it necessary to m%ke for bis conduct. It s^nipunta 
to this, that he had given tbe earl good advice, wbich h<i 
did not foihow : that upon this a coldness ensued, which 
kept them at a greater distance than formerly : that, how^ 
ever, he. continued to give his advice t» the earl, and la-« 
boured all he could to serve him with tbe queen : that in 
respect to his last unfortunate aot^ which was, in tn^, no 
better than an act of madness, be had no knowledge ov 
iioiajce whatever : that he did no more than he was 19 dutji 
bound to do for the service of the queen, in the way of his 
ftoSemotn : and that tbe declaration was put upon him aU 
tered, after he had drawn it, boith by tbe ministers and 
tbe queen herself. Such an apology, however, did not 
satisfy the public at that time, and tbe utmost investigation 
of the affair since has only tended to soften some parts of 
his conduct, without amounting to a complete justi&ca«» 

Enemies he certainly had, ^^ther from this cause, or 
from a jealousy of his high talents ; a^d amoog other ac«i 
cusations, they represented him as a man^ who, by apply-* 
i»g too much of his time to other branches of knowledge^ 
could not but neglect that of his profession ; but this ap<* 
pears to have been a foolish calumny. Most of his works 
on law were written, although not published, in this reign« 
About the year 1596, he finished his *^ Maxims of the 
Law." As tbese are now published, tliey make only tbe 
first part of what are styled '^ The Elements of tbe CQm<< 
mon Law of England.'* The second treatise was entitled 
•> The Use of tbe Law for preservation of our persons, 
goods, apd good name, according to the laws and cus-> 
toms of this land,'' a work of great value to students. His 
^ Maxims, of Law" he dedicated to queen Elizabecb, hut^ 
foe. wjiatever season, the work was not published in his life-* . 



time. • The ne&t jrear he pfibliriieid a work ot anothet kUid^ 
entitled '< Essays, of Counisels Civil and Moral." Tbii^ 
work is well knowfi^ aiid ba^ been oft^ti reprinted. .. Th^ 
author appears to have bad a hi^ opinion of its titility | 
zaA of the e:seeUent morality and wisdem it idcalcated 
there probably never has been but one opinioti. Some Of 
these essays had been handed about in maimsoript, which 
he assigns as the reason why be collected and published 
them in a correct form. About the close of the succeed*- 
ingyear, 1598, he composed his ** History of the Aliema^ 
tion Office,^ ' which was not published till many years after 
bis decease, indeed not until the publication of his works 
in 1740^ when it was copied from a MS. in the Inner Tern*' 
pie library. It is needless to mention some smaller in- 
. stances of his abilities in the law, which, nevertheless, weir^ 
received by the learned society of which he was a member^ 
with alt possible marks of veneratioti and esteem, smd which^ 
they have preserved with t^e rereYenoe due to so eminent 
an ornament of their house. As a farther proof of their re-> 
spect, they chose him double reader in the year 1 600, which 
office he discharged with his usual ability. He distinguishedl 
himself likewise, during the latter part of the ^ueen^sf 
rrign, in the house of commons^ where he spoke ofteti^ 
and with so much impartiality as to give occasional um- 
brage to the ministers. To the queen, however, he pre-* 
ser^d a steady loyalty, and after her decease, composed 
a memorial of the happiness of her reign, which did equal 
honour to her administration, and to the capacitiy of itiS 
author. He transmitted a copy of this to Tbuavms, who 
made use of it in his history, but Mr. Bacon contented 
himself with enjoining that it should be printed after his 
decease. It is a work of much elegance and ab^ky. 

On the accession of king James I. Mr. Bacon appears t0> 
have- paid court tO him, by the kitervenitibft of some of \m 
English and some of his Scotch friends, and by drawing up 
the form of a proclamationv which, though it wasnotusedy 
was considered as an instance of his duty and attachments 
Accordingly, on July 23, 1603, he was introduced fo the 
king at Wfafttehall, and received the honour of knighthood* 
He was also continued in the same office be held under 
the queen, but a representation respecting the grievous 
exactions ef purveyors, which the house of commons em« 
ployed him. to draw up, attracted the king's more particu<« 
br attention ^ and on Augr 25, 1604, his majesty constituted 

s 2 

2eO: BACON, 

hiixii b; patent, otte of his counsel learned in the law; wkb« 
a fee of forty pounds a year, which is said to have been 
the first act of royal power of that nature. He granted 
him the same day, by another patent, a pension of sixty 
pounds- a year, for special services received from his bro-* 
tber Anthony Bacon and himself. His farther promotion^ 
however^ was still retarded by his old antagonist, sir Ro«^ 
bert Cecil, now created Q^ri of Salisbury, and by sir Ed- 
ward Coke, the attorney-general, who affected to under* 
value his talents, and who certainly had reason to fetir hi^ 
reputation. To these, however, he contrived to carry him- 
self with decent respect, although not without occasional 
e;(postulations with both. 

. In the mean time he gave evidence of the steady prose- 
cution, of his studies by publishing, in 1605, the first spe- 
cimen of his great work, in his bopk " Of tbe Advance- 
ment of Learning,'' a performance of much value even iu 
its detached state. He continued, .however,^ bis diligence 
in. parliament, and among other topics, endeavoured ' to 
^^ond.the views tbe king had entertained of an union be- 
tween. England and Scotland ; but his efforts for the crown. 
were more successful in Westminster-hall than in that as- 
sembly. About this time he married Alice, daughter of 
Benedict Barnham, esq. alderman of London, a lady who 
brought him an ample fortune, but by whom be never had 
any children. In 1607, he succeeded in his application 
for the solicitorship, on a vacancy, and with that his prac- 
tice encreased most extensively, there being few causes of 
importance in which he was not concerned. He assured 
the king, before he obtained this employment, that it 
iRTOuld give him such an increase of capacity, though not 
of zeal, to serve his majesty, that what he had done in 
tomes past should seem, as nothing, in comparison with the 
services tie should render for the future ; and in this re- 
spect be is. said to have kept his word, for in the session 
of parliament held in the year in which he was made soli-* 
citor, he ran through a gre&t variety of business, and. that 
-of a nature which required ^a man not only of great abili- 
ties but of great policy, and of equal reputation. He was, 
in the first place, employed by the house of commons to 
represent to the king the grievances under which the na- 
tion labonred ; and though the paper relating to them wasi 
couched in terms not very agreeable to the king^s temper, 
6ir f rancisi by. his: accompanying address^ so abated tbeur 

BACON, 261 

karshoess as to perform this difficult commission with uiii« 
Tersal applause. He was likewise employed by the house 
at a coxifereuce with the lords, to persuade them to join 

' in an application to die crown, for the taking away the an- 
cient tenures, and iallowing a certain and competent reve* 
nue in lieu of them ; and in his speech on this occasion, sir 
Francis Bacon set the affair in so clear a light, as excited 
that spirit, which at length procured the dissolution of the 
court of Wards, a point of the highest consequence to the 
liberties of this kingdom. He likewise satisiSied the house 
at a time when they were much out of temper at the man* 
ner in which the king's messages were conveyed to them ; 
and procured their acquiescence in the supplies by a 
welt-timed speech, which must have convinced the king 
of wliat importance his services were likely to prove; 
Amidst all these political and professional engagements; 
he found leisure to digest the plan of the second part of 
his great work, which he tran«nitted to some judicious 
friends for their opinion. This piece was entitled ^^ Co* 
gitata et Visa/' and contained the grounds-work or plan of 
his '* Novum Organum,'* so essential a part of his " In-* 
stauration,*' that it sometimes bears that title. Bishop 
Andrews and sir Thomas Bodley were two of the personal 
whose advice he solicited on this occasion, and their an- 
swers are printed ;n his works, where we have likewise a 
small discourse in English, under the Latin title of ^^ Fi- 
lum Labyrinthi," which was the original draught of the 
^* Cogitata et Visa.'* While availing himself of the opi- 
nions of his learned contemporaries, he published in 1610^ 
his celebrated treatise " Of the Wisdom of the Ancients," 
a work which received and has ever retained thejustestap* 
plause. It is not easy to say which is most conspicuous in 
this, his diligence in procuring the materials, or his judg* 
ment in disposing of them. 

At this time bis favour with the king, and his general 
popularity were very high, yet we do not find that he 
availed himself much of either, in the advancement of his 
personal fortune, excepting that in 1611 he procured the 
office of judge of the marshals court, jointly with sir Tho- 
mas Vavasor, then knight-marshal. In this character he' 

^presided, though for a very short time, in the court newly 
erected, under the title of the Palace-court for the verge 
pf the king's house, in which station he has left us a very 
U^arned and methodical charge to the jury there upon a 


<ommis8ioo of oyer and terminer^ printed in his works. * If 
his biogmphers inay be credited, he enjoyed at this time 
0.n income of nearly five thousand pounds a-year, arising 
partly from his personal estates, and partly from his official 
emoluments ; and although he was liberal and even pro- 
fuse in his mode of living, yet as his public stations re» 
quired no great display of magnificence, his circuinstance^ 
must have been such as to remove him from the ambition 
of availing himself of the many opportunities of aggran* 
dissement which his favour with the king afforded. It was 
not till 16X3, that he succeeded to the office of attorney- 
general, of which he had had a promise, when sir Henry 
Hobart was made chief justice of the common-pleas. In 
this office he was, contrary to the usual practice, and in 
consideration of his eminent services, allowed to take his 
^at in the house of commons. He appears indeed to 
have received favours of distinction on all occasions, that 
ivere before unknown. Even in the court of star-chamber, 
when a solemn decree was made against duelling, his 
f pQech, which gave occasion to the decree, was, contrary to 
custom, printed with it 

, Such) indeed, was the weight of his character, that he 
^tood in no need of support from the king's ministers ; the 
earl of Salisbury was now dead, and it does not appear that 
be had any dependance on the earl of Somerset, the reign* 
ing favourite, but kept at a distance from him when he 
wa^ in his highest power. Matters, however, were so mis- 
managed by Somerset, that the attorney-general had much 
difficulty and less success in preserving the king's interest 
in the bouse of commons, where an opposition arose to 
bis m^esty's measures so violent, that the parliament was 
dissolved, and not called again for a considerable time. 
Voluntary subscriptions were set on foot to supply the 
wants of government; and thi& being in some instances 
Yesi^ted; the attorney-general had to prosecute a Mr. Oli- 
ver St. John, who was among the most refractory. But 
"tfhese are circumstances which properly belong to the 
^stqry of this reign. 

In the mean time, Somerset was falling in the king^a 
estimation, and his place was supplied by Mr. Geoi^e 
ViUiers, afterwards the duke of Buckingham. The rise of 
this favourite was rapid and surprizing ; and air Francis 
Bacon is said to have conceived a good opinion of him, 
iteoame hb friend^ and certainly gave him very salutaiy 

BACON. »8 

advice. His promotion wts followed by tlie triail of the 
earl and countess of Somerset^ for being accessary to the 
murder of sir Thomas Overbury. In this affair^ sir Fran->- 
cis appears to have acted an impartial part in the dischai^e 
of bis duty as attorney-general. The king who appeared 
deeply interested in bringing these offenders to justice^ was 
as eager afterwards to grant them a pardon ; but sir. Fran- 
cis interfered in neither case farther than the duties of his 
office required. 

He became now of so much importance in the state, 
that it was necesi^ary he should be sworn of the privy* 
council, which, like his other distinguishing honours, had 
not been usual for a man in his station. It was accom- 
plished, however, by the interposition of his friend^ sir 
George Villiers, a circumstance which seems to imply 
that the king's consent only was wanting ; but why so use- 
ful a servant as sir Francis should be in any measure de- 
pendant on this young favourite for that, is not very clearly 
explained. Certain it is that his majesty's chief depend- 
ance was on his integrity and abilities, and he experienced 
the advantage of both, in the affair of a contest between 
the two courts of cjhancery and king's bench, as to the 
point of jurisdiction. Sir Francis appears to have given 
the opinion upon which the king acted when he pronoun- 
ced a kind of judgment in the court of star-chamber, in 
favour of the lord-chancellor Egerton, and against bis an- 
tagonist sir Edward Coke. 

Sir Francis held the office of attorney-general for three 
years^ during which he behaved himself with such pru-. 
dence and moderation, and went through so many difficult 
and perplexed affairs, with such evenness and integrity^ 
that it does not appear his conduct was ever called in ques- 
tion, nOr has malice itself dared to utter any thing to his 
reproach. On the 7th of March, 1616-17, on the resig- 
nation of the lord-chancellot, he was promoted to that 
high office, which, indeed, he had solicited on a former 
Occasion, when there was a prospect of a vacancy. It is 
said that when bis majesty delivered the seals to him, be 
gave him three cautions, first, that he should not seal any 
Sling but after mature deliberation; secondly, that ha 
should give righteous judgments between parties; and 
lastly, that he should net extend the royal prerogative too 
far. These precepts he made the ground-work of a long 
tod learned speech which he delivered .in court| on the 


7th of May foIlowiDg, the day on which he took possesion 
of his high office. He now began to experience the truth 
of the observation that the highest seats are the most ex* 
posed ; for within a little time after the king's setting out 
for Scotland, which took place a few days after his ap- 
pointment to the seals, the Spanish n^atch was, by direc-> 
tion of his majesty, brought upon the carpet, and cost sir 
Francis very great trouble. The conduct of the favourite 
Buckingham also occasioned him much perplexity, al-» 
though die cause was of no more importance than a projected 
marriage between sir John Villiers, brother to the fa-» 
vourite, and a daughter of sir Edward Coke, which the 
lord keeper opposed, and of which . opposition Bucking-i* 
ham himself afterwards entertained a more favourable 

In the mean time the chancellor continued to suprein- 
tend the king's affairs in general, and particularly the con-r 
cerns of the civil list. There are many of his letters ex- 
tant, both to the king and to Buckingham^ upon this sub-^ 
ject, which demonstrate an independence of mind, and 
an intrepidity in the discharge of his duty, very remote 
from the servile temper of which bis enemies have accused, 
him* In the beginning of January 1618, he had the title 
given him of lord high chancellor of England ; and in July 
of the same year, he was created baron of Verulam in the 
county of Hertford. This new honour excited his lord- 
ship to new services, and it appears from his own writings^ 
that he was very attentive to evexy thing that might con- 
duce, either to the immediate benefit of the king, or to 
the general good of his subjects. Some of his particular 
transactions are detailed in the history of the times, and uC 
his life in the Biographia ; but it wouM swell \tbis article 
beyond all useful bounds were we to enter upon these. 
With regard to his more personal history, it may, however, 
be neces»airy to subjoin that while high chancellor, he pro- 
cured from the king the farm of the alienation*office, 
which was of considerable benefit, and proved a great part 
of his subsistence, after he lost his office. He likewise 
procured York-house for , his residence, for which he 
seems to have had an affection, as beiug the place of his 
birth, and where his father had lived all the time he pos- 
sessed the high office of lord keeper of the great seal. 

With his colleagues in administration, or in the law de- 
partments, he appears to have endeavoured to live upoi^ 

BACON. $65 

^Qoi terms. Buckingham he contrived to keep in apparent 
hum6ur, although he frequently refused to put the seal to 
what he thought improper grants; and he even agreed 
better with sir Edward Coke than was expected^ always 
representing that judge to the king in the most favourable 
light. About this time, however, an attempt was made 
to the prejudice of the chancellor, which might have given 
him some warning of his fall. One Wrenbam, against 
whom he had made a decree, surmising he had wrong done 
him, the general case with clients who lose their cause, 
presented a libellous petition to the king against him, the 
suggestions of which were thoroughly examined, and it 
clearly appeared that the chancellor had acted as became 
him, and that he had in truth been very much injured by 
this Wrenham ; the suggestions, however, appear to have 
produced those effects on some minds which afterwards 
were displayed more conspicuously. 

In the midst of these important occupations, he was so 
far from neglecting his philosophical studies, that in the 
month of October 1620, he sent to the king his great work, 
the ** Novum Organum," the design of which was, to 
execute the second part of the " Instauration," by ad- 
vancing a more perfect method of using the rational fa- 
culty than men were before acquainted with, in order to 
raise and improve the understanding, as far as its present 
imperfect state admits, and enable it to conquer and in- 
terpret the difficulties and obscurities of nature. Tliis 
work his majesty received as graciously as he could wish, 
and wrotQ him a letter upon it, which certainly does ho- 
nour to both their memories. He received also the com« 
pliments of many learned men on the same subject, and 
had every reason to be satisfied with the general reception 
of a work, which cost him so much time and pains« Such 
is said to have been his anxiety for its perfection, that he 
revised and altered twelve copies before he brought it to 
the state in which it was published. 

The end of his political life, however, was now ap- 
proaching, and was precipitated by means in which he had 
a considerable share, by advising his majesty to call a par« 
liament, and grant redress of public abuses. In the course 
of investigating these, on the 1 5th of March 1620-1, the 
comaiittee app9iiited to inquire into tae abuses in the 
courts of justice, reported that two charges of corruption 
&^d been brought against the lord chancellor 3 a farther 


inquiry was ordetreiJ fey the house of commons, which 
produced stronger circumstances, and the complaint was 
sent up to the house of lords. When it came to be de- 
bated there, Buckingham presented a letter from the lord 
chancellor, who was then sick, in which he desired four 
things of their lordships : first, -that they would maintain 
him in their good opinion till his cause was heard ; se« 
condly, that they would give him a convenient time, a« 
well in regard of his ill state of health, as of the import*^ 
ance of the charge, to make his defence, thirdly, that 
they would allow him to except against the credit of the 
witnesses against him, to cross-examine them, and to pro- 
duce evidence in his own defence ; and fourthly, that in 
case there came any tnore petitions of the like nature, that 
their lordships would not take any prejudice at their num- 
ber, considering they were a^inst a judge that made two 
thousand orders and decrees ip a year. Their lordships 
returned a respectful answer to this letter ; but within a 
few days, their own committee reported above twenty in- 
stances, in which he had taken bribes to the amount of 
several thousands of pounds. Of all this, the proof was 
so clear, as to determine the chancellor to relinquish his 
intended defence, and to throw himself upon the mercy 
of the house. This not being explicit, he «ent a second 
full and particular confession and submission to the bouse^ 
in which ht acknowledged most, but extenuated some, of 
the many instances of corruption with which he had been 
charged, and once more threw himself entirely on the 
mercy of his peers. The lords having heard this paper 
read, a committee of lords were sent to him, who told him 
that the lords do Conceive it to be an ingenuous and full 
confession, and demanded of him, whether it be his own 
hand that is subscribed to the same ? and whether he will 
$tand to it or not? To which the lord chancellor an- 
swered, ** My lords, it is my act, my hand, my heart. I 
beseech your lordships to be merciful to a broken reed.'* 

In consequence of these proceedings, his%rdship de- 
livered up the great seal to his majesty, and the house of 
peers adjudged, that lord viscount St. Albans, lord chan- 
cellor of England, shall undergo fine and ransom of forty- 
thousand pounds, that he shall be imprisoned 'in the Tower* 
during the king's pleasure, that he shall for ever be in- 
Capable of any office or employment in the state or com- 
tnonwealtb, and that he shall never $it in parliattiefit^i or 

BACON. 1Q67 

tame within the verge of the court. After a sliort con- 
^uemeot in the Tower, however, he y«ra$ discharged, and 
in. some measure regained his favour with the king, who, on 
^fae prorogation of parUament^ was pleased to consult him^ 
as to the proper methods of reforming the courts of justice, 
and taking away other grievances which that, parliament 
.had inquired into ; and bis lordship accordingly drew up 
» memorial, which is extant in his works. Other marks of 
favour and indulgence were shewn him^ which, amidst the 
•anguish of a blasted character, so far appeased his troubled 
mind,^ that be resumed his studies with his accustomed 
vigour. In the spring of the succeeding year, 1622, he 
published his history of Henry VII. which has not added 
so much to his reputation as bis other works. When the 
aiew parliament was called, in which the house of com- 
mons shewed great zeal for his majesty^s service, be com- 
posed " Considerations of a war with Spain," and like-* 
wise /* Heads of a Speech" for his friend sir Edward 
Sackville, upon the same subject ; and these services were 
so well received, that upon an application to the king for . 
a full pardon, he easily obtained it. In the warrant di- 
rected for this purpose to the attorney-general, his ma- 
jesty took notice of his lordship^s having already satisfied 
justice by his sufferings, and that himself being always in- 
clined to temper justice with mercy, and likewise calling 
to remembrance his former good services, and how well 
and profitably he had spent his time since bis troubles, he 
was graciously pleased to remove from him that blot of 
ignominy which yet remained upon him, (^ incapacity and 
-disablement, and. to remit to him all penalties whatsoever, 
inflicted by that sentence. 

. In consequence of this pardon, his lordship was sum^ 
moned to the second parliament in the succeeding reign of 
Charles I. but his infirmities did not allow him to take his 
seat. He foresaw that his end was drawing near^ although 
he escaped the great plague, in the spring of 1625. Hav« 
ing^ sufEcientiy established the fame of his learning and 
iibtlitieS) by his writings published by himself, he com- 
mitted, by his will, several of his Latin and philosophical 
compositions, to the care of sir William Boswell, bis ma- 
jesty's agent in Holland, where they were afterwards pub- 
lisjied by Gruter. His orations and letters he commended 
to sir Humphrey May, chancellor of the Duchy, and the 
bishop of. .lincoln (Williams)^ who succeeded him as lord 

268 BACON 

keeper, and acknowledged the honour of that trust, which 
letters he enjoined to be preserved, but not to be divuigedt 
as touching too much on persons and matters of state, fiy 
this judicious care of his, ipost of his papers were pre"- 
served, and the greatest part of them at diifereift times 
have been printed and published. The severe winter 
which followed the infectious summei:of 1625, brought him 
very low ; but the spring reviving his spirits, he made a 
little excursion into the country, in order to try some ex* 
periments in natural philosophy ; in which journey he was 
taken so ill, that he was obliged to stop at the earl of 
Arundel^s house at Highgate, about a week, and there he 
expired, April 9, 1626, and Mfas privately buried in tb^ 
chapel of St. Michael's church, within the precincts of 
Old Verulam ; where a monument was erected to his me* 
moiy by sir Thomas Meautys, his faithful friend and in« 
defatigable servant in all his troubles. 

The political character of lord Bacon is sufficiency de** 
termined by those events in his life, about which there can 
now be no dispute. However, we may lament the fall of 
5uch a man, it appears too plain that it was owing entirely 
to his own misconduct, and neither to the intrigues of his 
enemies, or the temper of the times. He remains an aw- 
ful example of the brightest character upon record, sul^ 
lied by the vices of ambition and ostentation ; for the latter 
betrayed him into expences which he w^s glad to defray 
without consideration of the means, nor is it much pallia- 
tion of his great offence, that he was neither covetous nor 

If, however, we contemplate his personal character 
and his mental powers, he must appear to be one of the 
greatest and wisest men that ever contributed to humaq 
knowledge. The only thing, says Brucker, to be re* 
gretted in the writings of Bacon is, that he has. increased 
the difficulties necessarily attending his original and pro* 
found researches, by too freely making use of newterms^ 
and by loading his arrangement with an excessive multi«> 
plicity and minuteness of divisions. But an attentive and 
accurate reader, already not unacquainted with philosophi- 
cal subjects, will meet with no insuperable difficulties iii 
studying his works, and, if he be not a wonderful profit 
cient in science, will reap much benefit as well as plea- 
sure frcnn the perusal. In fine, adds this judicious writer, 
lord Bacon, by the universal consent of the learned yroAd% 

B A C O Ni 209 

U to be ranked in the first class of modern philosophers. 
He unquestionably belonged to that superior order of men^ 
who, by enlarging the boundaries of human knowledge^ 
have been benefactors to mankind ; and he may not im- 
properly be styled, on account of the new track of science 
which he employed, the Columbus of the philosophical 

. His works, collected into five vols. 4to. were beautifully 
and accurately printed by Bowyer and Strahaii, in 1765, 
and have been lately reprinted in 8vo. A life of lord Bacon 
is still a desideratum in English literature ^ that, in the 
Biographia Britannica, from which the present article is 
taken, contains an useful collection of facts and references 
to authorities^, but is ill digested^ and forms no regular 
plan. * 

BACON (John), an eminent English sculptor, de- 
'SceEided of. an ancient family in Somersetshire, was the 
son of Thomas Bacon, a cloth-worker in Southwark, and 
Uorn Nov. 24, 1740. At the age of fourteen^ be was 
l^ound apprentice to Mr. Crispe of Bow church-yard, where 
he was employed in painting on porcelain, and forming the 
ipodels of shepherds, shepherdesses, and other ornamental 
pieces for his master's china manufactory at Lambeth, and 
such was his skill and industry in this humble employment, 
that he wa)^ at this early age enabled to gratify his filial 
piety, by supporting his parents from the produce of hi$- 
labours, although at the expence t}f those enjoyments 
whieh children of less affection and thought cannot easily 
resign. . While employed at this manufactory, he had an 
opportunity of seeing the models of different sculptors 
which were sent there to be burnt, and from them he im- 
proved his own skill in so high a degree, that at no distant 
period he became a candidate for public premiums, and it 
appears from the books published annually by the Society 
for the encouragement of the ax^s, that, between the years 
1763 and 1766 inclusive, the first premiums in those classes, 
for which he contended, were no less than nine times ad- 
judged to him. The first of these attempts was made in the 
year 1758, in a small figure of Peace, after the manner 
of the antique. During his apprenticeship also, he formed 
a design of making statues in artificial stone, which he 

^ Biog. Brit9niiiGa.«^Lif« of, by Mallett— Gen. Diet— Brucker.-**9axii 

27a BACON. 

afteri>rards so perfected as |o recover the manttfeicforj at 
Lambeth, now earried on by Mrs. doade, and Which be** 
fore Mr. Bacon undert6ok the management of ity ha^ fal- 
len into very low circumstances* 

About the year 1763, he first attempted working in 
marble, and having never seen that operation performed, 
he was led to invent an instrument for transferring the' 
form of the model to the marble (technically Called,' ^«N 
ting out the points), whiclj instrument, from its superiov^ 
effect, has since been adopted by many other scnlptors- 
in England and France. His first regular instructions, 
however, in his favourite pursuit, were received al; the 
Royal Academy, in 1763, the year of its institution^ and 
such were their effect on a mind already so well prepaired* 
by nature, that the first gold medal for sculpture giv6n by* 
the academy, was decreed to him ; and two years after, he 
was elected an associate. His fame was at this time wel^ 
known by his statue of Mars, which induced the late arch*- 
bishop of York, Dr. Markham, to employ him to execute % 
bust of his Majesty for the hall of Christ Church college,- 
Oxford. His majesty not only condescended to sit to hini' 
npon this occasion, li>ut honoured him with his pati*onage, 
and ordered another bast, intended as a present to the uni-- 
versity of Gottingen. He was soon after employed by the 
dean and scholars of Christ Church to form several busts for* 
them, particularly those of general Guise, the bishop oi 
Durham, and the primate of Ireland. 

In 1 773, he presented to the Society for the encotarage--' 
ment of arts, two statues in plaster, which by a vote of 
that society, were directed to b^ placed in their great 
room, and he received on the same occasion their goldf 
medal. His first work in sculpture* is in Christ Chtrrchi 
college, already mentioned : the first figures he executed 
in marble, are at the duke of Richmond's at Groodwood : 
and his first monument was that of Mrs, Withers, in St. 
Mary's, Worcester. In 1777, be was employed to pre* 
pare a model of a monument to be erected in Guy*s hos« 
pital, Southwark, to the memory of the founder. It was 
this work that chiefiy recommended him to- the exeoutton 
of lord Chatham's monument in Guildhall. His other 
works, about this period, were the monument of Mrsv 
Draper; a marble statue of Mars, for lord Yarborough ; 
two groupes for the top of Somerset-house ; the monumen% 
of lord Halifax in Westminster abbey \ the statue of judge 

BACON. 271. 

Blaebstone tax All Souls college, Oxford, and that of' 
Henry VI. for tbe Anti-chapel at Etooi. It is not bur in- 
tention, however, nor would our limits permit, ta enume«^ 
mte all the works executed by this artist, within twenty 
yeffcps after he attained his just and high fame. There are 
few of our cathedrals or public edifices without some spe- 
ciiaen of his skill, but it would he unpardonable to omit 
one of his grandest efforts, the monciment of lord Chat^- 
ham, in Westminster abbey, which was begun in 1778^ and* 
finished in 1783. It is alone a proof of the excellence he 
had attained, without the aid of foreign travel and observa* 
tioffik ; and how various that excellence was, may be further 
proved from the bronze groupe in the square in Somerset*^ 
place; the monuments of lady Miller at Bath; of lord 
Rodney at Jamaica y of lord Heathfield at Buckland ; of 
the earl and countess of EiHngham at Jamaica ; of Howard 
and Johoson in St. PauPs, &c. &c. 

In almost the vigour of life, and when his fame was at 
its height, this artist was suddenly attacked with an in-^ 
flanunation in his bowels, so violent and remediless, as to 
occasion his death, Aug. 7, 1799, in the 59th year of hi» 
age. He left two sons and three daughters by his first? 
wife, and three sons by his last. His second son, Joht>,^ 
became the inheritor of a considerable part of his property, 
and has already fully proved himself the legitimate succes* 
sor to his talents. 

Mr« Baeon^s private character is entitled to much praise. 
He was a ma^ of unfeigned piety and extensive benevo-^ 
leBce* Prosperity had aot corrupted him, although it ap» 
peiuied to superficial observers that he was cautious in mat- 
teiH of expence, which they wefe 3pt to impute to motives 
which never entered into his mind. The want of educa* 
tion,. he supplied by useful reading, and without the more 
ostensible attainments of a scholar, his conversation as far 
as it regarded common life and common topics, had none 
of those deficiencies which academical education is sup* 
posed to supply. In his temper, the irritability of the ar- 
tist was corrected by much meekness and forbearance, and 
he had' that noble candour which never denies just praise^ 
to a rival or contemporary. With respect to his attaiiv*- 
ments in his profession, they might be said to be all his 
own. Having arrived at the highest rank of English ar-r 
tists in sculpture, he has amply pi^oved that foreign travel 
confers a merit which is rather useful than necessary ; ai 

272 BACON* 

distinction which will not be misunderstood by those who 
know to what caprices the success of modern artists is often 

BACON (Sir Nathaniel), knight of the batby and an. 
eitcellent painter, was one of the sons of the lord-keeper 
sir Nicholas Bacon, and half-brother to the viscount St. Al- 
ban's. He travelled into Italy, and studied painting there; 
but his manner and colouring approach nearer to the style 
of the Flemish school. Mr. Walpole observes, that at Cul- 
ford, where he lived, are preserved some of his works ; and 
at Gorhambury, his father's seat, is a large picture in oil 
by him, of a cook maid with dead fowls, admirably painted, 
with great nature, neatness, and lustre of colouring. la 
the same house is a whole length of him by himself, draw- 
ing on a paper : his sword and pallet hung up, and a half 
length of his mother by him. At Redgrave-hall, in Suf- 
folk, were two more pieces by the same baiid, which after* 
wards passed into the possession of Mr. Rowland Holt ; the 
one, Ceres with fruit and flowers; the other, Hercules 
and the Hydra. In Tradescant's museum was a small 
landscape, painted and given to him by sir Nathaniel Ba* 
con. In the chancel of Culford, in Suffolk, are a monu*^ 
uient and bust of him, with his pallet and pencils. Ano* 
tber monument was erected to his memory at StifFkey in 
Norfolk, the inscription upon which is published by Mr« 
Masters. The same writer informs us, that sir Nathaniel 
was famed for painting plants, and well skilled in their virtues. 
He married first, Anne, the daughter of sir Thomas Gresbam^ 
and secondly, Dorothy, daughter of sir Arthur Hopton. 
By the former he had three ^daughters, the eldest of whom 
married John Townsend of Rainbam, ancestor of the pre- 
sent liiarquis Townsend. The monument above-mention- 
ed was erected by himsel£ in 1*615, the 69th year of hi» 
age, but has not the date of his death. * 

BACON (Sir Nicholas), lord keeper of the great seal 
in the reign of queen Elizabeth, descended from an an- 
cient and honourable family in Suffolk. His father was 
Roberi: Bacon of Drinkston in that county, esq. and tu& 
mother was Isabel, the daughter of John Gage of Paken** 
ham in the said county, esq. Nicholas, their second son, 

> Cecil's Memoirs of John Bacon, R. A.— Gent. Mag. 1799: also vol. LXVI. 

* Bio?. Brit. vol. I. p. 448.-- Walpole'i Anecdotes tf Paintei«.— Mastw'a 
Hiit, of C. C. C. C. 

BACON. in 

was bom in 1510, tt Chislehurst in Kent. After having 
receiTed the first rudiments of learning, probably at home, 
or in the neighbourhood, he was sent when very young to 
Corpus Christi college in Cambridge, where having im<* 
proved in all branches of useful knowledge, he went to 
France, in order %o give the last polish to his education. 
On his return he settled in Gray*s-Inn, and applied him-^ 
Self with such assiduity to the study of the law, that on the 
dissolution of the monastery of St. Edmund* s-JBury in Suf^ 
f(Dlk, he had a grant from king Henry VIII. in the thirty<- 
sixth year of his reign, of the manors of Redgrave, Botes* 
dale, and Gillinghaoi, with the park of Redgrave, and si:it 
acres of land in Wbrtham, as also the tithes of Redgrave 
to hold in capite by knight^s service, a proof of the esti* 
mation in which he was held by his majesty. In the thirty- 
eighth of the same king, he was promoted to the office of 
attorney in the court of wards, a place both of honour and 
profit, and his patent was renewed in the first year of Ed- 
ward VL ; and in 1 552, which was the last year of his reign, 
Mr. Bacon was elected treasurer of Gray's-Inn. His great 
moderation and consummate prudence, preserved him 
through the dangerous reign of queen Mary. In the ver^ 
dawn of that of Elizabeth he was knighted, and the great 
seal of England being taken from Nicdiolas Heath, arch»i 
bishop of York, was delivered to sir Nicholas Bacon, oh. 
the 22dof December 1558, with the title of lord keeper!. 
H^ was also of the privy council to her majesty, who had 
much regard to his advice. The parliament met Jan.' ^3, 
but was prorogued on account of the queen^s indisposi* 
tiflte to the 25 th, when the lord keeper opened the session 
with- a most eloquent and solid speech. Some of the 
queea^s counsellors thought it necessary that the attain- 
der of the queeri^s mother should be taken off ; but the 
lord keeper thought the crown purged all defects, and in 
compliance with his advice, two laws were made, one for 
recognizing the queen's title, the other for restoring her 
in. blood as heir to her mother. The prii^cipal btrsiness of 
tiiit -session was the settlement of religion, in which no 
man bad a greater share than the keeper, and he acted 
iinth such prudence as never to incur the hatred of any 
{MUty. On this account be was, together with the arch- 
bishop of York, appointed moderator in a dispute between 
eight Protestant divines, and eight Popish bishops ; and 
the latter behaving very unfairly in the opinion of both 
Vol. III. T 

274 BACON. 

the moderators, and desiring, to airoid a fair disputation^ 
to go away, the lord keeper put that qnesUon to each of 
them, and when all except one insisted on going, his lord- 
ship dismissed them with this memorasidum, ** For that je 
;would not that we should hear you^ perhaps you may short* 
ly hear of us ;" and accordingly for this contempt, the 
bishops of Winchester add Lincoln were committed to th^ 
tower, and the rest were bound to appear before the coun« 
cil, and not to quit the cities of London and Westminster 
without leave. The whole business of the session, than 
which there was none of greater importance during that 
reigu, was chiefly managed by his lordship, according to 
his wise maxim, ^* Let us stay a little^ that we may havcf 
idone the sooner.^' From this time he stood as high in thef 
favour of the queen as any of her ministers, and maintained 
a cordial interest with other great men, particularly with 
those eminent persons, who had married into the same 
family with himself, viz. Cecil, Hobby, Rowlet, and KiUi-f 
grew. By their assistance he preserved his credit at courts 
though he sometimes differed in opinion from the mighty 
favourite Leicester, who yet once bad fair his ruin, when 
certain intrigues were carried on respecting the succession; 
Some statesmen, and particiilarly the earl of Leicester^ 
pretended to favour the title of the queen of Scots, but 
etchers were more inclined to the house of Suffolk. The 
queen sometimes affected a neotrality, and sometimes 
shewed a tenderness for the title of the Scottish que'en. 
In 1564, when these disputes were at the height, Mr. Jolm 
Hales, clerk of the Hanaper, published a treatise which 
seems to have been written a considerable time before^ 
in favour of. the Suffolk line, and against the title of the 
queen of Scots. This book was complained of by the 
bishop of Ross, ambassador from the queen of Scots, and 
Ross being warmly supported by the earl of Leicester, 
Hales was committed to prison, and so strict an inqoiry 
made after all who had express^ any favour for this piece, 
that at last the lord-keeper came to be suspected, whidi 
drew upon him the queen's displeasure, and he was for- 
bidden the court, removed from his seat at council, and 
prohibited from meddling with any affairs but those of the 
chancery : nay, Camden says he was confined *. At last^ 

* The lord-keeper could not have Scots, because it clearly appears from 
incurred the queen's displeasure, from <* A Discourse upon certain poioU 
Hill dislike to the titie of the qaeen of teucbinj^the Inheritance of the Crown, 

BACON. 275 

Lovfeyer, Cecil, who is suspected to have had some share 
in the above treatise, with much difficulty restored him to 
the queea's good opinion, as appears by her setting him at 
the head of that commission, granted in the year 1568, for 
bearing the difference between the queen of Scots, and her 
rebellious subjects ; and in 1571, we find him ;^ain acting 
in the like capacity, though very little was done before the 
commissioners at either time, which was what queen Eliza<» 
beth chiefly desired, and the covering her inclination#with 
a decent appearance of justice, was perhaps not a little 
pwing to the address of the lord-keeper. Afterwards he 
continued at the head of h^r majesty's councils, and had n 
great hand in preventing, by his moderation, some vio- 
lent measures afterwards proposed. The share, however^ 
that he had in the business of the duke of Norfolk, and his 
great care for promoting the Protestant religion, created 
him inany bitter enemies among the Papists both at home 
aod abroad, who though they were able to do him no great 
hurt, yet published some libels, particularly <^ A Detec- 
tion of certain practices, &c.'* printed in Scotland, about 
1570, and ^' A treatise of Treason,*' both which gave him 
considerable uneasiness, although the queen expressed her 
opinion, by a proclamation, ordering them to be burnt. 
As a statesman, be was remarkable for a clear head, and 
acute understanding; and while it was thought of some 
other great men that they seemed wiser than they were^ 
yet the common voice of the nation pronounced, that sir 
Nicholas Bacon was wiser than he seemed. Hb great skill 
lay in balancing factious, and it is thought he taught the 
queen that secret, the more necessary to her because the 
last of her family, and consequently without many of the 
usual supports of princes. In the chancery *he distin- 
guished himself by a very moderate use of power, and the 
respect he shewed to the common law. At his own request, 
an act of parliament was made, to settle and establish the 
power of a lord-keeper, though he might probably have 
taken away all need of this, by procuring the title of lord 
chancellor : but according to his motto, which was Me- 
diocrafirma^ he was content to be safe, and did not desire 

conceJTed by sir Anthony Brown, and tbe queeu of Scots. This discourse 
answered by sir Nicholas Bacon/* that was published in 1723, by Nath. 
the latter was decidedly for the title of Boothe, esq. of Gray's Inn. 

T 2 

27* fe A C O N- 

to be great '^. In t!«ft court, and in the star-chamber, be 
made tide, on proper occasions, of set speeches, in ,^hicb 
be was peculiarly happy, and gained the reputation of a 
witty and a weighty speaker. His great parts and great pre- 
ferment were far frpm raising him in his owp opinion, as 
appears from the modest answer he gave queen Elizabetb, 
when she told him his house at Redgrave was too little 
for him, " Not so, madam," returned he, " but your ma- 
jesty •has made me too great for jny house.'* Yet to shew 
bis respect for her majesty's judgment, he afterwards added 
wings to this house. His modesty in this respect was so 
much the greater, since he had a great passion for building,' 
and a very fine taste, as appeared by his house and gar*- 
dens at Gorhambury near St. Alban's, now the seat of lord 
viscount Grimston. Towards the latter end of his life, he 
became very corpulent, which made queen Elizabeth say 
merrily, that " sir Nicholas's soul lodged well. To^hira- 
si^lf, however, his bulk was very inconvenient ; after walk- 
ing from Westminster-hall to the star-chamber, vdiich was 
but a very little way, he was usually so much out of breath, 
that the lawyers forbore speaking at the bar till he recor 
covered himself, and gave them notice by knocking with 
his staff. After having held the great seal more tban 
twenty years, this able statesman and faithful counsellor 
was suddenly removed from this life, as Mallett informs us, 
by the following accident: " He was under the hands of 
his barber, and the vreather being sultry, had ordered a 
window before him to be thrown open. As he was be- 
come very corpulent, he presently fell asleep, in the cur- 

* After he had been some raonths act of parliament, which declares, 
in office, as 'keeper of the great seal, *'That the common law always was, 
he began to doubt to what degree his that the keeper of the great seal always 
authority Extended, which seems to had, as of right belonging to his office, 
have been owing to the general terms the same authority, jurisdiction, exc- 
used upon the delivery of the great cution of laws, and all other customs, 
seal, <JF which we have various in- as the lord chancellor of England law« 
fences in Rymer's Fcedera. Upon fully used/' What the true reaiOB 
this, he first applied himself to the was that made his lordship so uneasy, 
queen, from whom he procured a pa- is not perhaps known to posterity. 
tent, beafmg date at Westminster, the But air Henry Spelman lias obsenredt 
14th of April, in the first year of her that for tl^e benefit of that wise conn* 
reign, whereby she declares him to seller sir Nicholas Bacon, the autho- 
have as full powers as if he were rity of the keeper of the great seal 
ehancelloT of England, and ratifies all was by this law declared to be in alt 
that be had already done. This^ how- respects the same with that of th» 
ever, did not fully satisfy him ; but chancellor. 
four years afterwards he procured an 

BACON. 877 


rent of fresh air that was blowing io upon him^ and awaked 
after some time distempered all over. * Why,' said he tp 
the servant, ^ did you suffer me to sleep thus exposed ?' 
The fellow replied, ^ That he durst not presume to disturb 
him.' • Then,' said the lord keeper, * by your civility I 
lose my life,' and so removed into bis bed-chamber, wher^ 
be died a few days after." But this story seems doubtful, 
for all writers agree, that sir Nicholas Bacon died Feb. 20, 
lt79, when the weather could not be very sultry. On the 
9th of March following he was buried with great solemnity, 
under a sumptuous monumeut erected by himself in St 
Paul's church, with an inscription written by the celebrated 
Buchanan. Camden's character of him is just and plain : 
** Vir prsepinguis, ingenio acerrimo, singulari prudentia, 
3umma eloquentia, tenaci memoria, et sacris conciliis alte- 
rum coluxnen;'' 2. e. A man of a gross: body, but most quick 
wit, singular prudence, supreme eloquence, happy memory, 
and for judgment the other pillar of the state. His son'^ 
character of him is more striking. He was '^ a plain man, 
direct and constant, without all finesse and doubieness,; 
and one that was of a mind that a man, in his private pro<- 
ceedings and estate, and in the proceedings of state, should 
rest upon the soundness and strength of bis own courses, ' 
and not uppn practice to circumvent others, according to 
the sentence of Solomon, ^ Vir prudens advertit ad gres- 
6us suos ; stultus autem divertit ad dolos ;' insomuch thfit 
the bishop of Ross, a subtle and observing man, said of him, 
that he could fasten no words upon him, and that it wfis 
impossible to come within him, because he offered no play ; 
and the queen mother of France, a very politic princess, 
said of him, that he should have been of the council of 
Spain, because he despised the occurrents, and rested 
upon the first plot." Nor is Puttenham's short account to 
be overlooked : ^' I have come to the lord keeper, and 
found him sitting in his gallery alone, with the works q( 
Quintilian before him. Indeed he was a most eloquent 
m^fl, of rare wisdom and learning, as ever I knew England 
to breed, and one that joyed as much in learned anen and 
good wits, from whose lippes I have seen to proceed more 
grave and natural eloquence than from all the oraton pf 
Oxford and Cambridge." 

He was not happier in bis fortune than in his family. 
His first wife was Jane, daughter of William Fernley, of 
West Creting iu the county gf Suff9lk, esq. by whom be 

278 B A C N: 

had issue three sons and three daughters. The sons were, 
1. Sir Nicholas. 2. Nathaniel Bacon, of whom we have 
just given some account. 3. Edward Bacon, of Shrub- 
Jand-ball in Suffolk, esq. in right of his wife Helen, daugh- 
ter and heir of Thomas Littel of the same place, esq. and 
of Bray, in the county of Berks, by Elizabeth his wife, 
daughter and coheir to sir Robert Litton, of Knebworth ia 
the county of Hertford, knt. from whom is lineally de- 
scended Nicholas Bacon of Shrubland-hall, esq. and frooi 
younger sons of the said Edward are the Bacons of Ipswich 
in Suffblk, and Earlham in Norfolk, descended. The 
daughters were, 1. Anne, already noticed. 2. Jane, mar- 
ried first to sir Francis Windham, knt. one of the justices 
of the common pleas; second, to sir Robert Mansfield, 
knt. And 3. Elizabeth, married first to sir Robert d'Oy ly of 
Chislehampton in Oxfordshire, knt.; secondly, to sir Henry 
Nevil, knt; and thirdly, to sir William Periam, knt. lord 
chief baron of the exchequer. After her decease he mar- 
ried Anne, daughter of sir Anthony Cooke, of Giddy-hall in 
the county of Essex, knt by whom he had two sons, An- 
thony and Francis, the illustrious lord Bacon. Of Anthony 
there is a long, but imperfect and not very interesting ac* 
count, in the " Biographia Britannica." 

Sir Nicholas ranks among the liberal benefactors to the 
university of Cambridge, and particularly to Corpus col- 
lege, in which he was educated. He presented to the 
public library one hundred and three Greek and Latin 
books, and on the college he bestowed two hundred pounds 
towards erecting a new chapel, and engaged other friends 
to contribute to the same purpose. He settled, li)^ewise, 
upon the college, an annuity of twenty pounds, for the 
maintenance of six scholars, who are to be chosen out of 
the grammar school at Redgrave, near Botesdale in Suf- 
folk. This School was founded by himself, and he allotted 
thirty pounds per annum for the support of it ; he founded 
also Cursitor's or Bacon^s Inn in Chancery-lane ; and for 
the furtherance of religion, he appointed two annual ser- 
mons in St. Paul's cathedral^ allotthig fbur marks per annum 
for the payment of the preachers. Nor must we omit some 
notice of his intention, in Henry VIII.'s time, to found a se- 
minary of ministers of state out of the revenues of the dis- 
solved monasteries. His majesty had intended to fQund a 
house for the study of the civil law, and the purity of the 
l;atin and French tongues. He ordered, therefore, sir 

B.A CON. S7* 

Nicholas Bacon, and two others, Tliomas Denton, and Ro-' 
bert Cary, to draw out the plan and statutes of such a house^ 
which they accordingly brought to the king in writing.' 
The intention of it was, that th^e should be frequent 
pleadings and other exercises in the Latin and French 
languages, and that when the students had attained toiome 
degree of ripeness, they should be sent out with our am*' 
bassadors, and trained up in the knowledge of foreign af^ 
fairs, by which means the institution would become a nur^ 
sery for public ministers. Others of the students were to 
be employed in writing the history of the national transac-^' • 
tions both at home and abroad, including, particularly, em-^ * 
bassies, treaties, arraignments, and state trials. But befer^ 
they were to be permitted to write on these subjects, they were 
to take an oath betbre the lord chancellor, that they would 
do it truly, without respect of persons, and without any 
corrupt views, Thi3 design, however, miscarried, probably 
owing to Henry's extravagant dissipation of the revenues 
of the dissolved monasteries. I 

, Bishop Tanner has enrolled sir Nicholas Bacon among 
tlie writers of this country, on account of the following t 
pieces, preserved in different manuscript collections. " An - 
oration to the queen, exhorting her to Marriage;" "a 
speech to the lord nlayor of London ;" ^* a speech to the ■ 
Serjeant called to a judge ;" *^ an oration touching the - 
queen's Marriage and Succession to the Crown ;" " his 
speech to the queen, when she made him lord keeper ;^' - 
" his speech in the star-chamber, 1568 ;" " his speech to 
sir Thomas Gargrave, elected speaker for the commons . 
bouse pf parliament ;'' ^^ his speech at the council table, 
concerning aid required by the Scots to expel the French 
out of Scotland ;" " his speech concerning an Interview 
between queen Elizabeth and the Scottish queen, 1572 ;'^ 
^' his speech to the lords and commons in parliament, in 
the beginning f' ^^ his speech to Mr. Bell when he was 
called tQ be judge." All these are in the Norwich manu- 
scripts of More, 223 ; and are, we suppose, at present, in 
the public - library of Cambridge. ^^ Several speeches of 
lord keeper sir I^ichola^ Bacon, from i55S to. 1571 incluf 
sive," in Mr, Ralph Thoresby's collection ; " a discourse 
upon pertain points tonchiug the Inheritance of the Crown^^ 
conceived by sir Anthony Brown, and answered by sir 
I«Jicholas Bacon/' published in 17?3. ^* Three letters to 
Pr. Parker," in Corpus Christi college, Cambridge j meh^ 

$n BAG o n: 


tioned by Strype, in his life of the archbishop. One of 
tbese^ entitled. ^^ a letter of Mr. Nicholas Bacun^ counsellor 
^t l^w, to Parker, clean of Stoke college, in answer to cer« 
Vuo cases put to him relating to the said college,'' Mr. 
Strype has published at length. Hohnshed, at the end of' 
)u8 second volumey p« 1589, ranki sir Nicholas Bacon in 
the catalogue erf those who have written something con<» 
cerning Uie history of England. Mr. Masters refers to b, 
comment of sir Nicholas's on the twelve minor propbetSi 
dedicated to his son Anthony. And Mr. Strype has printed 
an excelleiit letter of advice, which was written by the lord 
keeper, a little before bis death, to the queen, on the situ-' 
atipn of her affairs^ Many of his apophthegms are among 
those of lord Verulam, and many of his speeches are in 
the Parliamentary History.' 

BACON (PttANi/SL), rector of Balden in Oxfordshire^ 
Md vicar of Bramber in Sussex, was of Magdalen college, 
Oxford, where he took the degree of M. A. April 17, 1722 $ 
B.D. April 29, 1731 ; D.D. December 7, 1735. He pos-^- 
iesaed an exquisite fund of humour, was a famous punster, 
and wrote an admirable poem called the ** Artificial Kite,*^ 
£r»t printed in 1719, and preserved in the Gentleman^a 
Itfagazine for 1758. In 1757 he published five dramatic 
performances, viz. !• " The Taxes," 2. " The Insignifi^ 
cants.** 3. « The trial of the Time-fcillers." 4. " TTie 
Afcoml Qjiack.'* 5. << The Oculist." None of these, how^ 
ever, were intended for the theatre. He was also the 
aathor of a very humorous ballad, entitled " The Snipe,'* 
lA wfatcfa the friar is himself, and Peter is his feIlow*colle^. 
gtttn, Peter Zinzam, M.D. who died Nov. 9, 1781. This 
ballad is preserved in the ^ Oxford Sausage." Dr. Bacon 
4ied ^ Balden, Jan. 10, 17S3, in the eighty --third year of 

BACON ^Robert), an eminent English divine of the 
tbirtei^th centnry, was born, according to the mpst pro-* 
bable coojeduves, about 1168, but wher^ is not known. 
He atttdjed, however, at Oxford, where he distinguished 
luni;»lf by the quickness of bis p^rts and his assiduous ap« 
pboation, Whence, according to ^e custom of that age» 

* Bi^. 9tit:.*^Uof6FB mtia "Wimkm^Hfu Wortihicg.— Fijillei't Woi^tiMCs.-— 
ttiype's Life of Parker, p. 22, 259.-— Strype's Aanak, see IndeM.-^Peck'n Den* 
ierata, vol. I. — Tanner's Bbliotheca.—- Master's Hist. ofC C. C. C. ke. 

'^ ^Qefii. Na|f. IT6$ an^ iVSS^ p. 99.waBioe. J)r»iiatiea.-r-Poeti€al Calendar^ 

bacon: Ml 

he femored to Paris, and acquired soch letrning as the a^e 
afibrded. After his return^ of which we have no date, be 
settled at Oxford, and read divinity lectures. His colleague 
ID this office was Dr. Edmund Rich, in our histories com^ 
'monly styled Edmund Abingdon ; a man famous for literal 
tdre, and yet, in tbe opinion of Leiand, inferior to our 
Bacon. This Or. Rich bad been chosen by the canons of 
Salisbury, treasurer of their church, and ill 1233, becoming 
archbishop of Canterbury, his friend Robert Bacon suc^ 
eeeded him, as treasurer of the cathedral church of Sidie* 
bury. Tbe same year he gaic^ed great reputation by a 
sermon preached before his royal iQiaster, king Henry IlL 
at Oxford, whither bis majesty came, in order to hold a 
general council of his lords. In this discourse, Bacon 
plainly told the king the mischiefs to which himself and 
bis subjects were exposed, by his reposing too great a con* 
fidence in Peter de Rupibus, bishop of Winchester, and 
jother foreigners ; and this honest sermon had a great effect 
on the mind of his master, and inclined him to give satis^ 
faction to his nobility, who were then, generally speaking,* 
disaffected. This seasonable service rendered to tbe na<- 
tion, did more to secure his memory from oblivion, than 
bis many years laborious reading, or even his learned 
. After the promotion of Dr. Rich to the see of Canter« 
bury, the famous Richard Fishakel^ wbom Leiand calls 
Fizacrius, read, in conjunction witli our Bacon, in St. 
Edward's schools, for many years together, to their own 
great honour, and to the benefit of all their hearers, nor 
were they less assiduous in preaching. In 1240, Bacon 
lost his great patron and intimate friend, Edmund, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and perhaps this accident, joined to 
his fervent piety and love of retirement, might induce Ba*^ 
con, though be was very old, to enter into tbe order of friars 
preachers, of which onder also was his associate Fishakeiw 
In gratitude to the memory of the archbishop, Bacon wrote 
his life, which was highly esteemed. He wrote also many 
pieces, which were esteemed in his day to be learned and 
useful. These were a book of ** Glosses on the Holy 
Scriptures," another " On the Psalter," and two collec- 
tions of " Discourses" and ** Lectures." At length wont 
out with so long a course of studious application^ he died 
in 124S^ and is supposed to have been interred ia the Do^ 
minican convent at Oxford. Fitcs, Leis^nd, Hearne, Cave^ 

2B2 B A C O N. 

and other authors, ba^e confounded this Robert Bacon with 
Roger, the subject of the following article, as has been pro- 
perly explained in the Biographia Britanuica, from which 
this article is taken. Wood, in his history and antiquities 
of Oxford, has in general avoided this mistake. 

Dr. Pegge, whose excellent life of bishop Grosseteste 
yfe have seen si nee. the above article was written, . thinks 
that Robert Bacon was either elder brother, or more pro- 
bably, as Leland imagines, uncle of Roger Bacon. Robert^ 
was the person who initiated Edmund archbishop of Can-* 
terbury in the study of divinity, but Bulaeus, in his his* . 
tory of the university of Paris, says he was himself the 
scholar of that saint, which Dr. Pegge doubts. However, 
he wrote ^^ Edmund^s life,'^ and is noticed by Leland, as. 
the particular acquaintance and intimate of bishop Grosse-^ 
teste. Matthew of Westminster gives him and Fishakel 
the character of being two such as were not exceeded by 
any in Christendom, or even equalled, especially as preach- 
jers. Dr. Pegge observes, that this character is the more 
extraordinary as coming from a monk, and that from the 
latter part of it, as well as from the list of Robertas produc-* 
tions, it appears th^t his excellence lay in theology, a par^ 
ticular which constitutes an essential difference in the cha- 
racter of him and Roger Bacon, who was eminently skilled 
in the mathematics and philosophy, as well as divinity, and 
perhaps more so. * 

BACON, BAKON, BACUN (RoGEa), a learned Eng- 
iish monk of the Franciscan order, who flourished in the 
thirteenth century, was born ivear Ilchester in Somerset-* 
shire, in 1214, and was descended of a very ancient and 
honourable family. He received the first tincture of let- 
ters at Oxford, where having gone through grammar and 
logic, the dawnings of his genius gained him the favour 
and patronage of the greatest lovers of learning, and such 
as were equally distinguished by their high rank, and the 
excellence of their knowledge. It is not very clear, says 
the Biographia Britannica, whether he was of Merton coK 
lege, or of Brazen*nose hall, and perhaps he studied at 
neither, but spent his time at the public schools^ The latr 
ter is indeed more probable than that he studied at Mertoh 
college, which did not then exist. It appears, however, 

» Biog. Brit. — ^Tanner's Bibl.— Pegge's Life of Grosseteste, p. 251, 233.— ^PuU 
Ur's Worthies. — ^Wood's Hist, and Antiquities of O^fordj Gulch's edition. ~ 

BACON. V 283 

that he went early over to Paris, where he made still greater 
progress in all parts of learning, and was looked upon as 
the glory of that university, and an honour to his <rountry. . 
In those days such as desired to distinguish themselves by 
an early and effectual application jto their studies, resort^ 
to Paris, where not only many of the greatest men in Eu- 
rope resided and taught, but many of the English nation^ 
by whom Bacon was encouraged and caressed. At Paris 
he did not confine his studies to any particular branch of 
literature, but endeavoured to comprehend the sciences in 
general, fully and perfectly, by a right method and con- 
stant application. When he bad attained* the degree of 
doctor, he returned again to his own country, and, as some 
jsay, took the habit of the Franciscan order in 1240, when 
be was about twenty-six years of age ; but others assert 
that he became a. monk before he left Fi*ance. After his 
return to Oxford, he was considered, by the greatest men 
of that universit}^, as one of the ablest and most inde&ti- 
gable inquirers after knowledge that the world had ever 
produced ; and therefore they not only shewed him all due 
respect, but likewise conceiving the greatest hopes from 
his improvements in the method of study, they generously 
contributed to his expences, so that he was enabled £o lay 
out, within the compass of twenty years, no less than two 
thousand pounds in collecting curious authors, making tri- 
als of various kinds, and in the construction of different in- 
struments, for the improvement of useful knowledge. But if 
this assiduous application to his studies, and the stupen- 
dous progress he made in them, raised his credit with the 
heater part of mankind, it excited the envy of some, and 
a^prded plausible pretences for the malicious designs of 
others. It is very easy ^6 conceive, that the experiments 
he made in all parts of natural philosophy and the mathe- 
matics, must have made a great noise in an ignorant age, 
when scarcely two or three men in a whole nation were to- 
lerably acquainted with those studies, and when all the 
pretenders to knowledge affected to cover tlieir own igno- 
rance, by throwing the most scandalous aspersions on those 
branches of science, which they either wanted genius to 
understand, or which demanded greater application to ac- 
quire, than they were willing to bestow. They gave out, 
therefore, that mathemajtical studies were in some measure 
^.llied te those magics^l arts which the church had con- 
^emned^and thereby brought suspicions upon menof supe- 

284 B A c o i*r. 

rtor learning. It was owing to this suspicion that Bacon 
ivras restrained from reading lectures to the young students: 
in the university, and at length closely confined and almost 
utarved, the monks being afraid lest his writings should ex- 
tend beyond the limits of his convent, and be seen by any 
besides themselves and the pope. But there is great rea- 
son to believe, that though his application to the occult 
sciences was their pretence, the true cause of his ill-usage 
was, the freedom with which he had treated the clergy in 
bis writings, in which he spared neither their ignorance 
nor their want of morals. But notwithstanding this harsh 
feature in the character of the times, his reputation continued 
io spread over the whole Christian world, and even pope 
dement IV. wrote him a letter, desiring that he would send 
him all his works. This was in 1266, when our author was 
in the flower of his age, and to gratify his holiness, coi»> 
lected together, greatly enlarged and ranged in some order, 
^e several pieces he had written before that time, and sent 
them the next year by his favourite disciple John of Loo« 
don, or rather of Paris, to the pope. This collection, which '■ 
is the same that himself entitled Opus Majus, or his great 
work, is yet extant, and was published by Dr. Jebb, in 
1773. Dr. Jebb had proposed to have published all his 
works about three years before his edition of the Opus Ma- 
jus, but while he was engaged in that design, he was in- 
formed by letters from his brother at Dublin, that there 
was a manuscript in the college library there, which con- 
tained a great many treatises generally ascribed to Bacoii, 
and disposed in such order, that they seemed to form one 
complete work, but the title was wanting, which had been 
carelessly torn off from the rest of the manuscript. The • 
doctor soon found that it was a collection of those tracts - 
which Bacon bad written for the use of pope Clement IV*- { 
and to which he had given the title of Opus Majus, «ince it * 
appeared, that what he said of that work in his OpusTei^- • 
tium, addressed to the same pope, exactly suited with this; ^ 
which contained an account of almost all the new discove*- ' 
ries and improvements that he had made in the sciences. 
Upon this account Dr. Jebb laid aside his form^ design, 
and resolved to publish only an edition of this Opus Majus. 
The tnwuscripts which he tiiade use of to complete this ' 
iedttion, are, 1 . MS. in the Cotton library, ifiscribf^ ^ JtA. 
D. V." which contains the first part of the Of>i!i9 Majus» 
under the tide of a ti^tise ^ De utilitAte Scieotianim.^* 
2. Another MS. in the same library, marked <* Tib. C. V.'* 

BACON. 385 

ccmtaimng thie fourth part of the Opus Majus, in whi^h ik 
shewn the use of the mathematics in the sciences and af^ 
fairs of the world; in the MS. it is erroneously called th^ 
fifth part. 3. A MS. in the library belonging to Gorpuj;^ 
Christ! in Cambridge, containing that portion of the foiirtli 
part which treats of geography. 4. A MS. of the fifth part, 
containing a treatise upon perspective, in the earl of Ox^ 
ford^s library. 5* A MS. in the library of Magdalen coU 
lege, Cambridge, comprehending the same treatise of 
perspective. 6. Two M8S. in the king's library, commu^ 
aicated to the editor by Dr. Richard Bentley, one of which 
<{ontains the fourth part of Opus Majus, and the other thci 
fifth part It is said that this learned book of his procured 
him the favour of Clement IV. and also some encourage^ 
ttient in the prosecution of his studies ; but this could not 
have lasted long, as that pope died soon after, and then 
we find our author under fresh embarrassments from the 
sam6 causes as before } bpt he became in more danger, ai 
the general of his order, Jerom de Ascoli, having heard 
hilt caus^, ordered him to be imprisoned. This is said 
t«»-have happened in 1278, and to prevent his appeal-* 
ing to pope Nicholas III. the general procured a confirm-^ 
ation of hii sentence from Rome immediately, but it is not 
very e^sj to say upon what pretences. Yet we are told by 
others^ that he was imprisoned by Reymundus Galfredus^ 
who was general of his order, on account of some alche-* 
mistical treatise which he had written, and that Galfredus 
afterwards set him at liberty, and became his, scholar: 
However obscure these circumstances may be, it is certain 
that his sufferings for many years must have brought him 
low, iince he was sixty-four years of age when he was first 
ptit ill prison, and deprived of the opportunity of prose^^ 
ituting his studies, at least in the way of experiment. That 
he was still indulged in the use of his books, appears very 
clearly from the great use he made of them in the learned 
works he composed* 

Pope Nicholas III. dying in the year 1280, Simon de 
Brie, cardinal of St. Cecilia, was elected pope, and fbut 
years aft^r, was succeeded by cardinal Savelli, who 
took the name of Honorius IV. in the year 1285. Both 
reigns were full of troubles and very short ; so that in all 
this time our author coUld find no opportunity of applying 
to the holy see for the mitigation of the sentence pro* 
nounced against him. But when he had been ten years 

,5S6 BACON. 

.in prison, Jerom de Ascoli, who had condemned bts doe# 
trine^ was chosen pope, and assumed the name of Nicholas 
IV. As he was the first of the Franciscan order that had 
,ever arrived at this dignity, was reputed a person of great 
probity and much learning, our author, notwithstanding 
what had before liappened, resolved to apply to him for his 
discharge ; and in order to pacify his resentment, and at 
the same time to shew both the innocence and the useful- 
ness of his studies, he addressed to him a very learned and . 
curious treatise, ^' On the means of avoiding the infirmities 
pf Old Age,'' printed first at Oxford, 1590, and translated 
and published by Dr. Richard Browne, under the title of 
f * The cure of Old Age and preservation of Youth," Lon-' 
don, 1683, 8vo. It does not appear, however, that his ^tp- 
plication had any effect ; on the contrary, some writers say 
that he caused him to be more closely confined. Bjut to« 
wards the latter end of his reign, Bacon, by the interpo^i-. 
tion of some noblemen, obtained his release, and returned 
to Oxford, where, at the request of bis friends, he comr: 
posed '^ A compendium of Theology," which seems to 
have been his last work^ and of which there is a copy in th«^ 
royal library. He spent the remainder of his days in 
peace, and dying in the college of his order, oq the Hth of 
June 1292, as some say, or in L2 94, as others assert, was 
interred in the church of the Franciscans. The iQonka 
gave him the title of ** Doctor Mirabilis," or the Wonder- 
ful Doctor, which he deserved, in whatever sense the ph^ise. 
is taken. 

He was certainly the most extraordinary man of his time^ 
He was a perfect master of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrexnr^ 
and has left posterity such indubitable marks of lu3; 
critical skill in them, as might have secured him a very' 
high character, if he had never distinguished iiimself iiv 
4ny other branch of literature. In all branches of the ma-r. 
thematics he was well versed, and there is scarcely any* 
part of them, on which he has not written with a solidity; 
and clearness, which have been deservedly admired by the 
greatest masters in that science. In mechanics particularly,^ 
the learned Dr: Freind says, that a greater genius bad not 
arisen since the days of Archimedes. He understoodlike-^. 
wise the whole science of optics, with accuracy ; and ifr 
very justly allowed to have understood, both the theory, 
and practice of those discoveries, which have bestowedr 
«uch high reputation on those of our own and of other nar. 


lions, who have brought them into common use. In geo* 
grapby also he was admirably well skilled, as appears from 
a variety of passages in his works, which was the reason 
that induced the judicious Hackluyt to transcribe a large 
discourse out of his writings, into his CoUeiction of Voyages 
and Travels. But his skill in astronomy was still more re- 
markable, since it appears, that he not only pointed out 
that error which occasioned the reformation in the calen- 
dar, and the distinction between the old stile and the new, 
but also offered a much more effectual and perfect reform- 
ation, than that which was made in the time of pope Cre- 
gory XIII. There are also remaining some works of his 
relating to chronology, which would have been thought 
worthy of very particular notice, if his skill in other 
sciences bad not made his proficiency in this branch of 
knowledge the less remarkable. The history of the four 
great empires of the world, he has treated very accurately 
and succinctly, in his great work addressed to pope Cle- 
ment IV. He was so thoroughly acquainted with Che- 
mistry at a time that it was scarcely known in Europe, 
and principally cultivated among the Arabians, that Dr. 
Freind ascribes the honour of introducing it to him, who 
speaks in some part or other of his works^ of almost every 
operation now used in chemistry. Three capital discoveries 
made by him deserve to be particularly considered. The 
first is, the invention of gun-powder, which, however con- 
fidently ascribed to others, was unquestionably known to 
him, both as to its ingredients and effects. The second is 
that which commonly goes under the name of alchemy, oc 
the art of transmuting metals, of which he has left many 
treatises, some published, and some still remaining in MS. 
which, whatever they may be thought of now, contain a 
multitude of curious and useful passages^ independently of 
their principal subject. The third discovery in chemistry, 
not 50 deserving of the reader's attention, was the. tincture 
pf gold for the prolongation of life, of which Dr. Freind 
says, he has given hints in his writings, and has said 
enough to shew that he was no pretender to this art, but 
understood as much of it as any of his successors. Tliat he 
was far from being unskilled in the art of physic, we might 
rationally conclude, from his extensive knowledge in those 
sciences, which are connected with it : but we have a ma- 
nifest proof of his perfect acquaintance with the most ma<^ 
terial and useful branches of physic, in his Treatise x>f Old 


Age, which, aS Df. Fjreind, whose aathority on that sub-* 
ject cannot ^vvell be disputed, observes, is very far from 
being ill written ; and Dr. Brown, who published it in 
Enghsh, esteetned it one of the best performances that evef 
was written. In this work he has collected whatever he 
had met with upon the subject, either in Greek or Arabian 
writers, and has added a great many remarks of his own. 
In logie and metaphysics he was excellently well versed^ 
as appears by those parts of his works, in which he ha$ 
treated of these subjects : neither was he unskilled in phi- * 
lology and the politer parts of learning. In ethics, qr 
moral philosophy, he has laid down some excellent prin« 
ciples for the conduct of human life. But, as his profes- 
sion required a particular application to theology, it ap- 
pears, that he made all his other studies subservient there- 
to. He had the highest deference for the Holy Scriptures, 
and thought that in them were contained the principles of 
true science, and of all useful knowledge. He therefore 
pressed the study of them in their original languages, and 
to assiduous application to the several branches of learn- 
ing, which he thought necessary for the thorough under- 
istanding of them. 

As to the Vulgar imputation on his character, of hi^ 
leaning to magic, it was utterly unfounded ; and the ridi- 
eulous Story of his making a brazen head, which spoke and 
answered questions, is a calumny indirectly fathered upon 
him, having been originally imputed to Robert GrOsseteste, 
bishop of Lincoln. That he had too high an opinion of 
judicial astrology, and some other arts of that nature, was 
hot so properly an error of his as of the age in which ht 
lived ! and considering how few errors, among the many 
which infected that age, appear in his writings, it may be 
easily forgiven. As his whole life was spent in labour and 
study, and he was continually employed, either in writing 
for the information of the world, or in reading and making 
experiments^ that might enable him to write with greater 
accuracy; so we need not wonder his works were extremely 
numerous, especially when it is considered, that on the one 
hand his studies took in the whole circle of the sciences, 
and that on the other, the numerous treatises ascribed to 
him, are, often in fact, but so many chapters, sections, or 
divisions ; and sometimes we have the same pieees undeir 
two or three different names : so that it is not at all strange 
before these points were well ticamiued^ that the acconnct 

B A CON. 289 

^e have of his writings appeared very perplexed and con- 
fused. But notwithstanding this seeming perplexity and 
confusion, it is not a very difficult things to give a distinct 
account of his writings, the greater part of which are ex- 
tant, and catalogued in the Biographiii Britannica, and it 
w^re to be wished, th?it they were also made public. He 
was very far from being a hasty, incorrect, or desultory 
writer ; on the contrary^ all his works have a just reference 
to one great and general system, which he has executed m 
all its parts to a much greater degree of perfection, than 
has been hitherto supposed. * 

CON (John)> surnamed the Resolute Doctor^ and one of 
the most learned men of his time, was bom about the end 
of the 13th century, at Baconthorp, an obscure Village in 
Norfolk, from which he took his name. In his youth, he 
was a monk in the convent of Blackney, a small town in 
Norfolk, about five miles from Walsingham. After some 
years dedicated to learning and piety, he removed to "Ox- 
ford, and from thence to Paris^ where he was honoured with 
the degrees in divinity and laws, and acquired a gretit re- 
putation for learning, Jbeing esteemed the head of the fol- 
lowers of the philosopher Averroes. Upon his return into 
England, he was unanimously chosen the twelfth provin- 
cial of the English Carmelites, in a general assembly of 
that order held at London, in the year 1329. Four years 
after he was invited by letters to Rome ; where, in several 
disputations on the subject of marriage^ he gave no little 
offence,' by carrying the papal authority too high in the 
•case of divorces ; but he thought fit afterwards to retract 
his opinion, and was held in great esteem at Rome, and 
pther parts of Italy. His biographers report that he was 
of small stature, but of a great and lofty genius, and be- 
sides the encomiums bestowed upon him by his own coun- 
trymen, he has had the praises, not less high, of Baptista 
Mantuanus, and Paulus Panza. Bale seems to think that 
he anticipated the better opinions of more enlightened 
times. Of his works, which are numerous, the following 
^have been published; f' Commentaria, seu Questionea 

t Biog. Brit.^Tanner*s Bibl.— Pe^ge's Life oF Grosscteste.— Fuller's Wor- 
thies.*— Wood »s Hist, aod Antiquities of Oxford, Qutch's" editioo. — Leiand.— . 
Bale. — Pitts.— The Biog. Brit errooeoasly ascribes to btm an intimacy with 
bishop 6rosseteit«» which, Dir. Pegge has clearly pcored, belonged to Robert 
Bacon, the subject of the preceding article. 

■ Vat. III. U 

«^0 B A C O N T H O R p. 

per quatuor libros sententiarum," which has undergofj^ 
$ix editions; ^^ Compendium legis Christi, etQuodlibeta,'* 
Venice, 1527. Leland, Bale, and Pitts give a catalogue 
of his manuscripts. He died at London in 1346. ' _ ' 

BACOUE (Leo), the only Protestant who went back to 
popery ths^t was made bishop in* the reign of Louis XIV: 
was born at Castelgeloux, in Gascony. After having quitted 
his religion, he entered himself of the Franciscan order, 
was then made bishop of Glandeve, and afterwards of Pa- 
mlers, where he died in 1694, at the age of ninety-four: 
His Latin poem on the Education of a Prince, 1671, 4to, 
procured him the episcopal dignity, by the interest of the 
duke of Montausier. This poem was reprinted in 8vo, irt 
1685, with notes, and the addition of some odes by the 
same author. He published also " Carmen panegyricum,'*^ 
Toulouse, 1667, 4to, dedicated to pope Clement IX. * 

BACQUET (John), king's advocate in the exchequer 
of Paris, flourished about the close of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and was profoundly skilled in the municipal andl 
civil law. He wrote many treatises on different branches 
of these laws, which were first published in 1608, and 
again in 4688, with the commentaries of Claude de Fer- 
rieres, A third, and improved edition was printed at 
Lyons, 1744, 2 vols. M. He died in April 1597, of grief 
for the death of his son-in-law, Charpentier, a professor 
of medicine in the university of Paris, who was executed 
for being concerned in the league, or insurrection agains't 
the succession of Henry IV. ^ 

BADCOCK (Samuel), an English diyine, and critical 
and polemical writer of considerable eminence, was the 
son of a butcher at South Moulton, in Devonshire, where 
he was born, Feb. 2S, 1747. His relations and friends 
being dissenters, he was designed by them for the minis- 
terial function ; and after, receiving the first rudiments of 
his education under his maternal uncle, Mr. Blake, a dis« 
sentihg minister at South Moulton, he was sent to the dis- 
senting academy at St. Mary Ottery, in- the same county^ 
The doctrines taught in this academy were those of the 
eld Nonconformists or Puritans, and for a. considerabli^ 
time, Mr. Badcock adhered to them with sincerity. His 
proficiency in other respects was such, in the opinion of 

* Biog. Britannica.-— Tanner Bibl.-—Fiillcr'i Wortkies. 

• Moreri,— Pict. Histr— Gen. Diet. * Dttoreti^ 

B A D O O C K. 29t 

his tntorS) that at the age of nineteen^ he. received a call 
to be the pastor of a dissenting congregation at Winborne 
in Dorsetshire, from which he was invited to the same 
office, soon after, at Barnstaple in Devonshire ; where his 
income was more considerable, and which place was aiore 
agreeable to him as it was but a few miles from his native 
town. The date of his removal here is said to be ia 1769^ 
and he continued to be the pastor of this congregation for 
nine or ten years. 

The cause of his removal from Barnstaple has been 
variously represented. On the one hand, it is said that 
a notorious indiscretion had excited the resentment of his 
hearers, but that he amply vindicated his character in this 
instance, although he could not prevent the consequences 
of their displeasure. On the other hand, it appears 
that a change in his religious opinions interrupted the 
union which must necessarily subsist between a pastor 
and his flock in dissenting congregations, where the for;- 
mer depends entirely for his maintenance on the good will 
and affection 'of the latter. It is certain that after he had 
been three or four years settled at Barnstaple, he met 
with some of Dr. Priesdey's Socinian productions, with 
which he was so captivated as to pay a visit to the Doctor, 
at Calne, in Wiltshire, and commenced a correspondence 
with him^ from which it is evident that he had discarded 
the opinion^, not only of his Calvinistic tutors, but those 
which are accounted orthodox by the generality of 

On his quitting Barnstaple, he removed to South Moulton^ 
where he had a congregation willing enough to receive his 
doctrines as he pleased to dispense them, but too few to 
be able to provide for him many of the comforts of life. 
In this retirement, his mind, ever active, and well stored 
with miscellaneous literature, turned its views to some 
employment in the learned world. During the progress 
of the London Review, which terminated in 1780, he oc-* 
casionally corresponded with the editor. Dr. Kenrick ; 
and contended with that sceptic, a man of no mean talents, 
on different points of Christianity. He occasionally also. 
wrote some articles in that Review, which are yet distin- 
guishable by their spirit and intelligence. He was before 
this period an occasional correspondent in the Westminster 
Magazine, where, in 1774, he wrote "An essay on mo- 
dem Education: Anecdotes of Mr. John Wesley, with 

U 2 

894 B A D C O C K. 

two of his original letters : A Shandean letter : A d^^ 
scription of a desperate case : The Presbyterian Parsoi/s 
Soliloquy : The Expostulation i An improved copy, oc- 
casioned by a most horrid murder : An essay on Infidelity : 
Extracts of a letter sent by a clergyman to his friend, after 
having met with ill treatment from Lord *■ — (a real 
letter on his own case) : A clerical character, aimed at 
a free-thinking Lecturer, who made some noise at that 
time. These, it must be confessed, are trifles, but dis- 
cover much vivacity of imagination, and a turn for poetry 
which might have been cultivated with advantage. 

We find Mr. Badcock afterwards frequently corre- 
isponding with the Gentleman's Magazine ; the London 
Magazine, where for some time he had a regular engage- 
ment ; the General Evening Post ; and St. James's Chro- 
nicle. But the great scene of his literary warfare, wias 
in the Monthly Review, in which he appears to have cri- 
ticized many works of considerable note, and in a manner 
which attracted the attention of the public to a journal, 
(already the highest in general estimation) in no common de- 
gree. In 1780, when a controversy arose respecting mate- 
rialism, Mr. Badcock published *^ A slight sketch of the 
controversy between Dr. Priestley and his opponents," and 
from this time he became the decided antagonist of the doc- 
tor in all those opinions upon which they formerly corre- 
sponded, and appeared to agree. The influence of Mr. 
Badcock's education seems to have returned with increased 
force, and although he did not revert to some of the prin- 
ciples of his early days, and in no respect resumed the 
garb or the behaviour of a Puritan, he certainly became 
a zealous contender for the Trinitarian system, in oppo-* 
sition to Socinianism 'in all its modifications^ This was 
particularly displayed in his review of Dr. Priestley's 
** History of the Corruption of Christianity," in 1783, and 
1784, and the controversy to which that work gave rise 
between Dr. Priestley, and Dr. Horsley, then archdeacon 
of St. Alban's, and successively bishop of Rochester and 
St Asaph. He had before this, however, interested the 
public attention by the review of Mr. Madan's ** The* 
iyphthora," and displayed a force of genius, skill of argu- 
ment, and depth of learning, which that author found 
irresistible. No work apparently of eminence, and cal- 
culated for popularity, perhaps ever was so completely 
driven into oblivion by the efforts of a periodica} re* 

B A D C O C K. / S9S 

viewer. Nor was Mr. Badcock's triumph less, complete' 
over the believers in Chatterton's imposture, although 
it must be owned that in this last controversy he had able 

While at Barnstaple, Mr. Badcock became acquainted 
with a daughter of Mr. Samuel Wesley, master of Tiver* 
ton-school, and elder brother of the celebrated John 
Wesley ; from her he received a considerable quantity of 
papers, consisting chiefly of letters and pieces of poetry,* 
Some of these he published entire, as already mentioned^ 
in the Westminster Magazine for 1774, and from the 
^whole, with some oral communications, he drew up that 
^account of the family which was published in N®. XX. of 
the " Bibliotbeca Top^grapbica Britannica.? The whole 
of these letters and papers fell afterwards into Dr. Priest- 
ley's hands, who published them upon Mr. Wesley's 
death. Dr. Whitehead, the biographer of Wesley, seems 
to think there is some mystery in this transaction, whicl^ 
he confesses he was not able to clear up. 

Among his other literary labours, Mr. Badcock fre- 
ijuently gave assistance to authors who were about to pub- 
lish, but had diffidence in their own abilities. One instance 
cf this kind occasioned a temporary controversy a few years 
ago. When professor White of Oxford was appointed 
Bampton lecturer, he formed the plan of a course of lec- 
tures, which induced him to apply to Mr. Badcock, wit^ 
whose talents he had become acquainted, for some as»- 
sist^nce; his application was accordingly effectual, and 
Mr. Badcock, to whom the subjects to be ^treated were 
familiar, contributed very considerably to the first, third^ 
fourth, seventh, and eighth lectures, and supplied many 
of the notes. There was certainly nothing in this, but 
what one man of learning may owe to another, without 
detracting much from his own character. But Dr. White 
unfortunately neglected to make the usual compUmentary 
acknowledgements of assistance, in his preface ; and upoi^* 
Mr. Badcock's death, the late Dr. Gabriel of Bath pub- . 
lisbed a pamphlet tending to prove that Mr. Badcock'^ 
contributions were so large as to leave Dr. White the repu- 
tation only of having preached and published these very 
popular lectures. Dr. Whitfe, however, answered this 
charge in such a manner as to vindicate his literary fame * 
from the attempts made to diminish it. 
. We are pow come to an aera in Mr. Badcock*s life which 
piay appear very remarkable, his quitting his dissenting 

294 B A D C O .C K. 

connexions, ancl embracing the doctrines and discipline 
of the established church. This brought much undeserved 
obloquy on bis character, for there appears no reason to 
doubt his sincerity in reverting to principles most of which 
bad been inculcated in his youth, and of which he had 
already become the zealous champion when he could have 
no motive but the love of truth, and no expectations but 
the perishing iame of a polemic. In Sept. 1786, he thus 
^ivrites to a friend : " I have resigned my function as dis» 
renting minister. It was long — long a most grievous op- 
pression. I have boldly shook it off, and I will run the 
risk of the displeasure of my relations, and defy the con-^ 
tumacy of my enemies. I have not absolutely determined 
on my future plan. Whatever it may be, I hope to se- 
cure the protection of Providence, by preserving the in- 
tegrity of my own mind." 

It has been supposed that his acquaintance with the 
bishop of Exeter, Dr. Ross, and the most respectable 
clergymen of his diocese, might have led him to examine 
the foundation Of dissent ; and it might have appeared to 
bim, as it has to very many of sound judgment and ac- 
knowledged abilities, that this foundation was groundless. 
He was led to conform by no promise, and, at best, by 
very distant views of advancement. It is, indeed, im- 
possible to read the heart of man : but, if it can be read 
by an intimate acquaintajnce, his conformity was sincere. 
But whatever were his views, or the views of those who 
wiAed to see him among the defenders of the established 
church, they were disappointed by a premature death. 
In the spring of 1787, he was ordained deacon by bishop 
Boss, and, by a very distinguished compliment, received 
priest^s orders the following week. The title upon which 
be was ordained was the curacy of Broad Clyst, neair Exeter, 
and he afterwards preached, as assistant to Dr. Gabriel, 
in the Octagon efaapel, Bath. He was much afBicted with 
bead-aches, which frequently interrupted his public ser- 
vices. In May, 1788, he was attacked by an illness which 
proved fetal on the 19th of that month, while on a visit 
to his friend sir John Chichester, hart, in Queen-street, 

Some time before his death, he was requested to ar- 
range the papers which Mr. Chappie had collected for his 
improved edition of Risdon's " Survey of Devon." After 
tibis was done, he was earnestly urged, from these ma- 

B A D G O C K. 295 

terialsy with ' additional assistance, such as influenpe or 
fortune could bestow, to write the history anew. For this 
undertaking he had many qualifications, if his health could 
have been preserved. When at Bath, he preached a 
charity sermon, which was afterwards printed, but not 
published. In his person, Mr. Badcock was short, but 
well made, active, lively, and agreeable: his eyes were 
pecnliarly vivacious, and his whole countenance indicated 
strong intellectual powers, far above the general run of 
mankind, and a disposition replete with sensibility, ten- 
derness, and generosity. This short sketch of his life has 
been taken from very copious materials, published in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, voL LVIII, p. 595, 691, 780, 
781, 868; UX, p. 571, 713, 776, 871, 877; and the 
reader may form a judgment of his critical talents by per- 
using the following articles ii;i the Monthly Review, in 
addition to what have been already mentioned : Sherlock's 
Letters; David Williams's Lectures; Steevens's Shakspeare^ 
edit. 1780 ; Malone's Supplement ; Milne's Sermons ; 
Mac-Nicol's Remarks on Dr. Johnson ; History of Mo^ 
ravianism; Japob Behmen's Life; Mainwaring's Sermons; 
Von Troll's Letters on Iceland ; Milles's edition of tlowteyTs 
poems ; Nichols's Life of Hogarth, and Bowyer's Miscella- 
neous Tracts, 1785. His first review was of Ruhnkenius'd 
edition of Homer's Hymn to Ceres, which he sent anony- 
mously to the Editor. ^ 

BADEW (Richard de)> who, as founder of Clare-hall, 
Cambridge, is justly entitled to a place among the bene- 
factors of learning, was descended froni a knightly family^ 
seated at Great Badew, or)Badow, near Chelmsford, in the 
county of Essex. From this place, they took their surname ; 
and here, probably, Richard de Badew was born. In 1326, 
he was chancellor of the university of C^unbridge; and 
having purchased two tenements in Miln-street, of Nigel 
Thornton,' a physician, he laid there, in the year above- 
mentioned, the foiindation of a building, to which was 
given the name of University hall. Stow differs from 
tins account, in asserting that the two houses of old be<^ 
longed to the chancellor and university. Badew, however, 
placed a principal in this hall, who was to take care of the 
pensioners that came to live there at their own expence ; 
or, as others say, at the charge of the university : for, as 

1 Qituc Mi^. M tiipr*. 

ip$ B A D E W. 

yety it w^ not endowed, and this, it must be confesse<?^ 
suits rather better with the term pensioner. University 
ball continued in this condition for the space of sixteen 
years, and then by an accidental fire was burnt dowi^. Ri« 
5;hard de Badew being unable to rebuild it, it lay for a few 
years in ruins. But one of the late pensioners having ^ 
great interest with Elizabeth, daughter of sir Gilbert de 
jCiare, earl of Gloucester, and third sister and co-heir of 
sir Gilbert de Clare, the last e^.rl of Gloucester and Hertf> 
ford, of that name and family, he prevailed upon her to 
undertake what de Badew was not able to perform. Ac- 
cordingly this lady, after the resignation of Walter Thaxted 
the priuoipalf and with the consent of Richard de Badew, 
^rebuilt that hall, and endowed it, in the year 1347, with 
revenues for one master, ten fellows, and ten scholars, and 
at the same time i^^med it Clare hall. When she founded 
it, king Edward III. gave licence of mortmain to the mas- 
ter and scholars to take lands and tenements, to the value 
<>f forty pounds a year. The revenues of this hail have 
been augn^ented since by ^ several benefactors. It was 
again rebuilt in 1636, and the magnificent chapel in 1763* 
It contains a master, ten senior fellows, fifteen juniors, and 
ihree lay-fell6w«, ^ 

BADIUS (JfossE), or in Latin, JODOCUS BADIUS 
ASCENSIUS, an eminent French printer, was born in 
1462, at Assche, a village in the territory of Bmssels, from 
which he derived the name Ascensius. He first studied at 
Ghent, then at Brussels, and lastly at Ferrara in Italy. H^ 
made great progress in the languages, and principally in 
the Greek, which he learned at Lyons and at Paris. He 
printed a great many books, and usually in the frontispiece 
had a printing press as his mark. He is also the author of 
some books, an^ong which are ^^ Sylva moralis contra vi* 
tia ;" " Psajteriun^ B. Marise versibus ;" ** Epigrammatum 
Lib. I ;'* " Nayicula stultarum mulierum ;" *^ V4taThoma^ 
a Kempis ;'* " De Gramnfiatica ;" ^^ De copscribendis 
Epistolis." He wrote also comn^entaries. on Horace, Virgil, 
Juvenal, Lucan, Sallust, Valerius Ma^imus, Quintilian, 
Aulus Gellius, and some parts of Cicero's works. At Paris 
be taught Greek, and explained the poets at Lyons. Hi9 
high reputation in .these studies induced Treschel, the fa^. 
inous printer, to engage him as corrector of his pres$, and 

} Bio(« BritaimicB* 

B A D I U S. 897 

not only secured his valuable services by taking hind ^s a 
partner in the business, but also . gave him his daughter 
Thalia in marriage, who was also a learned lady. After 
the death of "his father-in-law, in 1500, he was engaged by 
Gagnin, the royal librarian, to visit Paris, where he re- 
moved with his family, and established an excellent print- 
ing office, by the name of Praelum Ascensianum, from which 
many good editions issued, although his type was not so 
much admired as that of the Stephens's. He died in I535. 
His son Conrad Badius settled at Geneva, having embrace^ 
Calvinism^ and was both a printer and an author. Two of 
his daughters were married to eminent printers, one tQ 
Michel Vascosan, and the other to Robert Stephens. ^ 

BADOARO, or BADUARO (Daniel), a senator of 
.Vienice, who died in 1580, has left various treatises on the 
civil law^ which were printed at Venice in 1593, and re- 
printed at Boulogne in 1744. His son Peter Badoaro, was 
also celebrated for bis knowledge of law, and died in 1 59 U 
His i^ Orationi Civili," were published in 1593, if this be 
not, as we suspect, a production of the father. Frederick 
Badoaro, of the same family, was distinguished for his 
learning, and talents as a negociator. He was Venetian 
ambassador at the court of Charles V. and Philip II. and 
was the founder of the academy known by the name of 
Delia Fama, at Venice. He died in 1593. From the 
three concurring events under this year, it is probable^ 
there are some mistakes in this account, which we have 
laken from the Diet. Hist.^ 

BADOLOCCHI, or BADALOCCHIO (Sisto), an emi^ 
nent Italian painter, born at Parma, according to Basan^ 
in 1581, was €i disciple of Annibal Caracci, by whose ^dr 
mirable precepts he made an extraordinary progress in a 
short time, and proved the best designer of any of those 
who were educated with him in that illustrious school. He 
possessed a lively imagination, and a singular readiness of 
hand ; and it was concluded by allr\^o saw his perform* 
ances, that be would have arrived at a high degree of me- 
rit, if he had not died in the very bloom of life, and if he 
had applied himself with more assiduity to his profession^ 
Sasan^s account, however, makes him reach his sixty-sixth 
yfQdX, but it does not appear on what authority. Badq- 

9 <Ben. Diet.— Moreri.— Marchand Diet. Hist.— Foppen BiU. Belg.-r-Saxii 
OnoBiasticOD. . , 

9 Diet. Hist. 

'298 B A D O L O C G H L 

locchi is to be ranked among engravers also, and there are 
mainy etchings by him, in a slight, free, masterly style. 
"They are generally more finished than those of Guido ; but 
the extremities are by no means so finely drawn. Amongst 
the best, is RaphaePs Bible, from the pictures of Raphael 
in the Vatican, small plates, lengthways, engraved con- 
jointly with Lanfranchi. This is 2l w^Htnown work. * 

BADUEL (Claude), in Latin BADUELLUS, a Pro- 
testant divine of the sixteenth century, was a native of 
Nismes, and taught in the university of that city. In 1557 
he w^nt into Switzerland, and became the pastor of a 
church in the vi<:;inity of Geneva, and taught philosophy 
and mathetnatics till his death in 1561. He translated se- 
verial of Calvia^s sermons into Latin, which he published 
at Geneva, also *^ Acta Martyrum nostri saeculi,*' Genev. 
1556 ; ^' Oratio ad In&tituendum Gymnasium Nemausensi 
*le Studiis Literarum ;'- " De Collegio et Universitate Ne- 
mausensi ;*' <^ Epistola Parsenetica ad Paulum filium de 
vero patrimonio et hasreditate quam Christian! parentes 
«uis liberis debent relinquere,'' and some other works, all 
iu Latin, which he was thought to write -ytrith great fluency. 
But his most remarkable work was entitled *^ De ratione 
vitsB studibssa ac literats in Matrimonio coUacandae ac de- 
gendse,'' which has been three times printed in 8vo and 4to^ 
1544, 1577, and 1581. A defence of marriage, at that 
time, was an object of some importance, and its advantages 
to men of literature are displayed with good sens^ in this 
work. Bayle gives a long account of it, and a farther list 
of Baduel's works may be seen in Gesner's Bibliotfaeca. * 

BAELI (Francis), a native of Milazzo in Sicily, was 
born in 1639, and cultivated with success the dissimilar 
studies of mathematics and poetry. After travelling from 
3660 to 1680 over most parts of Europe, he remained for 
some years at Paris and Madrid, and then returned to his 
native country, where he produced two dramatic pieces, 
the " Temple of Tempe," and " Polixenes," and pub- 
lished " Odes," ** Sonnets,'* and an ** Historical account 
of the City of Messina,'* Fraincfort, 1676. The time of his 
death is uncertain.* 

' BAENGIUS (Pbter), son of Eric Basngiu?, a divine, 
was born at Helsingborg in Sweden, in 1633, and studied 
first at Stregnes in Sudermania, and afterwards at UpsaL 

1 Pilkington and Strutt's Dictionaries, 9 Gen. DicU 

> Cbaufepie Diet. Hist.— Diet. Hist. ' 

B A E N G I U S. '299 

Colonel Sylver Sparre, bearing of his good character aiid 
abilities, . appointed him tutor to his son, with whom BaBH- 
gius travelled into Denmark, Germany, and the Nether- 
lands, and visited eleven universities. On his return to 
his own country, he was called to the theological chair of 
Abo in Finland, when only in his thirty-second year. In 
1682, Charles IX. king of Sweden, appointed him to the 
bishopric of Wyburgh in Carelia. Baengius introduced 
many liseful regulations in his diocese, particularly with, 
respect to schools, and established a printing-office. He 
died in 16^6. He wrote a commentary, in Latin, on the 
epistle of St. Paul to the Hebrews, which was printed at 
Abo in 1671, 4to ; the ** Life of St. Anscharius ;" a work 
on the ecclesiastical hist©ry of Sweden ; a treatise on the 
sacraments ; a Lutheran catechism ; several disputations, 
and funeral orations, and a sacred chronology. * 

BAERSIUS, or VEKENSTIL (Henry), a learned 
printer at Louvain, of the sixteenth century, was also an 
able mathematician, and wrote, 1. " De compositione et 
usu Decretoril Planetarum," 1530, 4to. 2. " De com- 
positione et usu Quadi-antis," 1534, 4to. He published 
also, but without his name, ** Tabulae perpetuae Longitu- 
dinum ac Latitudinum Planetarum, ad Meridianum Lo- 
vaniensem,** edited by Gilbertus Masius, 1528, 4to.* 

BAGARD (Charles), an eminent French physician, 
was born at Nancy, Jan. 2, 1686, and died there, Dec. 7, 
1772. We have no farther particulars of his life, but his 
works were numerous, and accounted valuable. They are, 
1. " Histoire de la Theriaque,'* 1725, 8vo. 2. "Disser- 
tation sur les Tremblemens de Terre, et les Epidemics qu'ils 
occasionnent,'* 8vo. 3. " Explication d'un passage 
d- Hippocrate sur les Scythes qui deviennent Eunuques,** 
1759, :8yo. 4. "Analyses des eaux Minefrales de Cdn- 
trexevilte et de Nancy.** 5, " Des Memoires sur la petite 
verole, les centenaires, et les vomissemens, produits par la 
passion Diaque." He published also in Latin, a Dispien* 
s^tory, in folio, and a treatise on the Materia Medica, both 
about the year 1771, the laUer in 8 vo. ' 

BAODEDIN (Mahomet), an Arabian mathematician, 
is usually classed among the authors of the tenth century. 
He is said to have written some treatises on geometry, and 
among others, one entitled " De superficierum divisioni- 

« Morpri.-.Dict. Hist. « Foppen Bibl. Beig, » Diet Hist* 

300 B A G P E D I N. 

bus," which Dr. Dee of London, and Frederic ComnTan* 
dini of Urbino, translated into Latin. The latter published 
his translation at Pesaro in 1570| with another on the same 
subject of his own' composition. Some, however, are of 
opinioti that the original treatise was by Euclid, to whooft 
Proclus ascribes one on that subject, and that Bagdedia 
was only the translator of it into the Arabic language. ^ 

PAGE (Robert), an English writer of considerable ta* 
lents, was born Feb. 29, 1728, at Darley, a hamlet in the 
parish of St. Alkmond^s^ Derby, where his father was em-* 
ployed oil $i p^per-milL When put to school, this son 
inadean uncommon progress in such learning as waswithiq 
his reach, and after remaining there the usual time, he wasf 
trained to bis father's business. When he advanced in 
life, married, and became settled in the business of paper- 
making, he continued to cultivate his mind, by adding a. 
knowledge of the French and It^li^,u languages, and even 
the Riore abstruse branches of mathematics. Hi^ conver-* 
nation and correspondence sps^rkled with all the wit an4 
information which ^re expected in m^n of a literary turn, 
t)Ut he was considerably advanced in life befqre he tried 
his powers in any regular compositiop. A loss sustained! 
in business is said to have first induced him to take up the 
pen, not as a source of emolument, but tp divert his mind 
from repining reflections. With this view he wrote, and 
in J 781^ published " Moun^ Henetbi" a novel which be-r 
came justly popular, from the itivicity of its style, and 
dialogue, and the many well-drawn characters, and,appo<v 
site reflections on questions of morality and humanity. 
This was followed by other productions of the same khid, 
" Barham Downs," the " Fair Syrian," and " James Wal- 
lace," which were all favourably received by ^he public, 
as far superior to the commpn run of novel?. In private 
life, Mr. Hutton of Birmingham, has celebrated him as ^ 
man of most amiable and benevolent character ; but we 
are sorry that he ^dds;, that ^' he laid no stress upon reve-? 
lation," and was " barely a Cbristian.'*-jr-There are, in- 
deed, passages in his works jtrhicb justify this character, 
and leave us much to regret in the history of a man of such 
ie2;;cellent talents and personal worth in other respects, 
Mr. Bage died Sept 1, 1801, in the 74th year of his a^e^ 
at Tamworth, * 

\ Morertr**Vo88iu9 de Matliemat. 

« Oent. Maf. 1601 ^Huttou's Hist, of I>erb7, 

3 A G F O R D. 301 

BAGFORD (John), an industrious antiquary and col- 
lector of literary curiosities, the son of John and Elizabeth 
Bagford, of the parish of St Anne, Blackfriars, London, 
was bom in October 1675, and bred to the humble occu- 
pation of shoemaker. He was early led, by whatever 
means, to inquiries respecting the antiquities of bis own 
country, and its literary history, and in the course of his 
researches he acquired an extensive knowledge of old 
English books, prints, and fariries, dear to the heart of a 
collector, which he carefully picked up at low prices, and 
sold again for a moderate profit. In this mixture of study 
and trade he passed the greater part of his life, and with 
such zeal, that he more than once travelled abroad, with 
commissions from booksellers, and collectors, whom he 
amply satisfied by his skilful punctuality, and moderate 
charges. In the course of his labours, he made himself 
acquainted with the history of printing, and of the arts con* 
nected with it, and in 1707, published in the Philosophical 
Transactions, his ^^ Proposals for a History of Printing, 
Printers, Illuminators, Chalcography, Paper*making, &c." 
soliciting the humble price of one pound for a folio volume, 
to consist of two hundred sheets. These proposals, of 
which there are several copies in the British museum, are 
printed on a half-sheet, with a specimen on another, con- 
taining the life of Caxton, and a list of his books. The 
numerous manuscripts by him on this subject, now in the 
British museum, prove that he had at least provided ample 
materials for a work of this description, and was not upon 
the whole ill qualified to have written it, as far as a liberal 
education could have been dispensed with. He had pro*- 
bably no encouragement, however, and at his death, nine 
years afterwards, these MS collections were purchased by 
Mr. Humphrey Wanley, for lord Oxford's library, and 
came in course with the Harleian MSS. into the British 
museum. I'be assertion, in the last edition of this dic- 
tionary, that a part of his collections were deposited in the 
public library at Cambridge, and never opened, has been 
contradicted on the authority of Dr. Farmer, the late learn- 
.ed master of Emanuel college. 

It appears that Bagford practised the art of printing, 
although in an humble way. There are among hiscoUec- 
tions two whimsical cards, printed by him, on the Thames 
ivhen it was frozen over, Jan. 18, 1715-16, with devices 
and inscriptions alluding to the history of printing. T 

802 B A G F O R *)• 

curious letter to H^sarne^ iii the first volame of the second 
edition of "Leland*s Collectanea^" p. 58, relative to Lon- 
don> and the antiquities in its vicinity, is very creditable to 
his talents as an. antiquary. He was much employed and 
jrespected by lord Oxford, Or. John Moore bishop of Ely, 
^ir Hans Sbane, sir James Austins, Mr. Clavel, &c. and 
it is said, that for having enriched bishop Moore^s library 
with many curiosities (which were purchased by George I. 
and given to the university of Cambridge), his lordship pro- 
cured him an admission into the charter-house, as a pen- 
sioner on that foundation, in the cemetery of which he 
was buried. He died at Islington, May 15, 1716, aged 
sixty-five. In Mr. Dibdin's Bibliomania, are many curious 
particulars respecting Bagford, and an estimate of his 
talents and usefulness founded on Mr. Dibdin^s very labo- 
rious inspection of his MSS. ' 

BAGGER (John), bishop of Copenhagen, was born at 
Lunden in 1646. His father Olaus Bagger taught theo^ 
logy in the school of Lunden, but sent his son to Copen- 
hagen for education. He afterwards travelled to Germany, 
the Netherlands, and England, studying under the most 
able masters in divinity and the oriental languages, and 
then returned to Copenhagen. When Lunden became a 
part of the Swedish dominions, the king established an 
academy there, and Bagger was' appointed to teach the 
oriental languages. He had scarcely begun to give lessons, 
how'ever, when by the advice of his friends of Copen- 
hagen, he solicited and obtained, in 1674, the office of first 
pastor of the church of the Holy Virgin in that metropolis. 
In 1675, after the usual disputation, he got the degree of 
doctor, and on the death of John WandaUn^ bishop of 
Zealand or Copenhagen, he was appointed to succeed 
him, at the very early age of twenty-nine. His promotion 
is said to have been in part owing to his wife Margaret 
Schumacher, the widow of Jacob Fabri, his predecessor, 
in the church of the Holy Virgin at Copenhagen, and to 
the brother of this lady, the count de GrifFenfeld, who 
had great interest at court. Bagger, however, filled this 
high of&ce with reputation, as well as that of dean of theo*- 
logy^ which is attached to the bishopric of Copenhagen. 
He revised the ecclesiastical rites which Christian V. had 

1 Nichols's Life of Bowyer.«-Taaer> 8ro edit, wiUi ttotti, toI.IIL p. 511.— 
Dlb^n's Bibliom. p. 430. 


{Htssed into a law, as well as the liturgy, epistles, and gos- 
pels, collects, &c. to which he prefixed a preface. Ho 
also composed and published several discourses, very 
learned and eloquent, some in Latin, ahd others in the 
Danish tongue* He died. in 1693, at the age of 47. By 
his second wife, he left a son Christian Bagger, who be** 
came an eminent lawyer, and in 1737 rose to be grand 
bailly of Bergen, and a counsellor of justice. ' 

BAGLIONI Giovanni), a Roman artist, was born about 
1573, and acquired the rudiments of art from Francesco 
Morel li, a Florentine, but formed himself on better mas- 
ters : feeble in design and expression, he is distinguished 
by chiaroscuro, and a colour which approaches that of 
Cigoli ; his praised picture of the Resuscitation of Tabitha^ 
is lost, but bis frescoes in the Vatican and the Capella 
Paolina at S. Maria Maggiore, still remain to give an idea 
of his powers. He lived long, employed and ennobled by 
pontiffs and princes ; but owes the perpetuity of his name 
perhaps more to his ^^ Lives of Painters, Sculptors, and 
Architects," than to great technic eminence. That work 
was entitled " Le Vite de' Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti 
dal 1572 al 1642," Rome, 1642, and again in 1649, 4to. 
It forms a continuation of Yasari's Lives. Baglioni died 
about the time of publication. ^ 

BAGLIVI (Georoi^), an eminent Italian physician, was 
born at Ragusa, in the year 1669, of a family which origi* 
Bally came from Armenia. Pietro Angelo Baglivi, an 
eminent and opulent physician, is said to have adopted this 
youth, and bestowed on him his name, while he charged 
himself witk his maintenance and education. George Bag- 
livi,. accordingly, was sent to Salerno^ where he took his 
first degree, and where he became partial to the study of 
natural history. The same pursuit he afterwards followed 
at Padua and Bononia, but his chief instructor and most 
intimate friend was Malpighi, whom he visited at Rome, 
and by wht)se influence be was promoted to teach anatomy 
in that city. With many friends, this occupation pro- 
cured him also some enemies, excited probably by the 
fame he obtained. He persisted, however, in his lectures, 
and published his ^^ Praxis," which differed much from 
that in common use, as he recommended a closer atten^ 
tion to clinical observations than had been usual, and dis« 

1 Moreru < PUkingtOD, edit. ISIO. 

$64 B A G L 1*V t. 

carded the humoral system altogether, attribotirig tbd 
cause of diseases to the altered tone of the solids. H^ 
supposed likewise an alternate motion between the hearl 
and the dura mater^ by which the whole aninial machiiiM 
was actuated. He had, however, no sooner published these 
doctrines, than Antonio Pacchione accused him of havio^ 
stolen them from his works, if he denied the charge^ or 
t)f having taken them, if he would, confess it; but'Bag>^. 
livi proved that Pacchione's observations were published, 
almost a year later than his own, and urged, that whatever, 
coincidence there might be, he bad the credit of establish* 
ing his doctrines upon a more firm basis. His enthusiaspt 
in his profession led him to devote much of his time td 
writing, and his pieces went through many editipusr before, 
they were collected, and printed, together at Nurimberg^ 
4738, 4to, but afterwards much more completely at. Ve- 
nice, in 1752, and lastly, with a preface, notes, andemeiQ- 
.dations by Phil. Pinel, M. D. 2 vols. 178a, 8vo. There 
are also Paris editions in 4to, ,1711 and 1765. His bip-> 
grapher represents him as a man of piety and benevolenc^i: 
and of much learning, indepeudent of his more immediate: 
studies. He died March 1707.* 

BAGNOLl or BAGNIO LI (Julius C^sar), an Italiari 
poet, a man of opulence as. well as fame by his writings, 
and esteemed among the good poets of his age. His faiU. 
ing is said to have been that of being difficult to please in 
bis own compositions, which he filed and polished till he 
wore off the strength of the metal. He knew how to draw 
an exact outline, and to give a strong colouring, but he 
held his pencil too long, and was over-anxious in the finish-* 
iug part. These were not, however, the failings of bia 
time. He is best known at present to those who study 
Italian poetry by " The Arragonians,^* a tragedy, aiid 
" The Judgment of Parij.'' We have no dates of hi* birth 
or death, except that he was famed as a poet, about 1590, 
and Erythrsus (Le Koux) says that he died an old man. ' 

BAGOT (Lewis), an English prelate, son of sir WaJter . 
Bagot, hart, and brother to the first lord Bagot, was bora 
Jan. 1, 1740. He was educated at Westminster school,, 
and chosen thence student of Christ-church, took the de^ 
gree of M.A. May 23^ 1764, and LL.D. Feb. i29, 1772. In 

> Fabroni Vite Italorum, vol. IV.— -Haller Bibl. Med.— but more com- 
pletely in Manget. 
* JiryUirei Fiaacotlieca.--M9refi.-i»SaiUet Jui^emtfnt.ded SayanSi toI. VIU' 

B A G O T. tos 

16 1771 lie WHS made canom of Chrkt-eburch in the toom 
0f Dr. Moore, the late archbishop of Canteribniy, imd. th# 
same year he married Miss M. Hay, niece to the eiii of 
KimiouL He was installed dean of Christ-dmrcb, Jan* 
5t5, 1777, on the tnuisiation of Dr, Markham to the see <lf 
York, about which time he resigned the lirinrgs of Jeving-^ 
ton and Eastbourne in Susset, in lisivoiir of his nephew, the 
Kev. Ralph Sneyd. In 1782 be was promoted to the see of 
Biistol, translated to Norwich the yoar following,: and 
thence t4» St Asaph in 1790, wbere he rebuilt the palace 
on an uncommon plan, but neces^ury for the sitoatioti^ 
where, among the mountaiDS, and in tho Ticinity of the 
tea, storms are often riolent ^ The palace, therefore, is 
low; and being on the ascent of a hill, the Testibule, din-i> 
ing-^foom, and drawing«room, which occupy the whole front 
of the building, are on » level with the first floor in the 
other apartments, two of ^^diich, on the gfooad^floor^ are a 
neat domestic chapel and a library. 

> Dn Bagot was a man of great learning, an Itccomplished 
scholar, and of the most gentle and amiable manners* As 
n patron, he deserves much praise for bestowing the ample 
patronage of his see^with great disinterestedness and im« 
partiality, among the learned and meritorious clergy of his 
diocese, acquainted with the language «nd manners of the 
district His publications were not very numerous. In the 
*^ Pielas et Gratutatio Univ. Oxon.- 1761," on die accession 
of his present majesty, are some English blank verses, by 
him ; and he also contributed some verses on bis majesty's 
marriage, nnd on the birth of the prince of Wales, all which 
are mserted in vol. VIII. of Nichols's poems. In ]77S^ 
When the question of subscription to the thirty-nine articles 
was agitated, be published *^ A defence of subscription tO: 
the XXXIX Articles, as it is required in the miiverstty of 
Oxford.*' 7*his was anonymous, and occasioned by a pam- 
phiec, ^Iso anonymous, entitled ^^Reflections on tiiie im" 
propriety and expediency of Lay Subscription in the uni- 
versity of Oxford." In 1 7 7 9 he preached and published the 
Radclife Infirmary sermon, and in 1780 his priucipal work 
appeared, '^Twelve discourses on the Prophecies," preached 
at the Warburtonian lecture in Lincoln's Ion chapel. The 
earnestness with which he contends iu these discourses 
tor the essentM doctrines of the church, was again appa^ 
^nt ii\ bis next publication, *^ A letter tp the Rev. W. Bell, 
D.D." on the subject of his late pu'biicatians upoa the 
Vol. HI, X 

806 B A G O T. 

ituthority^ nature, and design of the Lord'si Supper,*' 178li 
9w. In this Dr. Bagot objects to the Socinian tendency 
tpf Ih*^ Bell's arguments ; and about the same time he re-* 
printed^ with a short prefiice, . Dr. Isaac Barrow's '^ Dis* 
fcpurse on the doctrines of thq Sacrament,'' which is now 
one. of the tracts dispersed by the Society for promoting 
£!bri9tian' Knowledge. His other publications were, a ser-* 
Inon before the house of lords, Jan. SO, 17H3 ; one for the 
]tftirwich hospital ;. and two others before the Society for 
ipxomoting Christian Knowledge, 1788, and the Society for 
propagating the Gospel, 1790. A small pamphlet against 
the Anabaptists, and a charge delivered when bishop €>f 
Norwich, were printed by Dr. Bagot, but not genemlly 
published. In all his works he displays a fervent zeal for 
the principles of religion and of loyalty, joined \yith much 
knowledge of the true grounds of both; nor will it be 
thought an objection of much consequence, that be did not 
stand high in the opinion of those who contended for such 
Innovations as in his opinion endangered the whole febric 
of church government and doctrine. 

For nearly ten years before the death of this worthy pre« 
late, he had been in. a declining st-^.te of health, and was 
wasted to the appearance of a mere skeleton. He was coa« 
fined to bed, however, only the day before he departed this 
life, June 4, 1 802. His remains were interred at St. Asaph 
.with those of Mrs. Bagot, whom be survived not quite three 
years. * 

BAGSHAW (Edward), a gentleman of a Derbyshire 
family,^ was born in London, and in 1604 became a com* 
Aioner of Brazen-nose college, Oxford, under the tuition 
of the pious Mr. Robert Bolton ; four years after, he took 
a degree in arts, and then removed to the Middle Temple, 
where he studied law, became a. bencher, and of consider* 
able reputition in his profession. In 1639 he was elected 
Xent reader, and: i^hose for his first reading- an argument 
>very suitable to the growing turbulence of the times, en- 
deaj^ouring to prove that a parliament may be held without 
.bishops, and that bishops ought no:t .to meddle in civil af-^ 
fairs, but the lord keep^ Finch, at archbishop Laud's re- 
quest, ordered.himto df^sist. This, however,' giving him 
a character unhappily too poptj^fu*, he was elected M. P. for 
the borough oi Southwark, ihv|^e parliament of 1640 } but 

* 1^ Nichols*! life of Bowyer, vol. V.J<2fttt. May. 1802.— Nich»lf*i PoelB^ 

*oL VUt ...... 

B A G S H A Wi 30T! 

perceiving the outrages the members were about to tsQai-*; 
mit, beyond all, bounds of temperate refqrmatioji, he went 
to Oxford, and sat in the parliament called there by the king,: 
After continuing at Oxford for some time, he was taken 
prisoner by the rebels in Oxford^ire, and seqt to London,: 
where the house of commons committed him to the king's* 
bench, and he suffered afterwards in his estate in Nor-* 
thamptonsbire. On the Restoration we find him treasurer 
of the Middle Temple. He died in VS62, and was interred- 
in Morton-Pinkney in Northamptonshire, leaving^ two sons^ 
Henry and Edward, of whom some notice will be takem 
He published, 1. ^' The life and death of Mr. Robert BqU 
ton," London, 1633, 4to. 2. ^^^ Several speeches in par- 
liament," 1640, 1641, 4to. 3. <^ Two argun^nts in parlia^ 
meat, on the Canons and Praemunire," London, 1641, 4tQ« 
4. '^ Treatise defending the revenues of the church int 
Tithes and Glebe," ib. 1646, 4to. 5. " Treatise maintain** 
iiig the doctrine, liturgy, and discipline of the Church of 
England," The two last written during his imprisonment* 

6. *' Short censure of the book of Will. Prynne, entitled 
f The university of Oxford's plea refuted'," 1648, 4to. 

7. <^ Just vindication of the questioned part of hi^ reading 
had in the Middle Temple hall, Feb. 24, 16^9," London, 
1660, 4to, 8. ^< True narrative of the cause of silencing' 
him, by the archbishop of Canterbury," printed with the 
preceding. See Rusbworth's Collections, p. 990, 9. <^ The 
rights of the Crown of England, as it is established by. 
law," London, 1660, 8vo, written, as most of the others 
were, during his confinement. ^ ^ 

; BAGSHAW (Edwarp), son of the preceding, was born 
at Broughton in Northamptonshire, in 1609, educated at 
Westminster school, and elected* student of Christ*church 
in 1646, where, according to Wood, bis coaduct for some 
time was turbulent and disorderly. Having finished his 
studies, however, he was in 1656 appointed to officiate as 
second master of Westminster- school, and in 1657 was 
(XMifirmed in the office. Behaving improperly to the cele- 
brated Busby, he was, in .1658, turned out of this; place; 
but soon after be became vicar of Ambrosden in Oxford- 
shire, having taken orders fromt; Brownrig, bishop of Exe- 
ter. After the Restoration, • Arthur earl of Anglesey sij)** 

^ Wood's Athene, Vol. II. 

■ ■ ' xa 

-^ I 

S0« B A G S H A Ti^ 

pointed him h\9 chaplaiii^ cm whidi Mr. Bagshaw left 
Ambrosden, in hopes of farther promotion, which, however^ 
he never attained, having written and preached doctrioetf 
against the chtirch and stale, for which he was^ committed 
prisoner, first to the Gatehouse in Westminster, next to 
the Tower, and thence to South Sea castle, Hampshire, in 
1664. After his release be returned to London, and fell 
imder fresh suspicions, and having refused the oaths of al« 
legiance and supremacy, was committed to Newgate, where 
he continued twenty-two weeks* He appears to have beea 
a^n released, as he died at a house in Tothill-street, 
Westminster, Dec. 2S, 1671, and was buried in BunhilU 
fidds cemetery, with an altar monument, and an inscription 
written by the celebrated Dr. Owen, implying that he had 
been persecuted for his adherence to the gospel, and had 
now taken sanctuary ^from the reproaches of pretended 
friends, and the persecutions of professed adversaries.^* 
Baxter's account is less favourable : he records him as an 
anabaptist, fiMi<-monarchy man, and a separatist, a man c^ 
an extraordinary vehement spirit, but he allows thajt he had 
been exasperated by many years '^ hard and grievous im- 
prisonment.'' Wood has a long list of his writings, mostly 
controversial with Baxter, L' Estrange, and others, and pro- 
bably forgotten. AU his biographers, however, allow him 
to have been a man of abilities. * 

' BAGSHAW (Henry), D. D. brother of the above, was 
also born at Broughton in 1632, and edu(fated at Westmin^ 
ster school, and ele<;ted studbnt of Christ-church in 165]> 
of which he was M. A. 1 657. He was chaplain to sir Rich- 
ard Fanshaw, ambassador in Spain and Portugal, and on 
his return was made ehapkdin to archbishop 8tern, who gave 
him the prebend of Southwell and rectory of Castleton in 
Sjrnderick. In 1667, he held the prebend of Bamaby in 
York cathedral, and in 1668, that of Friday Thovp. He 
look the degreeof B.D. 1668, and D.D. 1671. In 1&72 
he was miade chaplain to the lord treasure!* Danby, and 

' rector of St. Botdph's chuvch, Bishopsgate^ London, which 
he ejichanged for Houghton-le-8prine. In 1680 he wad 
installed a prebendary of Durham, and died at Houghton^ 
Dec. 30, 1 709. He was of a totally diflferent character from 
hia brother. He published ^ Diatribse, or discourses upistfi 

1 Wood's Atb. vol. II.— Palmer't Noncoaf. Memorial, yoI. III.*f*ope'» 
life of Bishop Ward; p. 39. 

B A G S H A W. to* 

leleet texts, against Papists and Socinians/' London, 1690, 
ByOy and several single sermons. ' 

. BAQSHAW (William), a nonconformist minister, was 
born at Litton in the parish of Tidsweli, Jan. 17, 1627-S, 
and educated in Coipus Christ! colleg^e, Cambridge ; after 
which he entered into orders, and preached with great ap* 
plause in different parts of Derbyshire. He obtained the 
living of Glessop, which he held till 1662, when he was 
obliged to resign itj because he would not comply with the 
act of uniformity ; and then he preached privately at difier* 
ent places till the Revolution, when a large meeting-house 
was built for him, and he continued pastor of a numerous 
congregation till his death, April 1, 1702. He was the 
author of several small practical treatises, much esteemed 
in that age. Among these is a work, partly of a biographic 
/ckI kind, entitled ^^ De Spiritualibus Pecci, or nptes con* 
cerning the work of God, and some that have been wockeri 
jtogether with God, in the High Peak,'' (of Derbyshire), 
1702. Besides his printed works, he left behind him fifty 
yolumes, on various subjects, some in folio and some in 4to, 
fairly written with his own hand. * 

B AHIER (John), a French Latin poet,, was bom at Cha«» 
tillon in the Lower Maine, and became a priest of the Ora« 
jtory at Paris, in 1659. He had considerable genius, and 
was much addicted to study, so that he soon became one 
«£ the best scholars and best poets of his order. When M* 
Fouquet, superintendant of finances, was arrested, he pub- 
lished a Latin poem, entitled ^^ Fuquetius in vincuhs,'* 
which was much applauded. He published another poem 
at Troy es in 1668, the title of which was, ^^ In tabellas ex- 
cellentissimi pictoris du Wernier, ad nobilem et eximium 
vinim Eustachium Quinot, apud quern iUas yisuntur Trecis^ 
carmen.'* Father Bahier translated this production after- 
wards into French verse, under the title of ** Peinture po« 
etique des tableaux de mignatare de M. Quinot, fiuts par 
Joseph de Werner.? At the time he taught rhetoric at 
Marseilles, in 1670, he delivered and publisdied an oration 
on Henrietta of Elngland, duchess of Orleans, and the same 
year printed a Latin poem of six hundred verses in praise 
of Toossalat Fourbin de Janson, bishop of Marseilles. He 
wrote some other pieces, which were less known ; such was 

> Ath. Ox. vol. IT.— Hutchiosoo's History of Durbam, vol. II. p. 206. 
* Calamy. — Life and Funeral Sermon by J, Ashe, 1704, 12mo. 

»10 . B A H I E R. 

|iis jreptstation, I^owever, that he was chosen secretary of 
the Oratory, an office which he filled with great credit for 
Itbirty years -, his latter days were distinguished by many 
9icts of charity, and it was during his attendance on a dy- 
ing friend that he caught a disorder, which ^proved fatal in 
the month of April 1707. * 

BAHRDT (Chaules Frederick), one of those German 
writers who have of late years disgraced the profession of 
religion and philosophy, was born in 1741, at Leipsic, 
jwherehis father was a clergyman, and educated this son for 
the church, but with so little success that he soon left coU 
lege, and enUsted in the army. Being bought off, how* 
*Yer, he returned to the university, and in 1761 was ad- 
mitted to the degree of M. A. Soon afterwards he became 
^QStechist in his father's church, was a popular preacher, and 
in 1765 published sermons and some controversial writings, 
«rhich evinced that he possessed both learning and genius. 
JFrom his early days he appears to have been of a debauched 
turn, with a propensity to satire which no considerations 
could restrain ; and these two qualities, which he persisted 
in all bis life, laid the foundation of what he termed his 
•snisfortunes, although they were no other than the con*» 
4;empt which, his infamous conduct and impious doctrines 
.have a natural tendency to produce in every well-ordered 
^society. His life became a series of adventures too uu^ 
jnerous for . the plan of this work -, but the principal were 
4:hese. , . - 

Qne of his shameful amours having rendered it necessary 
;fbr him to leave Leipsic, his friends, with some difficulty^ 
-obtained for him a professorship at Erlangen, afterwards at 
.Erfurth, and in 1771 at Giessen. But the boldness of his 
, doctrines, and the malignity of his satirical compositions, 
-of which he was very fond^ would soon have expelled hioi 
-from Giessen, if, just as he was about to be dismissed from 
vhis professorship,, he had not received an invitation to Mars*- 
;chlins in Switzerland, to superintend an academy. To thi^ 

place he went about 1776, and began his new career by 

forming the seminary after the model of an academy which 
'bad before been projected by Basedow, .in the principality 

of Anhalt Dessau, under the name of P/ulaTiihropinum. 
:The plan of this was professedly, to form the young miud 

to the^love of mankind and of virtue, without any aid froo) 

> Moreri. 

B 4: H K D T. Ml 

region, except what he was {|leased to^'Call philosopbical 
religion. But the Swiss were not yet prepared forsog^reat 
a change of system, and after disgusting them.with.doc- 
Jtrines,. the immoral tendency of some of which o^uld ito 
longer be mistaken, he nemoved to .Durkheim,'- a tpiyn.i^ 
the Palatinate, and foraied an association for 3, Fhilafitkro^ 
pinum of his own. A large fund was collected, and he w^ 
enabled to trav.el into Holland and Englaticl to engage pil- 
pils. England is said* to have furnished four. . . r 

On his return he obtained the ca^e of count Leining 
Hartzburgh at Heidesheim; for his Philantkropinum^* stnd in 
1778 it was consecrated by a solemn religious festival. 
Hii conduct here, however, was too tibitoxious both iu 
principle and practice, to permit him. a long coutinuaupe^ 
«nd his shocking treatment of -his wife^ctmtribut^d ta ren- 
der the scheme abortive. His* academy became in debt, 
and be took to flight, but was imprisoned at.Dienheim* Oa 
his release he settled at Halle, as the keeper of. a taveryi 
and billiard table, and lived in open adultery with a woman 
who was his assistant, and for whom he turned his wife and 
daughter out of doors. #. . 

His next design was to direct the operations of a secret 
society called the " German Union for rooting out super*- 
stition and prejudices, and for advanciiig true Christianity.'* 
To forward this project, which was but a branch of the ge- 
neral conspiracy then carrying on by the enemies of reli* 
gion and government, he published a great many booJj:si 
containing principles, fortunately so wild and extravagant as 
to prove in some measure an antidote against the. intended 
mischief. When he had laboured in. tbi^ cause about two 
years, some of the secrets of the Union transpired j bis for* 
mer conduct and his constant imprudence made him sus* 
pected ; his associated friends lodged informations against 
him; his papers were seized, and he himself . was sent to 
prison, first at Halle, and then at Magdeburg. After a 
yeaf's confinement he was released, and would probably 
have concerted some new projects,- had he not been at* 
tacked by a disorder which put an end to hi^ life, April 23, 

His numerous works evince learning and sageqity, much 
critical taste, and considerable powers of discussion, but 
their general tendency is sd hostile to all that the good and 
wise hold sacred, and to all that the well-being of society 
rec[uires to be held sacred, that an enumeration of thorn 

9ie B A R R D T. 

isn&y well be«spar6^9 ^ecpHy ^^ it is irelry luiKke^ jthey 
^will ever be imported ioto thU country, ai^d probably have 
«ireedy sunk into eblivion on the contiaent. Of bk private 
efaaracter enough n^y be seen to iUustiate the principles of 
tucb philosophers, in bis life in Dr. Gleig's supplement t» 
the Encyclopedia Britannica, from which this sketch has 
been extfacted, and in professor Robiusoa's Proofs of ^ 
Conspiracy. If higher proof be wanting, it may be taken. 
from his Gernmi biogr^her SchlichtegroU, or firom his life 
written by himself, which is a wonderful specimen of the 
effi'ontery of acknowledged depravity. ' 

BAIER (John Jambs), a celebrated phpician, born stjL 
Jena in 1677, practised bis art in several towns of Ger- 
cnany ; among others, at Nuremberg, Ratisbon, and Altorf. 
He was professoi^ at this last-mentioned place, and member 
ef the Academy des Curieux de la Nature, in 1720. He 
was chosen president of it in 1730, and died 4it Altorf the 
14th of July 1735, He was author of, 1. <* Thesaurus 
Gemmarum zffabrii sculptarum, coUectus a J. M. ab £ber« 
mayer,** Nuremberg, 1720, folio. 2. ** Horti medici acad. 
Altorf. Historia,'' Altorf, 1727, 4t% 3»^ A great number of 
dissertiltions or theses, on particular plants, in 4to, from 
J710to 1721. ■ 


BAIL (Lewis), a French divine, and subpenitentiary of 
the metropolitan church of Paris, was born at Abbeville, it 
is supposed of English parents. He arrived at bis doctor's 
degree in 1628. In 1651 he published his most celebrated 
work, dedicated to the archbishop of Paris; << De triplici 
examine ordinand. confess* et poenitent." 8vo, which passed 
through many editions in his life-time. He assisted also in 
the publication of some editions of the Councils. In 1666 
he published a work upon the most celebrated preachers 
from the earliest times to the beginning of the seventeenth 
4^entury, a 4to volume, under the title of ^^ Sapientia foris 
prssdicaus,*' in which he nqt only gives a succinct account 
of the lives of the most celebrated preachers, but also points 
out in what they excelled^ and the most remarkable pas<* 
sages in their discourses. Before this he published a trea* 
tise, " De Beneficio Crucis," Paris, 1653, 8vo, in opposi*- 
tion to the sentiments of Jansenius on the subjects of grace 
and predestination. His *^ Pfailosopbie affective" appeared 

1 Encyclop. Brit, ubi supra.*~Dicl. Hist, 
s Moreri. — Hftller.^->SBxii Onoinastiam. 

BAIL, ftlJ 

fiiPar^in 1659» ISmo. It coiitaifis mtny snifiU devotional 
l^ecet, aiid a corious coUectioii qf i^ Pieus^s repaitie$/* or 
pious repartees, selected from various authors, and scrnie 
inom }m own expmence. The tioie of hia death is not 
apeoified in Moreri,. os any of the -aatborities from which 
t)us article is taken. ' 

.: BAILEY (Nathan), the author of a well-known dictio* 
Jiary of the English language, resided principiiUy at Step-" 
ney, and there probably died, June 27, 1742, leaving n^ 
joiemoriala of hi3 personal history or character. In reli« 
gion he is said to have been a Sabbatarian. His life, how« 
tesrer, appears to have been spent in useful pursuits. His 
£fliglish dictionary, printed first in the early part of the laat 
century, in 8vo (iMlit. 4ih, 1728), was long the only one in 
use, and still continues a favourite with^ a' certain class of 
readers. ' It was afterwards enlarged into 2 vols, dvo, and 
Wax^ years after printed in folio, with, additions in the 
mathematical part by G. Gordon, in the botanical by |^hi). 
Miller, aud in. the etymological by T. Lidiard, the whole 
revised by Pr. Joseph Nieol Scott, a physician. Of this 
there was. an improved f^dition in 1759, abput which tinuft 
tUe fifteenth .edition of the 8vo was published. The Svo, 
about twenty^five years ago, was revised by Dr. Harwood. 
Bailey also published a '^ Dictionarium domesticum, or a 
household dictionary,'' 1736^ << The Antiquities of London 
and Westminster," 24mo9 1726, an useful abridgment; 
^^ An inU*oduction to the English Tongue^ two parts;'' and 
j»chool editions of Ovid's Metamorphosis, Ovid's Epistles, 
Justin^ Erasmus's Dialogues, Phsedrus's Fables, and a book 
of Exercises, which are all still in use. ^ 

. BAILLET (Adrian), an eminent French critic, was 
born at NeuviUe near Beauvais in Picardy, June 13, 1649. 
His fether, who vras poor, and unable to give him a learned 
education, seat him to a small school in the neighbourhood,^ 
wjiere he soon learned all that was taught there, and desir^- 
Otts of xRioe, went frequently to a nei^bouring convent, 
where, by his. assiduities in performing little menial of- 
fices, he ingratiated himself with them, ahd by their inte- 
rest was presented to the bishop of ^Beauvais. The bisbop 
fdaeed him in the eoUege or seminary of that name, viiiere 

> Morart.-^I>kt Hiit 

** from various sources, catalogues, Icc-^eRt. Mag. vol. XII. p.SS'/, &e» , 

5U B A ^ L Lt T. 

-he studied thie classics with <«nwearied assiduity, borrowing 
books from bis fciend^^ and it is even said be took money 
privately from his father, in order to buy books. In the 
course of his reading, which was accurate and even critic- 
•cal, he formed, about the age of seventeen, a common- 
place book of extracts, which he called his '^ Juvenilia^** 
in two large volumes, very conducive to his own improve- 
ment, and afterwards to that of M. de Lamoignon, his pa- 
iron^s son> He then studied philosophy, but with less relisb> 
his predilection being in favour of history, Chronology, and 
geography; yet in defending his philosophical theses, he 
always proved his capacity to be fully equal to bis subject!; 
In 1 670 he ^ent to one of those higher seminaries, for- 
merly established by the Fi'eifch bishops for the study of 
divinity, which he pursued with his usual ardour and suc- 
cess, although here his early taste discovered itself, in his 
applying with' most eagerness to the fathers and councils, 
^s more -nearly connected with ecclesiastical history. So 
intent was he on researches of this kind, that he fancied 
himself solely qualified for a life of studious retirement, and 
had a design of going, along with his brother Stephen, to 
xhe abbey La Trappe, but this was prevented by the bishop 
of Beauvais bestowing upon hfan, in 1672, the appointment 
of teacher of the fifth form in the college, from which, 
in 1674, he was promoted to the fourth. This produced 
him about sixty pounds a-year, with part of which be as- 
sisted his poor relations, and laid out the rest in books, and 
had made a very good collection when he left the college. 
Among other employments at his leisure hours he compiled 
two volumes of notices of authors who had disguised their 
names, of which the preface only has been publishecL 

In 1676, he received holy orders, and passed his exa- 
.minations with high approbation. Monnoye, one of his 
biographers, mentions a circumstance very ereditable to his 
superiors, that, although tbey were satisfied with hi^ learn^ 
ing, they would not have admitted him into orders, if they 
bad not discovered that he was.iiiiperior to die vanity which 
sotnetimes accompanies a reputation for learning. The 
bishop of Beauvais now gave him. the vicaxage of Lardieres, 
w^hich netted only 30/. yearly, yet with this.f>ittance, Bail- 
Jet, who maintained a brother, and a servant,, contrived tp 
indulge his humanity to the poor, and his passion for books^ 
to purchase which he used to go once a year to Paris. His 
domestic cstablisbineut was upon the most temperate scaleji 

3 AT LL ET. 31S 

fit) drinU but water, and no meat, l>at bro\in bread, and 
sometimeft a little bacon, and a fev«r herbs ftom his garden 
boiled in water with salt, and whitened with a little milk; 
The cares of hitf^parish, however, so mach interru{>ted his 
favourite studies that he petitioned, and obtained another 
living, the only duties of which were singing at churchy 
and explaining the catechism. A higher and more grateful 
promotion now awaited him, as in 1680, he was made 
librarian to M. Lamoignon, not the first president of tb^ 
parliament, as Niceron says^ for he was then dead, but his 
«on, who at that time was advocate-geueraL To this place 
he was recommended by M. Hermant, a doctor of the Sor-p 
bonne, who told Lamoignon that Baillet was the proper 
person for him, if he could excuse his awkwardness. La«- 
moignon answered that be wanted a man of learning, and 
did not regard his outward appearance. To Baillet suck 
an appointment was so gratifying that for some time he 
'Could scarcely believe M. Hermant to be serious« Whea 
he found it confirmed, however, he entered upon his new 
office with alacrity, and one of his first employments was 
to draw up an index of the library, which extended to 
-thirty «five folio volumes, under two divisions, subjects and 
author^s names. The Latin preface to the index of sub- 
jects, when published, was severely, but not very justly cen- 
sured by M. Menage, as to its style. After this, he com*- 
pleted tour volumes of his celebrated work *^ Jugemens des 
Savans,*' and gave them to the bookseller with no other 
reserve than that of a few copies for presents. The suc- 
cess of the work was very great, and the bookseller 
urged him to finish the five volumes that were to follow^ 
He did not, however, accomplish the whole of his design 
which was to consist of six parts. I. In the first he was to 
treat of those printers, who had distinguished themselves 
by their learning, ability, accuracy, and fidelity. Of 
critics, that is, of ^those who acquaint us with authors, and 
their books, and in general tb^e, who give an account 
of the state of literature^ and of all that belongs to the re- 
public of lettefs. Of philologists, and all those who treat 
of polite literature. Of grammarians and translators of all 
kinds, n. Poets, ancient and modern ^ writers of ro- 
mances and tales in. prose ; rhetoricians, orators, and writers 
of letters, either in Latin, or in any of the modern lan- 
guages. III. Historians, geographers, and chronologists 
of all sorts. IV. Philosophers, physicians, and mathema- 

S16 B A I L L £ T. 

ticians. V. Authors upon the civii and caiidn law, po-* 
litics, and ethics. VI. Writers qn divinity; particularly 
the fathers, school-divinity ; heretics^ &c. He published^ 
howfever, only the 6rst of these divisionsfaod ludf of tint 
second, under tlie title of '^ Jugenaens des Savans sur les 
priocipaux ouvrages des Auteurs,^' Paris, 1685, 12mo. It 
Is, in fact, a collection ef the opinions of others, with seU 
dom those of the author, yet it attracted the attention of 
the literary world, and excited the hostility of some critics, 
particularly M. Menage, to whom^ indeed, Baillet had 
given a previous provocation, by treating him rather dis« 
respectfully. The first attack was by father Commire, in 
a ^ort poem entitled '^ Asious in Pamasso,^' the Ass on 
Parnassus, followed afterwards by ^< Asinus ad Lyram,'* 
and ^' Asinus Judex,'^ all in defence of Menage and the 
poets ; and an anonymous poet wrote ^' Asinus Pictor.'-^- 
It does not appear, however, that these injured the sale of 
the work ; and in 1 686, the five, other volumes, upon the 
poets, were published, with a preface, in iitdiich the author 
vindicates himself with ability. M. Menage now published 
his ^^ Anti-Baillet,'' in which he endeavoured to point oat 
Baiilet's errors ; and another author attacked him in << Re*» 
flexions. sur le Jugemens des Savans, envoy6ez a Pauteur 
par un Academicien,'' 1691, with Hague on the title, but 
really in FraiK^e, and, according to Niceron^ written by 
father Le Tellier, a Jesuit, all of which order resented 
Baillet^s partiality to the gentlemen of Port Royal. The 
editor of the Amsterdam edition of the '^ Jugemens,'' at* 
tributes this letter to another Jesuit, a young man not 
Bamed. Of these censures some are undoubtedly just, but 
others the cavils of caprice and hypercriticism. 

In I6889 Baillet published his very amusing work, ^' Les 
Enfans devenus c^I^bres par leurs Etudes et par leurs 
Merits," Paris, 2 vols. 12ma This collection of examples 
of young geniuses was thought well calculated to excite 
.emulation, and soon becaxne a very popular book, the pro-^ 
fessors of the universities, and other teachers of youth, 
strongly recommending it. His next work was of a &m^ 
gular cast. Conceiving that when Menage wrote his '^ An- 
ti-Baillet^' he meant a personal, as well as a critical attack,' 
hfi began to foim a catalogue of all works published miii 
similar titles', beginning with the Anti'^Cato of Cssar, tW 
most ancient of the Antics, and concluding with the Anti-^ 
Baillet Ti^is was published in IA%% . 5f Des Saty-rea fe»- 

B A I L L E T. Sir 

soiiellet^ Triit^ historique et critique de cetles, qui por« 
tent le titre d'Anti/* Paris, 2 vols. 12ino. The industrious 
MarciuLod, however, has given a very- long catalogue ot 
Anti's omitted by Baillet, in his vol. I. under the articte 
AjXTi^GAAASsn, Baillet afterwards prepared a more useful 
work, for which he had made copious collections, with a 
view to discover the names of those authors who have use<l 
fictitious ones. In 1678 he had written in Latin '^Eien-^ 
chus Apocalypticus Scriptorum Cryptonymorum/* bu^ of 
this he pi:d>lished only a preliminary treatise in Fr^ncb^ 
^^ Auteurs degnisez sous des noms Strangers, &c tome I* 
contenant le traits preliminaim, sur le changement et l^ 
supposition des noms parmi les Auteurs,*^ Paris, 1620, 12ma 
His design resembled that of Placcius in his treatise *^ De 
Anonyoiis et Pseudonymis," and they had some commu** 
nieation together on the subject Niceron attributes BaiU 
Ws suppression of tbid wark to the fear of giving offence^ 
which nxight surely hav0 been avoided if he had left con^* 
temporary writings to some future editor. In 1691^ ha 
wrote the <^ Life of Des Cartes,^' in 2 vols. 4to, which was 
criticised in ^^ Reflexions d' un Academicien sur la Vie de 
M. des Cartes, envoy^es k un de ses amis en HoUande,^^ 
ascribed, by Le Long, to Gailois, and by Marcband, to 
Le Tetlier. The chid^ fault, is jdiat very common one, in 
dingle lives, of introducing matters very slightly, if at all, 
connected with the history of the principal object, and{rot|i 
much that is in this work, Des Cartes might be supposed 
a warlike general, or a controversial divine. It succeeded 
so well,^ however, that a second edition was prevented only 
by bis death ; but before that event he abridged it in owe 
volume 12mo, and al^o wrote the life of Richer, doctor of 
the Sorbonne, which was not printed until several years 
after his death, at Liege, 1714, l2mo. 
■■ His next publication ranks him among the pseudonymous 
authors, a ^^ History of Holland," from the peace in 1609 
to that of Nimeguen in 1679, under the name of BaJtbasai* 
4- Hezenail de ia Neuville, the anagram of Baillet de !» 
Neuviiie en Heos, 4 vols. t2mo. Next year he published 
^^ De la Devotion a la Sainte Yierge, et da Cuke qui lui e^ 
d%^* l£mo, a piece of catholic sfiperstit4oi>, which wa^ at<« 
tacked in two pamphlets* He bad formed many more use« 
6il designs, as aa uoiveorsal eccksiasiical dictionary, em-* 
braicingevery subject of doctrine, morality, and discipline; 
but this and all his other schemes were inten:up.ted by hi* 

Sl» B A I LL ET: 

death/ Jdn. 21, 1706. He was much regretted as an mde«-i 
fatigable scholar, and a valuable contributor to Jiteniry^ 
history. His extreme temperance and close application to. 
study injured his health, and. brought on all those miseries. 
q{ a sedentary life, which exhausted his constitution, when 
Qnly in his fifty-sixth year. In Lamoignon's family, he^ 
vas treated with the tenderness and respect due to his la«* 
borious services and blameless character. . His last mo« 
9ients were marked by piety and fortitude, and his last 
breath expressed a blessing on his benefactors. His ^^ Juge^^^ 
mens des Savans," Mr. Dibdin justly observes, is one of 
those works with which no man fond of typographical 
and bibliographical pursuits, can dispeiMe. In 1722, a 
n^w editioii of it in 7 vols. 4to, was published by M. de la 
Monnoye, including the " Anti-Baillet ;" and a new edi-. 
tion at Amsterdam, 1725, in 16 or sometimes 8 vols. 12mo, 
by far the best. These editions, are improved by Mon* 
ttoye's useful notes, a life of Baiilet, some of the pamphlets 
written against him, and other documents of importance. 
. Besides these, Baiilet published, I. " De la conduitede* 
Ames," 1695, 12mo, under the fictitious name of Daret de 
Ja Villeneuve. 2. " Discours sur la viedes Saints," Paris, 

1700, 8^'o, reprinted before the ** Vies des Saints," Paris, 

1701, 3 vols. fol. and 1704, 8vo. 3. " Histoire.des F^tea 
Mobiles : Les vies des Saints de T Ancien Testament, &c."* 
Faris, 1703, fol. 4. " Les maximes de St. Etienne de 
Grammonte," Paris, 1704, 12mo, a translation from the 
Latin. 5. ^^ La vie de Godfr^ Hermaiit," a posthumous 
work, Amst. 1717, >12mo. 6. ** Histoire des dcm6l6s du 
Pape Boniface VIII. avec Philippe le Bel, roy de France," 
^Iso posthumous, Paris, 1718, 12mo.^ 

de), known also by the name of La RIVIERE, who floun 
risbed in the latter part of the sixteenth century, was a 
native of Falaise in Noi'mandy, and physician in ordinary 
10 Henry IV. He acquired considerable reputation i'oe 
learning, but^ as he practised on the principles of Para-i 
ceisus, he was involved in disputes with his brethreu, and 
frequently obliged to vindicate his method. Besides medi- 
cine, he was well versed in philosophy and the beUes lettres^ 
and was an excellent naturalist. He died at Pads, .Nov. 5, 
1605. When feeling the approaches of death, he sent 

1 Gen, Diet. — Moreti.— Niceron.-^Marchand j see Index,-— Dibdin's Bihli<>-» 
OHinia.r^SiMcii Opoina«tieon. *- ' 

B AI Ll-J. s-ia* 

i^t all his 8ei*vaQtS| and distlributed his inoney and pro* 
perty among; them> on condition that they ioioiedi- 
ately left the- house, which was so punctually complied 
with, that when the physicians came on their next visit, 
tbey found the doors opeoy and their patient by himself, 
with no property left but the bed he lay upon. When the 
physicians remarked this circumstance to him, he answer* 
ed that he must now go likewise, '^ as his baggage was sent 
off before him," and immediately expired. Pierre de 
TEtoile, however, in his journal of Henry IV. represents 
him as a true penitent, and compares him to theithief on 
Hhe cross. • His works are: ^^ Demosterion, siv6 CCC 
Aphorismi, continentes summam doctrinas Pars&celsae,^' 
Paris, 1578, 8vo. ^^ Responsio ad questiones propositas a 
medicis Parisiensibus,'' Paris, 1579, Svo. **Trait6dela 
Peste," 1580. *<Traite de Tantiquite et singularity de la 
grande Bretagne Armorique," Rennes, 15817, 4to. * . 

BAILLIE (Robert), an eminent Presbyterian divine 
of the seventeenth century, was born at Glasgow in the 
year 1599.. His father, Mr. Thomas Baillie, was a citizen 
of that place, and son to Baillie of Jerviston. Our Ro- 
bert Baillie was educated in the university of his native 
city; where, having taken his degrees in arts, he turned 
bis thoughts to the study of divinity ; and, receiving orders 
from archbishop Law, he was chosen regent of philosophy 
at Glasgow^ While h^ was in this stat\on« he had, for 
some years, the care of the education of Lord Montgo- 
mery, who, at length, carried him with him to Kilwinning ; 
to which church he was presented by the earl of Eglin- 
toun. Here he lived in the strictest friendship with that 
noble family, and the people connected with it; as he did 
also with his ordinary the archbishop of Glasgow, with 
whom he kept up an epistolary correspondence. In 1633, 
he declined, from modesty, the offer of a church in Edin- 
burgh. Being requested in 1637, by his frtend th6 arch- 
. bishop, to preach a sermon before the assembly at Edin^ 
burgh, in recommendation of the canon and service book, 
be refused to do it ; and wrote a handsome letter to the 
archbishop, assigning the reasons of his refusal. In 163S 
he was phosen by the presbytery of Irvine, a member of 
thefainpus a;ssembly at Glasgpw, which was a prelude to the 
civil war* Tl^ough Mr. Baillie is said to have behaved ia 

1 Wvjr'eri.— Manjet. filbU Script; Med. 


320 B A I L L I £. 

this assembly with great moderatioin, it Is etidettt that \t^ 
Vas by no means deficient in his eeal against pi^elacy and 
Arminianism. In 1640 he was sent by the coren&nting 
lords to London^ to draw up an accusation against arch- 
bishop Laud, for his obtrusions on the chilrch of Scotlami* 
While be was in England, he wrote the presbytery a re- 
gular account of public affairs, with a journal of the trial 
of the earl of Strafford. Not long after, on bis Yetum, hie 
Was appointed joint professor of divinity with Mr. David 
Dickson, in the university of Glasgow, and his reputation 
was become so great, that he had before this received 
invitations from the other three universities^ all of which 
he refused. He contitlued in his professorship till the 
Restoration ; but his discharge of die duties of it was in^ 
terrupted fot a considerable time, by his residence inf 
England : for, in 1643, he #as chosen one of thecommis«» 
sioners of the church of Scotland to the assembly of divined 
at Westminster. Though he never spoke in the debates 
of the assembly, be appears to have beeii an useful tnem- 
Ifter, and entirely concurred in the principles and views of 
its leaders. Mr. Baillie returned again to his own country 
in the latter end of 1646. When, after the execution of 
Charles I. Charles II. was proclaimed in Scotland, otfr pro- 
fe5jSK)r was one of the divines appointed by the general assem- 
. biy to wait on the king at the Hague; upon whieh occasion, 
March 27, 1649, he made a speech in the royal presence, 
expressing in the strongest terms his abhorrence of the 
fiiurder of the late kjng ; atid, in bis sentiments upon this 
event, it appears that thet Presbyterian divines of that 
period, both at home and abroad^ almost universally 
agreed. Ai^er the restoration of Charles ![. Mr. Baillie, 
Jan. 23, 1661, by the interest of the earl of Laaderdale, 
with whom he was a great favourite, was nkade principal 
of the university of GIestow, upon the removal of Mr. 
Patrick Gillespie, who had been patronised by CromivelL 
It is said by several writers, that Mr. Baillie had th^ offer 
of a bishopric, which he absolutely refused. Though he 
was very loyal, and most sincerely rejoiced in hismaje^ty^s 
restoration, he began, a little before his death, to be ex-» 
tremely anxious for the fate of Presbytery. His kealth 
failed him in the spring of 1662. During his illness hcS 
Was- visited by the n^w-made arebbishop of Glasgow^ td 
whom he is said to have addressed himself in the following 
words : <( Mr. Aadrews (I will not caU you my lord), king 

B A I L L 1 E; S21 

Charles would have made me one of these lords : but I do 
not find in the New Testament, that Christ has any lords 
in his house/' Notwithstanding this common-place ob- 
jection to the hierarchy, he treated the archbishop very 
courteously. Mn Baillie died in July 1 662, being 63 years 
•f age. By his first wife^who was Lilias Fleming, of the 
family of Cardarroch, in the parish of Cadder, near Glas- 
gow, he had many children, five of whom survived him, 
viz, one son, and four daughters. The posterity of his 
souj Mr. Henry Baillie, who was a preacher, but never 
accepted of any charge, still inherit the estate of Carubrae, 
in the county of Lanerk, an ancient seat of the Baillies. 
Mr. Baillie's character has been drawn to great advantage, 
not only by Mr. Woodrow, but by an historian of the op- 
posite party. His works, which wer^ very learned, and 
acquired him reputation in his own time, are : 1. '^ Opus 
Historicum et Chronologicum,^' Amsterdam, 1668, fol. 
2. << A Defence of the Reformation of the Church of Scot- 
land, against Mr. Maxwell, bishop of Ross.'' 3. <^ A Pa- 
rallel betwixt the Scottish Service-Book and the Romish 
Missal, Breviary,'' &c. 4. <^ The Canterburian Self-Con* 
viction." 5. " Queries anent the Service-Book." 6. "An- 
tidote agi^nst Arminianism." 7. ^^ A treatise on Scottish 
Episcopacy." 8. " Laudensium." 9. " Dissuasive against 
the Errors of the Times, with a Supplement." 10. " A 
Reply to the Modest Enquirer," with some other tracts, 
and several sermons upon public occasions; but his " Opus 
Historicum et Chronologicum," was his capital produc- 
tion. The rest of his writings, being chiefly on controversial 
and temporary subjects, can, at present, be of little or no 
value. But his meniory is perhaps yet more preserved by a 
veiy recent publication, " Letters and Journals, carefully 
transcribed by Robert Aiken : containing an impartial ac<* 
count of public transactions, civil, ecclesiastical, and mili- 
tary, both in England and Scotland, from 1637 to 1662 ; a 
period, perhaps, the most remarkable that is to be met 
with in the British History. With an Account of the 
Author's life, prefixed ; and a Glossary annexed," Edin- 
burgh, 1775, 2 vols. 8vo. The chief correspondents of Mr* 
BaiUie were, Mr. William Spang, minister first to the 
Scotch Staple at Campvere, and afterwards to the English 
Congregation in Middleburgh in Zealand, who was his 
cousin-german ; Mr. David Dickson, professor of Divinity^ 
first at Glasgow, then at Edinburgh \ and Messrs^ Robert 

Vol. in. y 

322 B 4l I L L I £• 

Ramsay and George Young, who were ministers in Glas- 
gow. There are, in this collection, letters to several 
other persons: but Mr. Spang was the gentleman with 
whom Mr. Baillie principally corresponded. The journals 
contain a history of the general assembly at Glasgovr, 
in 1638; an account of the earl of Strafford" s trial ; the 
transactions of the general assembly and parliament, in 
1641 ; and the proceedings of the general assembly, in 1643.* 

BAILLOU (William), or BALLONIUS, an eminent 
French physician and writer, was born about 1538, of a 
considerable family in Perche, and studied at Paris, where 
he received his doctor's degree, in 1570, and during the 
course of his licentiate, was so able and victorious in the 
disputations, as to be named the Scourge of Bachelors. 
He was dean of the faculty in 1580, and his high reputa- 
tion influenced Henry the Great to choose him first phy- 
sician for his son, the dauphin, in 1601. . But he preferred 
the sweets of domestic life to the honours of the court, 
and employed such leisure as his practice allowed, in 
writing several treatises on medical subjects, and was not 
more distinguished for knowledge in his profession, than 
for true piety and extensive charity. He died in 1616* 
His works were published after his death : 1. " Consili- 
orum Medicinalium lib. 11.'^ Paris, 1635, 4to, edited by 
bis nephew Thevart. 2. ^* Consiliorum Med. lib. tertius,"' 
ibid. 1649, 4to. 3. ^' Epidemiorum et Ephemeridum lib. 
11." ibid. 1640, 4to, and in 1734, dedicated to sir Hans 
Sloane. 4. ** Adversaria Medicinalia," 4to, ibid, or, ac- 
cordincr to Haller, the same as '' Paradicrimata et historian 
morborum ob raritatem observatione dignissima;, ibid. 
1643, 4to. 5. *^ Definitionum Medicarum liber," ibid. 
1639, 4to. 6. " Commentarius in libellum Theophrasti 
de Vertigine," ibid. 1640, 4to. 7. '* De Convulsionibu& 
libellus,'* ibid. 1640, 4to. 8. *' De Virginum et Mulie- 
rium morbis," ibid. 164S, 4ta 9. " Opuscula Medica,^* 
ibid. 1643, 4to. 10. ** Liber de Rheumatismo et Pleu- 
ritide dorsali," ibid. 1642, 4to. Of all these, and other 
works by him, a complete edition was published at Geneva^ 
1762, 4 vols. 4to.* 

BAILLY (John Sylvanus), jm eminent French astro- 
nomer, was born in Paris, Sept. 25, 1736. His father 

1 Biog. Brit<^Life prefixed to hit Journals. — ^Ty tier's life of lord Kmmei. 
^ Manget.-^Haller.— Moreri;— Life by Thevart, in his werks» 

B A I L L Y, 323 

was the f<)ttrth in succession of his family who followed the 
profession of » painter ; and young Bailly was also destined 
to painting, and bad already made some progress in the art^ 
when he showed a decided inclination for the study of the 
belles-lettres^ Poetry was the first object that engaged his 
attention : he even produced some tragedies which were 
praised by Lanoue, not however without advising hid 
young friend to attend rather to science ; and LacaiHe es« 
sentially contributed to direct his attention to the study 
of Natural Philosophy ; accordingly, in the year 1 762, he 
presented to the academy '^ Observations on the Moon,'* 
which Lacaille had made him draw up with ail the par- 
ticularity of detail required by the new state of astronomy, 
and which were quoted . by him with approbation, in th6 
sixth volume of the Ephemerides. 

He calculated the orbit of the comet of 1759, the period 
of whose, return had occupied the attention of astronomers^ 
and on the 29th of January 1763, he was received into the 
Academy of Sciences. In the same year he published a 
large and useful work, the reduction of the observations 
whiph Lacaille had made in 1760 and 1761, on 515 zo-^ 
diacal stars, 132 of which are not to be found in preceding 
catalogues : the remainder are contained in Meyer^s Zo-« 
diac, but their positions are laid down with much greater 
exactness by Lacaille. Bailly thus rendered an important 
service to astronomy by editing a work, which, on account 
of the death of its author, would have remained useless, if 
it had not been for the zeal of his pupil. 

Bailly began about this period also to turn his attention 
to the theory of the satellites of Jupiter, the difficulty 
and importance of which had already attracted the notice 
of the academy, who proposed it as a prize subject in 
April 1764. Le Grange, who now stood first among the 
geometricians of Europe, was one of the candidates for the 
prize. The theory of Clairaut.was employed by Bailly in? 
calculating the same perturbations : the united efforts of 
these two philosophers for the first time made us acquainted 
with the singular derangements of these little planets, by 
constructing new tables of them, for all former attempts 
had been merely empirical. 

In J 766 he published an important treatise, with the 
modesis title of ^^ Essai sur la th^orie des Satellites de 
Jupiter," together with tables of their movemeitts, and 
tte history of this branch of astronomy, in 53 pages 4ta. 

Y 2 

32* B A I L L T. 

The most ingenious memoir which he published, is that 
for 1771 on the light of the satelUtes. On this occasion 
he availed himself of an excellent idea of Fouchy, of co- 
vering the end of a telescope with thin pieces of bladder 
till the satellite could be no longer seen, in order by this 
.means to measure the degree of its light. He also ob- 
served and calculated the changes produced by their 
proximity to Jupiter, and their altitude above the horizon ; 
he ascertained their diameters, the duration of their se* 
veral immersions, and invented a method of composing 
the observations made with different telescopes, by which 
he introduced a degree of perfection till that time un« 
known in this part of astronomy. The intervals of his 
astronomical labours were agreeably occupied by general 
literature. In 1767 he was elected member of the aca- 
demie Frangoise, for his eloge of Charles V. a work which 
obtained distinguished praise from the academy, though 
the prize was adjudged to La Harpe. 
>. In 1768 he sent to the academy of Rouen the eloge of 
Corneille, which gained the accessit. His eloge of Leib- 
nitz, sent to the academy of Berlin, obtained the prize. 
In 1769 his eloge of Moliere gained the accessit at the 
academie Frangoise ; the prize was gained by Chamfort. 
His abilities in this style of writing were still further ren- 
dered conspicuous by the eloges of Cook, Lacaille, and 
Gresset i so much so, that BufFon and many other mem* 
bers of the Academie des Sciences wished to obtain him 
the appointment of secretary to that distinguished society; 
and though at the election in 1771, Condorcet had the 
majority of votes, yet the nobility of his birth and the 
exertions of d'Alembert probably contributed very essen- 
tially to secure him the preference. Bailly was at length 
recompensed by the Academie Fran^oise, by being ap- 
pointed on February 26 tb, 1784, the successor of Tres- 
san. , 

In 1775, the first volume of his great work, " L^Histoire 
de TAstronomie,*' made its appearance : In this his taste 
for literature and his scientific skill most happily united 
to produce a work at once agreeable and important, abound- 
ing with learned dissertations, luminous ideas, and bril- 
liant descriptions, adapted to advance the knowledge and 
the love of astronomy, and probably of more advantage to 
that science in procuring it proselytes, than profound 
treatises^ so rarely sought for^ and still more rarely under- 

B A I L L Y. . 32S 

stood* L'Histoire ^e PAstronomie, though not a treatise 
on this science^ is so elementary, so simple^ and so agree- 
able, as in a great measure to conceal its difficulties, and 
display to the greatest advantage its attractions and 

Bailly presented his book to Voltaire, who, in his letter 
of thanks, .proposed a few objections : this introduced a 
correspondence, from which resulted two interesting vo- 
lumes ; his ^^ Lettre sur Torigine des Sciences,*' and his 
^* Lettre sur I'Atlantide de Platon,*' and on the antient his- 
tory of Asia, published in 1777 and 1779. 

In 1781 and 1782 he composed a great work on the 
^^ Origin of Fables and Ancient Religions,*' the continua- 
tion of which was published in 1800, abounding with 
erudition and information. He did not entirely adopt the 
allegorical system of the ancient traditions which citizen 
Dupuis has so victoriously established in the Journal des 
Savans of 1779 and 1780, and in his other works. 

His opinions on the ancient state of Asia, were very 
similar to those of BufFon, which are to be found in that 
part of his work which treats of the cooling of the earth, 
a circumstance which caused an intimate. acquaintance be- 
tween them, till the election of Maury to the Academie 
Frangoise caused an irrevocable disagreement. Bailly not 
only denied his vote to a noan for whom he had no esteem,- 
but even refused to dbsent himself from the academy on 
the day of election ; and from this time no further con- 
nexion subsisted between these celebrated men, one of 
whom wished to be the master, and the other chose to be 

Bailly had been engaged by his history of astronomy, 
in-very deep historical researches, which the Academie des 
Inscriptions and Belles Lettres expressed their approbation 
of, by electing him a member in 1785. Thus he shared 
with Fontenelle the singular hdnoivr of being at the sam*e 
time a member of the three great academies, and cer- 
tainly surpassed him in bis acquaintance with ancient 

His " History of India and Oriental Astronomy,'* which, 
appeared in 1787, well justified the choice of the academy,^ 
for it demanded a multitude of researches whicli no one 
was capable of making to an equal extent witl^ himself, 
since they required not only great erudition, but a vas| 

ass B A I L L Y. 

variety of calculation*,' to which men of letters are seldom 

The animal magnetism of Mesmer, as practised by 
Sesion in 1784, occasioned a most extraordinary and 
unaccountable agitation at Paris. In order to satisfy the 
curiosity of the public on this subject, a number of phy- 
sicians were nominated by the king, and of natural philo- 
sophers by the academy : Bailly was one of the commis-. 
fiioners, and was chosen by the rest to draw up their 
report It Qccupied 108 pages in octavo, and engaged 
his principal attention for a considerable time, fot it wa«^ 
an important fact in the history of the errors of the human 
minJ, ajid a most extraordinary instance of the power of 

The academy having nominated in 1786, commissibnerff 
to examine a plan by Poyet, architect, for a new Hotel 
Pieu, Bailly drew up their report in 250 pages octavo j 
which is a valuable instance both of the professional 
knowledge and the humanity of the author. He proposed 
the erection of ftmr different hospitals ; and Breteuil, who 
was then minister^ and had great reliance on. Bailly, bad 
finally resolved on executing his plan, when the revoiu-' 
tion of 1789 drove him from the ministry. 

On April the 2eth^ 1789, the electors of Paris as- 
sembled for the nomination of deputies for the states- 
general, appoimed Bailly foe their secretary. There were 
assembled, on this important occasion, qoany a«ademicia|is, 
but none, except Bailly ^ wa& a. member of all dke acade- 
xnie»» His talent fox writing^ waa well known ; the inte- 
resting reports that he had made on the subject of the 
hospitals and ammal magnetism, had powerfUUy excited 
the attention of the puhUc ; his character stood equally 
high for calmness of temper and strictness of morals, so 
that no one possessed so many claims as himself to that 
important <Mcq. The choice of the public was too flat^ 
tering to be resisted ; and from that time he was lost for 
ever to astronomy t , The motives. that occasioned his first 
appointment soon advanced him tq the dignity of deputy 
and president oiF the tiers etat, which assembled on the 
5th of May at Versailles. The several deputies from the 
communci^ having constituted themselves on the 17th of 
June, a national assembly, Bailly was still continued pre- 
sident, and distinguished himself considerably. He it was, 
who, on the 20th of the same month, conducted the as- 

BAIL L y. 321 

uembly' t'6 the tennis-court, and h6 stiU continued to pre- 
fiidd, when, on the 27th, the two other orders united 
themselves to the tiers-etat. He resigned Ms office ofi 
July 22d, and the duke of Orleans was appointed his suc- 

When the king arrived at Paris, on the 25th of July, 
after the capture of the Bastiie, Bailly wis chbsieli b'y 
public acclamation, chief magistrate of the city, under 
the name of Mayor of Paris. It is not our intentioii' to 
follow him through the whole of his pblitical career; hik 
idtilogisty however, affirms that in his situation as depiity, 
l^resident,' and niayor, he exhibited the wi'sdom, the fiirm- 
ness, and the moderation of a' philosopher. He is accused 
f}y some of having endeavoured to debase the royal dig- 
nity, and by others of having wished unreasonably to exalt 
it. Th6 validity of these contradictory charges can only 
be ascertained by some future generation. He mightf 
possibly be mistaken, bvit the rectitude of his conddct a^ 
a magistrate, his ardent desire td promote the welfare of 
his country, and his entire devotedness of his time, his 
life, his favourite studies, and his happiness, to this grdat 
idbject, are unquestionable. The public bodies to wtiictl' 
Bailly belonged, bore distinguished evidence to hU worth ; ' 
his bust was placed in the municipality, and in the academy 
of sciences, where that of any of its living members had| 
pever been deposited. His hbnoUts now rose to theii: full 
height. Placed between the people and the king, though' 
responsible to both, he protected them from each other ;' 
\iis influence was of infinite service to them, and he main- 
tained the e(]^uilibrtum of a philosopher, amid the solicita- 
jtioQs q{ both parties.. 

Tl^e most disagreeable period of his administration, atid^ 
the most fatal in its effects, was the 17th of Jiiiy, 1792, 
when ttie party in opposition to the iiionarclfical constitu- 
tion excited coqcmiotions in the people, which' h^ wa^' 
obliged tQ quell, by order of the national assembljT. H6' 
was forced to repair Jo |he Champ de Mars, where^ not- 
withstanding his precaution, some muskets were discharged 
on the crowd. For this act, two years after^ his* head was' 
demaiided^ when the only object of the reigning tyrant wa^* 
to flatter the people, %q Jiidijlge ijs passions,- and eveti^ 
exceed its resentments. ^ 

Bailly was mayor of Paris from July 15, 1789, to No- 
vember 16th, 1791, that is, two years and a half. At the 

3fi§ B A I L L Y. 

conclusion of this period he was induced to resign hi^ si- 
tnation on account of the opposition raised by die demo- 
cratic party who wished to substitute Petion,^ the declining 
state of his health not allowing him to engage in active 
measures to secure his continuance in office. He spent 
the year 1792 and part of 1793 in travelling, and writing 
an account of those extraordinary events which he had 
witnessed, and in which he had been a distinguished 
actor. These memoirs, which are not carried lower than 
October 2, 1789, were published in 1S04. — The edition 
in two volumes published in 1790 by Debure, of his. 
speeches and memoirs, contains only those that were 
written before Sept. 1789. rWhen the remainder of them 
shall be collected, they will add much interest to his cba^* 
racter and conduet. During his journey he was by no 
means ignorant of the plans that were forming against him, 
.and several opportunities offered of quitting France : Cato 
said ingrata patria mea^ nee ossa hahehis. Bailly, more firm 
than Cato, preferred the example of Socrates, and refused 
to abandon bis couptry. 

Such a ipan could only be condemned for an error, or 
by a crime ; but the retroactive effect of a law. expresdy 
declared to be unjust by the fourteenth article of the rights 
ojf man, was a crime daily committed during the nine 
months reign of that fiprocious wild beast, which was ex- 
tinguished Qn the 9th of Thermidor. Bailly became a 
victim of this bloody tribunal on November llth, 1793, 
and those that h^d procured his. condemnation, prolonged 
the period of his suffering by. changing the place of exe- 
cution when he had already arrived at the scaffold. 

Bailly married, in 1787, Jeanne le Seigneur, the widow, 
of his intimate friend Raymond Caye. She was of an age 
proper to inspire the regard and attachment of a man of. 
worth, who was not to be influenced by the ordinary mo- 
tives qi beauty or fortune, especially since he had eight 
nephewsf, whom he educated with all the care of a father. 

In person Bailly was tall, of a sedate but striking coun* - 
tenance, apd bis temper, though firm^ was joined to much 
sensibility. His di^interestedne^ appeared frequently, 
iLnd ii) a very striking manner, towards his relations ; and 
dupng his magistracy, he expended a considerable part 
of his income in administering to the necessities of the 

B A I L L Y. 325 

Few men of letters have eminenlly idistinguished tb6m«> 
selves in so many different wap, and no one has ever ' 
united so many titles of respect with such various and ge- 
neral applause ; but bis highest and greatest fame is de- 
rived from his virtue, which always remained unblemished, 
unsuspected, and admired by the academy, by the metro* 
polis, in the highest situations, in the most respectable 
public bodies : those who knew him the best loved him 
the most, and in his own iamily he was alihost adoired. 

Such is the life and character of Bailly, as given by La 
Lande in his eloge, and as far as respects his learning and 
private life seems to admit of no deduction. It is evUent^ 
however, that he was ill qualified for the transition he made 
from the calm pursuits of study to the wild enthusiasm of 
a revolution conducted, almost throughout, by the vilest 
and most worthless of mankind, at the expence of the wise^ > 
the learned, and the honest part of the French nation, 
many of whom were unfortunately seduced to be their 
auxiliaries. It is very probable that he saw.hiserrdr when 
too late, and when summoned as a witness on the trial of 
the queen, he had the courage to declare that the facts ia 
the. act of accusation drawn up against this princess, were 
false and forged. ^ . 

BAILZIE, or BAILLIE (William), M. D. a physician 
of the fifteenth century, was a native of Scotland, and 
after being educated in his native country, went to Italy, 
where he studied medicine with such reputation as to 
be made rector, and afterwards professor of medicine 
in the university of Bologne, about the year 1484. In his v 
theory, he adopted the Galenic system in preference to 
the empiric, and wrote ^^ Apologia pro Galeni doctrina 
contra Empiricos,^' Lyons, 1552, Svo. Dempster says 
that be returned to Scotland before his death, tne date of 
which is not mentioned. Mackenzie thinks he also wrote 
a book published in 1600, Svo, ^^ De Quantitate SyUa« 
barum Gr^carum, et de Dialectis," ' , 

BAINBRIDGE (Joh^), an*emineut physician and astro« 
npmer, born in 1582, at Ashby de la Zouch, Leicester* 
shire, was educated at the public school of that town ; and 
from thence went to Emanuel college in Cambridge, under 
the tuition of Dr. Joseph Hall> afterwards bishop of Nor*-^ 

1 Eloge by La Lande.— Diet- Hl8toriquek«>»Biographie Moderne. 
I Mackenzie'* Scott Writtrsi principtUy from J)ciDpiter*<— Tamior# 

S30 B A I N B R I D G E, 

fricb. When he hid taken bis degrees of bachelat and 
tinastei^ of arts, he went back to Leicestershire, Where he 
taught a grammar-school for some years, and. at the saniie 
time practised phytic. He employed his leisure hours ia 
the mathematicsi especially astronomy, which had been' 
bis favourite study from his earliest years. By the advice 
of his friends, who thought his abilities too great for the 
obscurity of a country liie, he removed to London, where 
be was admitted a fellow of the college of physicians. His 
descri{>tion of the comet, which appeared in 161 8, greatly 
raised his character. It was by this means he got ac- 
quainted with sir Henry Savile, who, in 16 19^ appointed' 
bim his fii'st professor of astronomy at Oxford. Upon tfai^ 
he removed to that university, and was entered a master 
commoner of Merton college ; the master and fellows 
whereof appointed him junior reader of Linacer's lecture^ 
in 16^1, and superior reader in 1635. As he resolved to 
l^ublish correct editions of the ancient astronomers, agree- 
ably to the statutes of the founder of his professorship ; iu 
order io make himself acquainted with the discoveries of 
the Arabian astronomers, he began the study of the Ara^ 
bic language when he was above 40 years of age. Some 
time before his death, he removed to a house opposite 
Merton college, where he died in 1643. His body was 
conveyed to the public schools, where an oration was pro- 
nounced in his praise by the university orator ; and wa^f 
carried from thence to Merton college church, where it 
was deposited near the altar. His published works are^ 

1. ^' An astronomical description of the late Comet, from 
the i8th of November 1618, to the 16th of December 
following,*' London, 1619,*' 4to. This piece was only a 
specinien of a large work, which the author intended to 
publish in Latin, under the title of ^^ Cometographia." 

2. "Procli sphtera. Ptolomaei de hypothesibus Plane- 
tarum liber singularis.'* To which he added Ptolemy's 
'* Canon regnorum.'* He collated these pieces with an- 
cient manuscripts, and has given a Latin version of them, 
illustrated with figures, 1620, 4to. 3. ^^ Canicularia ; a 
treatise concerning the dog-star and the canicular days." 
Published at Oxford in 1648, by Mr. Greaves, together 
vnth a demonstration of the heliacal rising of Sirius, dr'the 
dog-star, for the parallel of Lower Egypt. Dr. Bainbridge 
undertook this work at the request of archbishop Usher, 


but left it imperfect ; being prevented by the breakin^^ 
out of the civil war, or by death. 

There were several dissertations of bis prepared for and 
committed to. the press the year after his death, but the 
edition of them was never completed. The tides of them 
are as follow : 1. ^^ Antiprognosticon, in quo fiavltMi^ astro* 
logicsp, coelestium domorum, et triplicitatum commentis^ 
fiiagnisque Saturni et Jovis (cujusmodi anno 1623, et 1643, 
liontigerunt, et vicesimo fere quoque deincips anno, ratb 
naturse iegibus, recurrent) conjunctionibus innixea, vanitas 
breviter detegitur." 2. " De meridianorum sive Longitu^ 
dinum difFerentiis inyeniendis dissertatio." S. *' De stella 
Venerb diatriba." There were also some celestial obser- 
vations of his, which may be seen in Ismael Bullialdtis*s 
Astronomia Philolaica, published at Paris, in 1645. 

Besides what we have mentioned, there are several other 
tracts whi6h were never published, but left by his will to 
archbishop Usher; among whose manuscripts they are 
preserved in the library of the college of Dublin. Amongst 
others are the following, 1 . A theory of the Sun. 2. A 
theory of the Moon. 3. A discourse concerning the Quan« 
tity of the Year. 4. Two volumes of Astronomical obser- 
vations. 5. Nine or ten volumes of miscellaneous papen^ 
relating to the Mathematics. He undertook likewise a 
description of the British monarchy, in order to shew the 
advantages of the linibn of En^and and Scotland under 
one monarch ; but this treatise was either lost or suppressed 
by him. * 

BAIUS, or DE BAY, (Michael), was born at Miblun, 
in the territory of Ath, in 1513. The emperor Charles V* 
made choice of him to be professor of divinity in the uni- 
versity' of Louvaki. He was afterwards chancellor of that 
body, guardian of its privileges, and inquisitor-general. 
The university, in concert with the king of Spain, elected 
him deputy to the council of Trent, where he acquired re- 
putation. He had already published several small pieces, 
but was destined to be involved in controversy. Like the 
other followers of Augustin, he had an invincible aversion 
to that contentious, subtle, and intricate manner of teaching 
|;heology, that had long prevailed in the schools ; and, un- 
der the auspicious name of that famous prelate, who was 

I Si|iith'« Viteerttditiiiimonifl^ 4t0r-. Ath, Ox, voU IL«-Biog. Brit 

332 B A I U S. 

his darlitig guide, he had the courage to condemti, in an 
open and public manner, the tenets commonly received in 
the church of Rome, with respect to the natural powers of 
man, and the merit of good works. \ 

This bold step drew upon Baius the indignation of some 
of his academical colleagues, and the he9.vy censures of, 
several Franciscan monks. Whether the Jesuits imme- 
diately joined in this opposition, and may be reckoned, 
among the first accusers of Baius, is a matter unknown, or 
at most, uncertain, but it is evident that, even at the rise of 
this controversy, they abhorred the principal tenets of 
Baius, which he had taken from Augustin^ and adoptied as 
his own. lu 1567, he was accused at the court of Rome, 
and seventy-six propositions drawn from his writings, were- 
condemned by pope Pius Y. in a circular letter expressly, 
composed for that purpose. The principal doctrines main- 
tained in these propositions were, that unregenerate men 
have no ability to perform what is spiritually good, and that 
no man^s best works are meritorious of eternal life. The 
pope's condemnation, however, was issued out in an artful 
and insidious manner, without any mention being made of 
the name of the author ; for the fatal consequences that. 
had arisen from the rash and inconsiderate measures em- 
ployed by the court of Rome against Luther> were too 
fresh in the remembrance of the prudent pontiff to permit 
his falling into new blunders of the same nature. The, 
person and functions of Baius, therefore, were spared, 
while his tenets were censured. About thirteen years after 
this transaction, instigated by Tolet, the Jesuit doctor, 
Gregory XIII. confirmed the sentence, and again con- 
demned the propositions. Dreading further severity, or 
more probably because his condemnation was vague and 
ambiguous, Baius submitted : but others exclaimed against 
the papal decisions, as manifestly unjust. Baius's doc* 
trine was propagated with no inconsiderable zeal, in the 
Nourishing universities of Oouay and Louvaine. When 
the Jesuits Lessius and Hanielius attempted to preach a 
scheme of predestination, different from that pf Augustin,. 
the doctors of these universities condemned their opinions 
in 1587 and 1588. The bishops of the Low Countries pre- 
pared to do the same, but pope Sixtus V, suspended their, 
proceedings, and by imposing silence on both parties, 
hushed the controversy. Even at this day, many divines 
of the Romish communion, and particularly the JansenistSi 

B A I U S. 333 

declare openly that Baius was unjustly treated, and that 
the two edicts of Pius and Gregory are absolutely destitute 
of all authority.. He died the 1 6th of September 1589, at 
the age of 76. We have his controversial tracts against 
Mamix, 1579 and 1582, 2 vols. 8v6. His entire works were 
collected in 1696, in 4to, at Cotogn, and the following year 
were prohibited by the pope. His style is greatly superior 
to that of the divines of his time, being simple and close. 
Baius had studied the fathers with such care, that it is aflEirm- 
jed he read St Augustin over nine times ; a proof of his 
patience, if not of his judgment. Baius by bis will found- 
ed a college for education. His nephew, James Baius, 
likewise doctor of Louvain, and who died in 1614, left be- 
hind him a tract on the Eucharist, printed at that city in 
1605, 8vo, and a catechism in folio, Cologn, 1620. The 
opinions of Michael Baius did not die with him. Cornelius 
Jansenius revived a -great number of them in his book, en- 
titled ** Augustinus.*' * 

BAKER (David), an English Benedictine monk, and 
ecclesiastical historian and antiquary, the son of William 
Baker, gent, and nephew to Dr. David Lewes, judge of the 
admiralty, was born at Abergavenny, Dec. 9, 1575, and 
first educated at Christ*s hospital, London, whence he 
went to Oxford, in. 1590, and became a commoner of 
Broadgate^s hall (now Pembroke college), which he left 
without a degree, and joined his brother Richard, a bar- 
rister of the middle temple, where he studied law, and iu 
addition to the loose courses he followed, when at Oxford, 
now became a professed infidel. After the death of his 
brother, his father sent for him, aqd he was made recorder 
of Abergavenny, aild' practised with considerable success. 
While here, a miraculous escape from drowning recalled' 
him to his senses as to religion, but probably having no 
proper advice at hand, he fell upon a course of Roman 
eatholic writings, and was so captivated with them that he 
joined a small congregation of Benedictines then \n Lon- 
don, and went with one of them to Italy, where, in 1605, 
he took the habit, and changed his name to Augustin Ba- 
ker. A fit of sickness rendering it. necessary to try his 
native air he returned to England, and finding his father on 
his death-bed, reconciled him to the Catholic faith. From 
this time he appears to have resided in London and dif- 

^ Qea. Dict«Mj>upia.«Mo9h«tm,-«Morei1.«— Fnppen Bibl. Belg;. 


ferent places in the country^ professing his* 
openly as could be done with safety. Some years before 
bis death he spent at Caml^ray, as sjpiritual director of the 
English Benedictine nuns there, and employed his time in 

. snaking collections for an English ecclesiastical history, in 
which, when at home, we are told, he was assisted by 
Camden, Cotton, Speimaii^ Selden, and bishop Godwin, 
to all of whom, Wood says, " he was most familiarly 

^ known," but not, we presume, so sufficiently as this bio«- 
grapber supposes. Wood, indeed, tells us, that when at 
the bouse pf gentlemen, he passed for a lawyer, a character 
which he supported in conversation by the knowledge he 
had acquired in the Temple. He died in Gray^s Inn lane 
Aug. 9, 1641, and was buried in St. Andrew's church. He 
wrote a great many religious treatises, but none were pub- 
lished« They amounted to nine large folios in manuscript, 
and were long preserved in the English nunnery at Cam«> 
bray. His six volumes of ecclesiastical history were lost^ 
but out of them were taken father Reyner's " Apostolatus 
Benedictinorum in Anglia,*' and a good deal of Cressy^s 
** Church History.'* Wood has given a proHx account of 
this man, which was probably one of those articles in his 
Athense that brought upon hini the suspicion of being him^ 
self attached to popery. It is certainly written with all the 
abject submission of credulity. ^ 

BAKER (Sir Georgk) an eminent physician, was the 
son of the Rev. George Baker^ who died in 1743, being 
then archdeacon and registrar of Totness. He was bom in 
1722, educated at Eton, and was entered a scholar of 
King's college, Cambridge, in July 1742, where he took his 
degree of B. A. 1745, and M. A. 1749. He then begaif 
the study of medicine, and took the degree of doctor in 
%75$. He first practised at * Stamford, but afterwards 
nettled in London, and soon arrived at very extensive 
practice and reputation, and the highest honours of his 
faculty, being appointed physician in ordinary to the. 
ki;ng, and physician to the queen. He was also a fellow of 
the Itayal and Antiquary Societies, created a baronet 
Aug. 26, 1776, and in 1797 was elected president of the 
College of Physicians, London. Besides that skill in hi& 
profession, and personal accomplishments, which intn>« 
duced him into the first practice, and secured him a spIen-» 
did fortune, he was a good classical scholar and critic, and 

* Ath. Ox. vol, Il.-^ranger, vol. II, p. SOO. 

BAKER. 335 

bis Latin works are allowed to be written in a chaste and 
elegant style. He died June 15, 1809, in his eighty -eigbtk 
year, after having passed this long life without any of the 
infirmities from which he had relieved thousands. 

Sir George Baker, as an author, is to be estimated rather 
from the value than the bulk of his works. His very ex^ 
tensive practice, while it enriched his own treasures of ex* 
perience, left him little leisure for writing, and he never 
went beyond the extent of a tract or dissertation. Those 
he published were, 1. " DeafFectibus animi et morbis in- 
de oriundis, dissertatio habita CantabrigiaB in scholia publi* 
cis, 5 kalend. Feb. 1755," London, 1755, 4to. 2. " Ora** 
tio ex Harveii instituto, habita in theatro coll. reg. Medir 
corum Lond. Oct. 19, 1761. Calci orationis accedit Com^ 
mentarius quidam de Joanne Caio Anatomiae conditore 
apud nostrates," 4 to, ib. 176L This contains an elegant 
eulogy on Dr. Stephen Hales, and an argument to prove 
that Dr. Caius was the founder of anatomy in this country. 
Dr. Baker also adverts to Dr. Conyers Middleton^s essay 
on the servile condition of physicians in ancient Rome^ 
which, he imagined, glanced at the honour of the profes- 
sion itself. 3. ^^ De Catarrho, 'et de Dysenteria Londinensi^ 
epidemicis utrisque anno 1762, libelius,'' 4to, ib. 1 763* 
4. *^ An Inquiry into the merits of a method of inoculating 
the Small Pox, which is now practised in several counties 
in England," 8vo, ib. 1766. This produced two letters 
from Dr. Glasse, addressed to Dr. Baker, on the same sub^ 
ject. 5« *^ An essay concerning the cause of the Endemiai 
Colic of Devonshire, which was read in the theatre of the 
College of Physicians, June 29, 1767," printed at first for 
private distribution, but afterwards inserted in the Medical 
Transactions, vol. L In this he derives the Devonshire 
colic from an impregnation of lead in the making of cyder^ 
lead being very much used in the vessels employed in that 
operation. It was immediately followed by ** Some ob- 
servations on Dr. Baker^s Essay, by Francis Geach, sur* 
geon at Plymouth,*' 8vo, in which he endeavours to in>* 
validate Dr. Baker's theory, by proving that lead is not used 
in the preparation of cyder ; but this pamphlet was also 
immediately answered by Dr. Saunders, 8vo, and in 1769 
Mr. Geach published " A Reply to Dr. Saunders^s pam** 
phlet,** 8 vo, and was supported by the Rev. Thomas Alcock in 
a pamphlet entitled, ** The Endemical Colic of Devon not 
caused by a solution of le^d in the cyder/' 1769^ Svo. At » 

33p B A £: £ R. 

considerable distance, in point of time, appeared " A 
candid examination of what has been advanced on the Colic 
ofPoitou and Devonshire, by James Hardy, M. D. of Bam- 
staple, Devonshire," 1778, 8vo. This writer, while inclined 
to agree with Drs. Baker and Saunders, as to the cholic 
arising from a solution of lead, wished to transfer the evil 
from the cyder-utensils to the drinking vessels, which are 
of glazed earthen ware, the vitreous coating of which con- 
tains a large proportion of lead ; but the argument is rather 
feebly supported. In 1771, Dr. Baker re- published the 
three first tracts, under the title of ** Opuscula." His 
other treatises were published in the Medical Transactions, 
vol. I. II. and ni. » 

BAKER (Henry), an ingenious and diligent naturalist, 
the son of William Baker, a clerk in Chancery, was born 
in Chancery -lane, London, May 8, 1698. He was placed 
in 17 1 3 with John Parker, whom he left in 1720, to reside for 
a few weeks with Mr. John Forster an attorney. Mr. Forster 
bad a daughter of eight years old, who was born deaf and 
dumb. Mr. Baker, possessed with tt>e idea that he could 
instruct her in reading, writing, and understanding what 
was spoken, made the attempt, and was so successful that 
ber fistther retained him in his house for some years, during 
which he succeeded equally well with a second daughter 
who laboured under the same privation. He afterwards 
made this the employment of his life *. ^ In the prosecu- 
tion of so valuable and difficult an undertaking, he was 
very successful. Among his pupils were the hon. Lewis 
Erskine, son of the late earl of Buchan ; lady Mary, and 
lady Anne O'Brien, daughters of the earl of Inchiquin ; 
the earl of Sussex and his brother Mr. Yelverton ; the earl 

* Mr. Baker*s happy method of mestic accomplishment. Mr. Baker 

instruction ^for which, if we are not taught tiiem also astrouomy and geo^ 

aiitiiiformed» he received 100/. a year) graphy ; and they were to capable of 

succeeded fo well, that these young the politer instructions, that they ap- 

ladies were qualified hi all the parts of peared with advantage in public as* 

female education i and, besides . the temblies. They were not long since 

advantage of good persons, possessed living at Peterborough. Their eider 

understandings as improved as could brother ^was bred to the church, was 

possibly be under the want of two such D. D. and rector of Elton in Hunting- 

•ssential &c«lties, and the talent of donshire. Anather brother was the 

elegant letteriwriting, and every do- late Mr. Serjeant Forster. 

> Nichols's Life of Bowyer, vol. III. p. ^70 — Monthly Rev. see Index.— >Franck« 
liuy m his translation of Lucian, has introduced an elegant piece of Latin plea* 
■antry, writfeen by sir Qeorge Bak^, « an epitaph on the wift of Van BuicheH,** 
^a noted empiric, who employed John Hunter the celebrated surgeon, more thail 
thirty years ago, to embalm this wife in such a mamieri that she has been pre* 
farred avsr since in bis heust. . 

B A K £ It 337 

of Haddington, the earl of Londonderry, and many others. 
At the end of his instructions, he is said to have taken a 
bond for 100/. of each scholar not to divulge his method, 
«n instance of narrowness of mind which we wish we could 

In April 1729, he maitied Sophia, youngest daughtei^ 
of the ^mous Daniel Defoe, who brought him two sons, 
both of whom he survived. On the 29th of January 1740, 
Mr. Baker was elected a fellow of the society of anti- 
quaries; and, on the 12th of March following, the same 
honour was conferred upon him by the royal society. In 
1744, sir Godfrey Copley's gold medal was bestowed upon 
him, for having, by his microscopical experiments on the 
crystallizations and configurations of saline particles, pro- 
duced the most extraordinary discovery during that yean 
This medal was presented to him by sir Hans Sioane, then 
president of the royal society, and only surviving trustee 
of sir Godfrey Copley's donation, at the recommendation 
of sir Hans's worthy successor, Martin Folkes, esq. and of 
the council of the said society. Having led a very useful 
and honourable life, be died, at his apartments in the 
Strand, on the 25 th of Nov. 1774, aged seventy -seven. 
His wife died in 1762 ; and he left only one grandson, 
William Baker, who was bom Feb. 17, 1763, and to whom, 
on. his living to the age of twenty-one, he bequeathed the 
bulk of bis fortune, which he had acquired by his profes- 
(iion of teaching deaf and dumb persons to speak. This 
gentleman is now rector of Lyndon and South Luffenbam, 
in the county of Rutland. He gave also by his will a hun- 
dred pounds to the royal society, the. interest of which 
was to be upplied in paying for an annual oration on natural 
history or experimental phiiosophy, now known by the 
name of the Bakerian oration. He gave to each of ius two 
executors one hnndred pounds ; and his wife's gold watch 
and trinkets in trust to his daughter-in-law Mary Baker for 
her life, and to be afterwards given to the future wife of 
his grandsom To Mrs. Baker he gave also an annuity of 
fifty pounds. His ftumiture, printed books, curiosities, and 
collections of every sort, he directed should be sold, which 
was accordingly done. His manuscripts are in the posses- 
sion of his grandson. His fine collection of native and 
foreign fossils, petrifactions, riiells, corals, vegetables, ores, 
&c. with some antiquities and other curiosities, were sold 
by auction, March 13, 1775, andtbe nine following^ days, 
Vol.111. Z 

3W B A K E R. 

lie was buried, as he desired, in an unexpessive mantifcfy' 
iji the church-yard of St. Mary le-Strand ; within which 
churchy on the south wall, he ordered a small tablet tohe> 
greeted to his memory, but owing to some particular re*^ 
gulations annexed to the new churches under the act of 
queen Atine, leave for this could not be obtasned. ^* An 
ijiscription for it,** he said, *^ would probably be found 
^mopg bis papers ; if not, he hoped some learned friend 
would write one agreeably to truth**' 

Mr. Baker was a conststnt and useful attendant at the 
meetings of the royal and antiquary societies, and in both 
was frequently chosen one of the council. He was pecu* 
liarly attentive to all the new improvements which were 
made in natural science, and very solicitous for the prose-* 
cution of them. Several of bis communications are printed' 
in the. Philosophical Transactions ; and, besides the papers 
written by himself, he was the means, by his extensive- 
correspondence^' of conveying to the society the intelli^ 
gence and observatipns of other inquisitive and philoso- 
phical men< His correspondence was not confined to hiK 
own country. To him we are obliged for a true history of the 
coccus polonicus, transn^itted by Dr. Wolfe. It is to Mr. 
taker's communications that we owe th<e larger alpine 
strawberry, of late so much cultivated and approved of in 
JEngland. The seeds of it were sent in a letter from pro*- 
fessor Bruns of Turin to our philosopher, who gave them 
to several of his friends, by wh6se care they furnished aiv 
ftbundant increase. The seeds likewise of the true rhubarb, 
or rheum palmatum, now to be met with in almost every 
garden in this country, were first transmitted to Mr. Baker ( 
by Dr. Mounsey, physician to the empress of Russia* < 
I'hese, like the former, were distributed to his varioua 
acquaintan^^e, and some of the seeds vegetated very kindly. 
}t is apprehended that all the plants of the rhubarb now in 
Great Britain were propagatedi from this source. Two or 
three of Mr. Baker's papers^ which relate tp antiquities^ ^ 
may be fopnd in the Philosophical Transactions. The so- 
ciety for the encouragement of . arts, manufactures, and 
pommercp) is under singular obligations to our worthy na- • 
turalist. As he was <^ne of the Earliest members of it, so 
\ie contributed in no small degree to its rise and establish*- 
paent. At its first institution, he officiated for some time 
gratis, as secretary. Pie was many years, chairman of the 
committee of accounts : and he took an active part in th^ 

BAKER; 399 

gehinl deliberations of the society* In his attendanee be 
Was almost unfailing^ and there were fev questions of any 
moment upon which hedid not delirer bis opinion. Thougb,: 
from the lowness of his voiee^ his manner of speaking waa^ 
not powerful, it was clear^ sensible, and convincing ; whatL 
he satd^ being usually much to the purpose, and alwaysr 
proceeding from the best intentions, had often the good: 
eflFect of contributing to bring the society to rational deter-* 
minatiotais, when many of the members seemed to have lost 
theofiselires in the intricacies of debate. He drew up a 
sfaortaccomit of the original of this society, and of the 
eoucera he himself had in forming it ; which was read be« 
fore the society of antiquaries, and would be a pleasing 
present. to the public. Mr. Baker was a poetical writer ia 
the early part of his Ufe« His '^ Invocation of Health'' 
goft abroad without his knowledge ; but was reprinted hy 
himself in his ^' Original Poems, serious and buaH>urous^'* 
Part the first, 8vo, 1725. The second part came. out ia 
175>6» He was the author, likewise, of " The Universe^, 
a poem^ intended to restrain the pride of man/' which ha$ 
been several times reprinted. His account of the water 
polype, which was cMiginally published in the Philosophical 
TransacUoQS, was afterwards eoiarged into a separate trea^ 
ttse, and bath gone through several editions. In 1723 he 
began, and for five years conducted the ^^ Universal Spec^ 
tator," a periodical paper, under the assumed name of 
Henry Stonecastle ; a sdection of these papers was after-" 
wards printed in 4 vols. 1 SfiuM)^ In 1 737 he published^ <' Me^ 
duUa Podtarum Homanorum,'' 2 vols. Svo, a selection from 
tbe Roman poete^ with tnLnalatiops^ But jhis principal pub** 
lioattoos ane, *^ Tke Microscope made ea^y," and ^' £m* 
ploymeot for the Microsobpe." The first of these» which 
was (NTi^nally published in 1742, or .1743, has gone tbrooglt 
six editions. The second .edition of the other, which, to 
^y the least of it, is equally pleasing and instructive^ ap^. 
peavedin 1764« These. treatises, and especially the latter^ 
fcontain the mosi curious and important of the obiertations 
and experiments which Mr. Baker either laid before tbe 
royal society, or published separately. It has been said 
of Mr« Baker, ** that he was a philosopher in little things.^' 
If it was intended by this language to lessen his reputations- 
there is no propriety, in tbe stricture* He was an intelli*- 
gent, upright and benevolent maui much respected by 

those who knew him bjest. His firiends were the friends of 


Z 2 

UO B A K E R^ 

science and tirtue : and it will always be remembered bf 
Mft^ contemporaries, that no one was more ready than him* 
self to assist those with whom be was conversant in their 
imrious ' researches and endeavours for the advancement of; 
knowledge and the benefit of society. His eldest son, Da- 
vid Erskine Baker, was a young, man of genius and learn- 
ing, and, like his father, a philosopher, an antiquary, and 
a poet Being very partial to mathematical and geometiri* 
dal studies, the duke of Montague, then master of die ord- 
nance, placed him in the drawing-room in the Tower, to 
qualify him for the royal engineers. In a letter to D#. 
Doddridge, dated 1747, his father speaks of him in these 
t^rms : ** He has been somewhat forwarder than boys usnaUy 
are, from a constant conversation with men* At twekie 
years old be had translated the whole twenty^-fonr books ^ 
Telemachus from the French : before he was fifteen, he 
translated from the Italisui, and published, a tv^tise €m 
physic,, of Dr. Cocchi, of Florence, concerning the diet 
and doctnnes of Pythagoras ; and last year, before he was 
seventeen, be likewise published a treatise of sir Isaac 
Newton's Metaphysics, compared with those of Dr. Leib-^ 
iiit^i, 'firom the French of M. Voltaire. He is a pretty 
good master of the Latin, understands some Gredt, is 
reckoned -no bad mathematician for his years, and knows 
a^eat deal of natural history, both from reading and ob- 
servation : so that, by the grace of God, I hoper he will 
become a virtuous and useful man.'* • In another -letter he 
.Bsentions a singular commission given to kis son, that of 
making drawings of all tlie machines, designs, and operas 
tions -emiployed in the grand fire^ works to be exhibitcKl on 
occasion of the peace of 1748. It is to be regretted, how* 
ever, that his father's expectations were disaj^inted by a 
reverse ofcondoct in this son, occasioned by his turn' for 
tiramatio performances, and his man*ying the danghter of 
a Mr. Ciendon, a clerical empiric, who had, like himself^ 
a similar turn. In consequence of this unhappy taste, ht 
r^ieatediy engaged with the lowest strolhng companies, in 
vpite of every elBFort of his father to reclaim him. The 
public was, however, indebted to him for ** The^ Com^ 
panion to the Playhquse," 1764, 2 vols. I^mo ; a work 
which, tfaongh' imperfect, had considerable* n^erity and. 
shewed that he possessed a very extensifve knolvrledge df 
"otr dramatic author^ ; and which has since (under the title 
of << Bidgraphia Dramatica'') beeti consider^ly improved,^^ 


fir$t in I7&2f by tlie late Mr. l^aac Reed^ 2 vols. 8vo, and 
more recently! in 1812, ealarged and improyed by Mr, 
^Stephen Jones, so as to form 4 vols. Hvo. He died Feb. 
ij6, 1767. Mr. Baker's otber son, Henry, followed tbe 
profession of a lawyer, and occaaionaily appeared as a poet 
^nd.imscellaneous writer. In. 1756 be publisbed ^< Esidays 
Pastoral and Elegiac,^' 2 vols. 8vo, and left ready for the 
^press an arranged collection of all the statutes relating to 
b^ankraptcy, with ca3es, precedents, &a entitled ^^ The 
Clerk to the Commission,^' a work which is supposed ta 
have been published under anoth^ title in 1763. ^ 

BAKER (SikJohn), a statesman of some note in the 
jreigqs of Henry VjlIL Edward VI. . and Mary, is said to 
>bave been the son of Thojpas Baker, a Kentish gentleman, 
.but his pedigree in the college of arms begins vtrith bis own 
•name. He was bred to the professiook of the laws, and in 
1 526, when a young man, was sent ambassador to Den- 
mark, in company with Henry Standish, bishop of St. 
Asapfa, according to the fashion of those times, when it 
was usual to join in foreign negociations, the^nly two cha- 
racters which modern policy excludes from such services. 
At his return be was elected speaker of the house of com- 
mons, and .was soon after apppinted attorneyrgeneral, and^ 
aworn of tbe privy council, but gained no farther prefer- 
ment till 1 S^i^S, when, having recommended himself to the 
king by his activity in forwarding a loan in London, and 
-other imposts, he was made chancellor of die exchequer. 
..Henry constituted him an ^.asistant trustee for the minor 
successor, after whose accession his name is scarcely men- 
tioned in history, except in one instance, which ought not 
^ to be forgotten : he was the only privy counsellor who 
steadfastly denied his assep^t to the last will of that prince, 
by which Mary and Elizabeth were excluded from inherit- 
ing the crown. Sir John married Elizabeth, daughter and 
heir of Thomas Dinely, and widow of George Barret, who 
brought him two i sons: sir Richard (whose grandson was 
created a baronet) and John : and three daughters ^ Eli- 
zabeth, wife of . Thomas Scott ; Cecily, married to the 
lord treasurer Dorset, and Mary to John Tufton, of Heath- 
field iu Kent. He died in 1558, and was buried at Sis- 
singherst in Kent, where he had a fine estate, formerly be- 

1 Biop. Brit.-<-very erroneous, but corrected in Nichols's Life of Bowycr, vol, 
V.,^Dod(h'idge*8 Letters, 1790, 8vo, wiiere are spme from Mr. Baker, very 
cbaracteristic and iuterestin^. 

342 BAKE R. 

longing to the family of De Berham; and a noble mansion 
built by himself, called Sissingherst Castle, which remained 
with his posterity till the family became extinct about sixty 
years since, and has since bowed down its battlements to 
the unfeeUng taste of the present day. * 
* BAKER (Sir Richard), grandson of the preceding, 
imd son of John, the youngest son of sir John Baker by 
Catherine daughter of sir Reynold Scot of Scot's hall i^ 
Kent, was born at Sissingherst in Kent, about the year 
1568. In 1584, he was entered a commoner at Hart-liall 
in Oxford, where he remained three years, which he spent 
chiefly in the study of logic and philosophy. From thence 
be removed to one of the inns of court in London, and 
afterwards travelled abroad, in order to complete his edu- 
cation. In 1 594, he was created master of arts at Oxford ; 
.and in May 1603, received the honour of knighthood from 
James I. at Theobalds. In 1620, he was high* sheriff of 
Oxfordshire, having the manor of Middle-Aston and otb^ 
estates in that county, and was also in the con^mission of 
the peace. He married Margaret,/ daughter of sir George 
Manwaring, of Igbtfield in Shropshire, knight ; and hav- 
ing become surety for. some of that family's debts, was 
thereby reduced to poverty, and thrown into the Fleet 
prison, where he died Feb. 18, 1645, and was buried in 
St. Bride's church. Fleet-street. He was a person tall and , 
comely (says Mr. Wood), of a good disposition and admi- 
rable discourse, religious, and well-read in^ various facul- 
ties, especially in divinity and history, as appears from the 
books he composed. 

His principal work was» his ^< Chronicle of the kings 
of England, from the time of the Romans' government 
unto the death of king James," Lond. 1641, fol. again in 
1653, and 1658, to which last was added, the reign of 
Charles I. with a continuation to 1658, by Edward Phillips, 
liephew to the illustrious Milton. The fourth edition of 
1665 has a continuation to the coronation of Charles II. 
The. account of the restoration was principally written by 
sir Thomas Clarges, although adopted by PhilUps. It 
was most severely criticised by Thomas Blount, in his 
^' Animadversions upon sir Richard Baker's Chronicle and 
its continuation," and many errors are unquestionably 

1 hoSpe^s Illustrations of British History, rol. I. — ^Lloyd's State Worthies.— 
«Jtrype»s Life of Craomcrj p. 117, 503, 304, 356, where he appears a zetflot 
for popery. 

/ ' 

BAKER. 343 

pointed out, but it became a popular book, and a common 
'piece of furniture in every 'squire's ball in the countfry, fdr 
which it was not ill calculated by its easy style and variety 
of matter, and continued to be reprinted until 1733, when 
another edition appeared with a continuation to the end of 
the reign of George I. but still with many errors, although 
perhaps not of much importance to the ^* plain folks'' who 
delight in the book. This is called by the booksellers the 
best edition, and has lately been advancing in price, but 
ihey are not aware that many curious' papers, printed in 
the former editions, are omitted in this. The late worthy 
and learned Daines Barrington gives the most favourable 
opinion of the Chronicle. " Baker is by no means so conp- 
temptible a writer as he is generally supposed to be : it is 
believed that the ridicule on this Chronicle arises from its 
being part of the furniture of sir Roger de Coverley's hall" 
in one of the Spectators. Sir Richard's own opinion pro* 
bably recommended it to many readers ; he says that ^' it 
is collected with so great care and diligence, that if all 
other of our chronicles were lost, this only would be suffi- 
cient to inform posterity of all passages memorable, or 
worthy to be known." He wrote also several other woirks^ 
1. ** Cato Variegatus, or Cato's Moral Pistichs varied; 
in verse," Loud. 1636. 2. ^^ Meditations and Disqaisi- 
tions on the Lord^s Prayer," Lond. 1637, 4to; The fourth 
edition of it was published in 1640, 4to. It was highly 

E raised by sir Henry Wotton, who had studied withhim in 
[art-hall. 3. '^ Meditations and disquisitions on the three 
last Psalins of David," Lond. 1639. 4. " Mediutions and 
disquisitions on the fiftieth Psalm," Lond. 1639. 5. *^ Me* 
'ditations and disquisitions on the. seven penitential Psi^lms, 
which wee, 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143,'' Lond. 1639, 
4to. 6. ^^ Meditations and disquisitions on the first Psalm," 
Lond. 1640, 4to. 7. <^ Meditations and disquisitions on 
the seven consolatory Psalms of David, namely, 23, 
27, 30, 34, 84, 103, and 116," Lond. 1640, 4to. 8. << Me- 
ditations and prayers upon the seven days of the week,^* 
Lond. 1640, 16mo, which is supposed to be the same with 
his Motive of Prayer on the seven days of the week. 
9. ** Apology for Laymen's writing in Divinity," Lond. 
1641, 12mo. 10. *^ Short meditations on the fall of Lu- 
cifer," printed with the Apology. 11. "A soliloquy of 
the Soul, or a pillar of thoughts, &c." Lond. 1641, 12mQ, 
|2, " Tbeatrum Redivivum, or the Theatre vindicated, in 

344 B A K E R. 

answer to Mr. Prynhe's Histrio'^inastriXy &c/^ Lond. 1662, 
8vo. 13. ^^ Tbeatrum triumphans, or a discourse of PlaysV* 
Lond. 1760, 8vo. 14. He translated from Italian into Kng^ 
lisb, the marquis Virgilio Malvezzi's Discourses ou Taci« 
tus, being 53 in number, Lond. 1642, fol. And from 
Frencb into Englisb, tbe three fhrst parts of the ^^ Letters 
of Monsieur Balzjac,*' printed at London, 1638, Svo, and 
again in 1654, 4to, with additions, and also in 8yo. The 
fourth and last part seem to have been done by another 
hand ; the preface to it being subscribed F. B. Sir Richard 
wrote also bis own life, and left it in manuscript 5 but it 
was destroyed by one Smith, wbotnarr,ied one of his daugh^* 
ters. * 

BAKER (Thomas), an eminent mathematician in the 
seventeenth century, the son of James Baker of Ilton in 
Somersetshire, steward to the family of the Strangways of 
Dorsetshire, was born at Ilton about the year 1625, and 
entered in Magdalen-hall, Oxon, in the beginnuig of the 
year 1640. In April 1645, he was elected scholar of Wad- 
ham college ; and did some little service to king Charles I. 
within the garrison of Oxford. He wad admitted bachelor 
of arts, April 10, 1647, but le^t the university without Com- 
.pleting that degree by determination. Afterwards he be- 
came vicar of Bishop's-Nymmet in Devonshire, where he 
lived many years in studiousf retirement, applying chiefly 
to the study of the mathematics, in which be made very 
great progress. But in his obscure neighbourhood, be was 
neither known, nor sufficientlj* valued for his skill in that 
useful branch of knowledge, till he published his famous 
book. A. little before his death, the menibers of the Toyal 
society sent him some mathematical queries : to which fae 
returned so satisfactory an answer, that they gave him a 
medal with an inscription fviU of honour and respect. He 
died at Bishop* s-Nymmet aforementioned, on the 5th of 
June 1690, and was buried in his own church. His book 
was entitled "The Geometrical Key, ortheGateof Equa* 
tions unlocked, or a new Discovery of tbe construction of 
all Equations, howsoever affected, not exceeding the fourth 
degree, viz. of Linears, Quadratics, Cubics, Biquadratics, 
•and the finding of all their roots, as well false as true, with- 
out the use of Mesolai)e, Trisection of Angles, without 

I Biog. Brit— Ath. Ox. toI. I C— Granger, vol. II. 921.— 'Barrington's Ob- 
ferraUon^ on the Sututes, 3d edit p. 91. 

B A K £ R. 345 

Reduction, Depression, or any other previous Preparations 
of Equations, by a Circle, and any (and that one only) 
Pwrabole, &c." London, 1684, 4to, in Latin and English. 
In the Philosophical Transactions, it is observed, that the 
author, in order to free us of the trouble of preparing the 
. equation by taking away the second term, shews us how to 
. construct all atFected equation^ not exceeding the fourth 
power, by the intersection of a circle and parabola,; with«> 
out pibission or change of any terms. And a circle and a 
})arabola being the i^ost simple, it ftdlows, that the way 
: which aur atttbor has tshosen is the- best. In the book (to 
render it intelligible even to those who have read no 
conies), the author shews, how a parabola arises frofii'the 
,8ection;of a cone, then how to describe it in piano, and 
« from, that construction demonstrates, that the squares of 
the ordinates. are one to another, as the correspondeitt 
' sAgitta or intercepted diameters ; then he shews, that if a 
line be inscribed in a parabola perpendicular to any dia- 
. meter, a rectangle made of the segments of the inscript, 
will be equal to a rectangle ncade of the intercepted dia« 
meter and parameter of the axis. Fronii this last propriety 
our author deduces the universality of his central rule fdr 
:the ^lution of iall^biquadradc and cubic equations, however , 
.affected o;r varied in terms or signs. After the i^n thesis 
the author shews die analysis or method, by which be found 
this rule; which,' in the opinion of Dr. R. Plot (who was 
then secretary to the royal society) is so good, that no- 
thing, can be expected more easy, simple, or universsd.^ 

BAKER (Thomas), a very ingenious and learned anti^ 
: quary, was descended from a family ancient and welt- 
' esteemed, distinguished by its loyalty and affection for the 
crownv His grandfather, sir George Baker, knt. to whom 
our author erected a monument in ^the great church at 
Hull, almost ruined his family by his exertions for Charles L 
Being recorder of Newcastle, he kept that town, 1639, 
against the Scots (as they themselves wrote to the parlia- 
ment) with a ^* noble opposition.^' He borrowed large 
: sums upon his own credit, and sent the money to the king, 
or laid it out in his service* His father was George Baker, 
esq. of Crook, in the parish of Lanchester, in the county 
of Durhmn, who married Margaret, daughter of Thomas 

Forster of Edderston, in the county of Northumberland, 

1 ... 

I Biof . Brit.— AUi. Ox. vol. II. 

)46 BAKER. 

esq. Mn Baker was born at Crook, September 14, 1656^ 
He was educated at the free-school at Durham, under Mr, 
Battersby, many years master, and thence removed with 
his elder brother George, to St John*s college, Cam- 
bridge, and admitted, the former as pensioner, the latter 
as fellow-commoner, under the tuition of Mr. San- 
derson, July 9, 1674. He proceeded, B. A. 1677; M. A, 
1681; was elected fellow, March 1680; ordained dea- 
eon by bishop Compton of London, December 20, 1685; 
priest by bishop Barlow of Lincoia, December 19, 1686. 
Dr. Watson, tutor of the college, who was nominated, but 
jiot.yet consecrated, bishop. of St. David's, ofibred to take 
him for his chaplain, which he declined, probably on the 
prospect of a like offer from Crew, lord bishop of Darbani, 
which he soon after a,ccepted. His lordship collated bim to 
the rectory of Long-Newton in his diocese, s^n4 the san>e 
county, June 1687; and, as Dr. Grey was informed by 
some of the bishop's family, intended to have given bim 
that of Sedgefi^ld, worth six or seven hundred pounds a« 
year, with a golden prebend, had he not incurred his dis- 
pleasure, and left his family, for refusing to read king 
James the Second's declaration for liberty of conscience. 
Mr. Baker himself gives the following account of this affair : 
*^ When the king's declaration was appointed to be read, 
the most condescending thing the bishop ever did was com- 
ing to my chambers (remote from his) to prevail with me 
to read it in his chajpel at Auckland, which I could not do, 
having wrote to niy curate not to read it at my living at 
Long-Newtdn. But he did prevail with the curate at Auck- 
land to read it in his church, when the bishop was present 
to countenance the performance. When all was over, the 
bishop (as penance I presume) ordered me to go- to the 
dean to require him to make a return to court of the names 
.of all such as did not read it, which I did, though I was one 
of the pumber." But this bishop, who disgraced Mr. Baker 
for this refusal, and was excepted out of king Williai(v's 
pardon, took the oaths to that king, and kept his bishopric 
tiirhis death. Mr. Baker resigned Long-Newton August 
1, 1690, refusing to take the oaths ; and retired to his fel- 
lowship at St. John s, in which he was protected till Januaiy 
20, 1717, when, with one-arid-twenty others, he was dis- 
possessed of it. Tbis hurt him . mpst of all, not for the 
profit he received from it, but that some whom he thought 
{)is sincerest friends came so readily into the new measures^ 

B A K te R, HI 

particalarly Dr. Robert Jenkin the master, who wrote a de** 
fence of the profession of Dr. Lake, bishop of Chichester^^ 
concerning the new oaths and passive obedience, and re* 
signed his precentorship of Chichester, and vicarage of Wa« 
terbeach, in the county of Cambridge. Mr. Baker could 
not persuade himself but he might have shewn the same 
indulgence to his scruples on that occasion, as he bad done 
before while himself was of that way of thinking. Of all 
his sufferings none therefore gave him so much uneasiness^ 
In a letter from Dr. Jenkin, addressed to Mn Baker, fellow 
of St. John's, he made the following remark on the super- 
scription : " I wxis so then ; I little thought it should be by 
him that I am now no fellow; but God is just, and I am a 
dinner/' After the passing the registering act, 1723, he 
was desired to register his annuity of forty pounds, which 
the last act required before it was amended and explained. 
Though this annuity left him by his father for his fortune, 
with twenty pounds per annum out of his collieries by his 
elder brother from the day of his death, August 1699, for 
the remaining part of the lease, which determined at Whit- 
suntide 1723, was now his whole subsistence, he could not 
be prevailed on to secure himself against the act, but wrote 
thus in answer to his friend : ^* I thank you for your kind 
concern for me; and yet I' was very well apprized of the 
late act, but do not think it worth while at this age, and 
under these infirmities, to give myself and friends so much 
trouble about it. I do not think that any living besides 
myself knows surely that my annuity is charged upon any 
part of my cousin Baker- s estate ; or if they do, I can 
hardly believe that any one, for so poor and uncertain a re* 
ward, will turn informer ; or if any one be found so poorly 
p)ean and base, 1 am so much acquainted with the hard- 
ships of the world, that I can bear it. I doubt not I shall 
live under the severest treatment of my enemies ; or, if I 
cannot live, I am sure I shall die, and that's comfort enough 
to me. If a conveyance will secure us against the act, I 
am willing to make such a conveyance to them, not fraudu* 
lent or in trust, but in ad full and absolute a manner as 
words can make it; and if that shall be thought good se* 
curity, I desire you will have such a conveyance drawn and 
sent me by the post, and Til sign it and leave it with any 
friend you shall appoint till it can be sent to you." He re- 
tained a lively resentment of his deprivations ; and wrote 
Jumself in all bis books^ as well as in those which he gave 


to the college library, ** sociiis ejectus,** and in ^me 
<« ejectus rector." He continued to reside in the college 
as commoner^master till bis death, which happened July 2, 
17*0, of a paralytic stroke, being found on the floor of his 
chamber. In the afternoon of June 29, being alone in his 
chamber^ be was struck with a $Iight apoplectic fit, which 
abatitig a little, he recovered bift senses, and knew all about 
him, who were his nephew Burton, Drs. Bedfprd and De- 
berden. He .seemed perfectly satisfied and resigned ; and 
when Dr. Bedford desired him to take some medicine then 
-ordered, he declined it, saying, he would only take hij^ 
usual sustenance, which his bedmaker knew the times and 
(Quantities of giving ; he was thankful for the affection and 
care his friends shewed him, but, hoping tlie time, of hi$ 
dissolution was at band, would by no means endeavour to 
retard it. His disorder increased, and the third d^y from 
this seizure he departed* He was buried in St. John^s outer 
chapel, near the monument of Mr. Ashton, who founded 
his fellowship. No memorial has yet been erected over 
him, he having forbidden it in his will. Being appointed 
one of the executors of his elder brother's \^iill, by which a 
large sum was bequeathed to pious uses, he prevailed on 
the other two executors, who were his other brother Francis 
and the hon. Charles Montague, to layout 1310/. of the 
money upon an estate to be settled upon St. John's college 
for six exhibitioners. Mr. Masters gives a singular instance 
of his unbiassed integrity in the disposal of these exhibi- 
tions. His friend Mr. Williams, rector of Doddington, had 
applied to Mr. Baker for one of them fpr his son, and re- 
ceived the following answer : 

" Worthy sir,— I can assure you I am not alone in the 
-disposal of these exhibitions, nor is it any qualification by 
the settlement to be the son of a clergyman. Iij the dispo- 
sal of them I have commonly had regard to those that want 
them most, and I thank God that is not your $0[rCs case. But 
I will do him that right to say, he wants no other qualifica- 
tions," &c. 

Mr. Baker likewise gave the college lOOZ. for the consi- 
deration of six pounds a-year (then legal inter^t) for his 
life ; and to the library several choice books, both printed 
and MS. ; medals, and coins; besides what he left to it by 
his will ; which were ** all such books, printed and MS. as 
he had, and were wanting there." AH that Mr. Baker 
printed was^ 1. ^^ Reflections on. Learningj shewing the 

B A K E K. U9 

instrffiidieney thereof in its several particalars, in order to*' 
evince the usefulness vand necessity of Revelation, London^ 
J 7 10,^* which went through eight editions; and Mr. Bos^ 
well, in his ^ Method of Study," ranks it among the Eng- 
lish classics for purity of style ; a character perhaps too 
high, yet it is a very ingenious work, and was at one time 
one of the most popular books in our language. Its prin- 
cipal fault is, that the author has too much depreciated 
haman learning, and is not always conclusive in his argu- 
ments. 2. <*-Tbe preface to bishop Fisher*s funeral ser- 
mon for Margaret countess of Richmond and Derby, 1708 ;^* 
both without^ his name. Dr. Grey had the original MS* of 
both in his^ own hands. The latter piece is a sufficient 
specimen of the editor's skill in antiquities to make us re^ 
gret that he did not live to publish hi« ^' History of St» 
John's allege, from the foundation of old St John's housd 
to the present time; with &om6 occasional and incidentiil 
account of the affairs of the universi^, and of such private 
colleges as held communication or intercourse with the old 
bouse or college ; collected principally from MSS. and carw 
ried on through a succession of masters to the end of 
bishop Gunning's mastership, 1670." The origind, fit fdr 
the press, is among the Harleian MSS. No. 7028. His MS 
ccdlections relative to the history and antiquities of the 
university of Cambridge, amounting to thirty-nine volumes 
in folio, and three in 4to, are divided between the British 
Museirm and the public library at Cambridge ; the former 
possesses twenty -three volumes, which he bequeathed to 
the earl of Oxford, his friend and patron ; the latter sixteen 
in folio, and three in 4to, which he bequeathed to the uni- 
versity. Dr. Knight styles him '^ the greatest master of 
the antiquities of this our university;" and Heame says^ 
<^ Optandum est ut sua quoque. collectanea de antiquitati* 
bus Cantabrigiensibus juris faciat publici cl. Bakerus, quip- 
pe qui eruditione summ& j udicioque acri et subacto poUeat.'* 
Mr. Baker intended something like an Atbense Cantabri* 
gienses on the plan of the Athens Oxonienses. Had he 
lived to have completed his design, it would have far ex- 
ceeded that work. With the application and industry of 
Mr. Wood, Mr. Baker united a penetrating judgment and 
a great correctness of styte, smd theSe improvements of the 
tnind were crowned with those amiable qualities of th^ 
heart, candour and integrity. He is very frequently men^ 
tioqed by the writers of his time, and always widi high 

asir BAKE R. 

vespect. Although firm in his principles, he corresponded 
^ith and assisted men of opposite ways of thinking, and 
with the utmost readiness made them welcome to bis col- 
lections. Among his contemporaries who distinguished 
the^nselves in the. same walk with himself, and derived 
assistance from him, may be reckoned Mr. . Hearne^ Dr. 
Knight, Dr. John Smith, Hilkiah Bedford, Browne Wil^ 
lis^ Mn Strype, Mr. Peck, Mr. Ames, . Dn Middleton, a^tid 
professor Ward, Two. large volomes of his lettoes * ta 
the first: of these antiquaries are in the Bodleian library.^ 
There is. an indifferent print of him by Simon from, a 
memoriter picture; but . a. very good likenesa of him by 
C. Bridges. Vertue , was .privately engaged to ..draw his 
picture by stealth. Dr. Grey had his picture, of which Mrj 
Burton had a copy by Mr. Ritz. The Society of Antiqua-^ 
ries have Another* portrait of .him. It was. his custom, in> 
every book he had, or read, to write observations and an 
account of the author. Of these a considerable, number 
are at St. John's college^ and several in the Bodleian H^ 
brary, among Dr. Rawlihson's bequests. A fair transcript 
of his select MS observations on Dr. Drake's edition of 
archbishop Parker, 1729, was some time ago in the hands 
of Mr. Nichols. . Dr. John Bedford of Durham had Mr. Ba->' 
ker's copy of the " Hereditary Right," greatly enriched by 
him. Dr. Grey, who was advised with about tte disposal of 
the books, had bis copy of Spelman's Glossary. Mr. Crow 
married a sister of Mr. Baker's nephew, Burton ; and, on 
Burton's death intestate in the autumn after his uncle, be- 
came possessed of every thing. What few papers o^ Mr. 
Baker's were among them, he let Mr. Smith of Qurnhall 
see ; and they being thought of no account, were destroyed, 
excepting the deed concerning the exhibitions at St. Jdin'Sf 
his own copy of the history of the college, notes on the 
foundress's funeral sermon, and the deed drawn for create 
ing him chaplain to bishop Crew, in the month and year of 
the revolution, the day left blank, and the deed unsab-f 
scribed by the bishop, as if rejected by him. ^ 
. BAKER (Wiluam), a learned printer, son of Mr. Wil* 
liam Baker, a man of amiable character and manners, of 

1 Nichols's Ufe of Bitwyer, vol. V.— Vasien's Life of Baker, 1784, Sv9.— 1« 
Lorti Orford's Works, vol. II. is a piece of declamation, under the name of a 
life of Mr. Baker, sometimes elegant, but oftener flippant, alisurd, and eirrone- 
«as«-— <Some paiticolars of Mn Baker maj be f leaned in Oeat. Mag; vqIs. UL 
UY. LVl. LYU. an4 LXI. 

B A K'E IL 351' 

great classical and mathematical letir}iit2g, and* more thkri* 
forty years master of an academy at Reading, was bom in . 
1742* Being from bis infaacy ofa studioi;s turn^ h^ pasaed 
so mucb of his time in bis father's library as to injurcf bis 
health. His father, hoivever, intended to have iient him 
to the university^ but a disappointment in a patron who bad 
promised to support him, induced him to place him as aa 
apprentice ^ith Mr« Kippax, a printer, in Cutlum-street, 
London, where, while he dihgently applied to business, h^' 
employed his leisure hours in study, and applied what mo* 
ney he could earn to the. purchase of the best editions of 
the classics, which collection, at his death, was purchased 
by Dr. Lettsom. This constant application, however, to 
business and study, again endangered his health, but by 
the aid of country air and medicine bejrecovered; and on 
the death of Mr. Kippax he succeeded to his business, and 
rpmoved afterwards to Ingram court, where he had fot his 
partner Mr. John William Galabin, now principal bridge- 
master of the city of London. Among his acquaintance 
were some of great eminence in letters; Dr. Goldsmith, 
Dr. Edmund Barker, the Rev. James Merrick, Hugh Far- 
mer^i Caesar de Missy, and others. An elegant correspond- 
ence between him and Mr. Robinson, author of the *' In^ 
dices Tres," printed at Oxford, 1772, and some letters of 
inquiry into difficulties in the Greek language, which still 
exist, are proofs of hb great erudition, and the opinion 
entertained of him by som^ of the first scholars. Such was 
his modesty, that many among his oldest and most familiar 
acquaintance were igno;rant.of his learning, and where 
learning was dispussed, his opinion could never be known 
without an absolute appeal to his judgment. There are but 
two little works, known to be his ; ,1. " Peregrinations of 
the^ Mind through the most general and interesting subjects 
which are usually agitated in life, by the Rationalist,^' 
1 2 mo, 1770, a collection of unconnected essays, not, as his 
biographer says, in the manner of the Rambler, but some- 
what in the manner of a periodical paper* 2. ^^ Theses 
Graecas et Latinse selectse," 8vo, 1780, a selection from Greek 
and Latin authors. He left behind him some manuscript 
remarks on the abuse of grammatical propriety in the Eng- 
lish language in common conversation. He wrote also a 
few minor poems, which appeared in the magazines, and is 
said to have assisted some of his clerical friends with ser- 
mons of his composition* In the Greek, Latin, French^ 


and Italian language^) he was* critically skilled, and bad- 
some knowledge of the Hebrew. He died after a lingering 
illness, Sept. 29, 1785, and was interred in the vault of St. 
Dionis Backchurch, Fenchurch-street, and an elegant La- 
tin epitaph to his memory was placed on the tomb of his 
faUiiiiy in the church-yard of St* Mary, Reading, by his bro- 
tlierJohn. * 
. B^yCEWELL (Robert), the most successful and cele- 
brated experimental farmer ever known in England, was 
born at Dishley in Leicestershire, about 1725 or 1 7^26. His 
grandfather and father had resided on the same estate since 
the beginning of the last century; and his father, who died 
about the year 1760, had the reputation of being a very in- 
genious farmer. Mr. Bakewell having conducted the Dish- 
ley farm several years before' the decease of his father, 
beg^n about fifty- five years ago, that course of experiments 
which has procured him such extensive fame. He origi- 
nally adopted a principle, A frierty which was confirmed by 
the whole experience of his future life. Having remarked 
that domestic animals, in general, produced others possess- 
ing qualities nearly similar to their own, he conceived he 
had only to select from the most valuable breeds such as 
promised to return the greatest possible emolument to the 
breeder ; and that be should then be able, by careful atten- 
tion to progressive improvements, to produce a race, of 
sheep, or oriier animals, possessing a maximum of advan- 
tage. Under the influence of this excellent notion, Mr. 
Bakewell made excursions into difTerent parts of England, . 
to inspect the various breeds, and to ascertain those which 
were best adapted to his purpdses^ and the most valuable of 
their kinds. 

His next step was to select and purchase the best of all 
the sorts wherever they could be found ; and this selection, 
the result of several years experience, was the original stock 
from which he afterwards propagated his own. This ex- 
cellent ground- work was alone fostered to its present un- 
rivalled perfection by the persevering ingenuity and indus- 
try of Mr. Bakewell. About the year 1760, Mr. Bakewell 
•old his sheep, by private contract, at not more than two 
or three guineas each. Some time after he began to let 
some of his rams, and for a few seasons received only fif- 
teen shillings and a guinea a-piece for l^em \ but as the 


fame of his breed extended itself^ he advanced his prices^ 
and by the year 1770 was enabled to let some of his rams 
for the season for twenty -five guineas. Since that time the 
prices and credit of his stock have been progressively in« 
creasing ; and of late years single rams have been let for 
the season for the enormous price of four hundred guineas 
and upwards. It is a fact which has no former example, 
that one ram, called the Two Pounder, produced in one 
season the sum of eight hundred guineas, independent of 
ewes of Mr. BakewelPs own stock, which, at the Same rate, 
would have made a total — the produce of a single ram^of 
twelve hundred guineas! 

Every branch of the agricultural art is more or less in- 
debted to the fortunate genius and original mind of Mr. 
Bakewell. He directed his attention however the most 
successfully to the improvement of the sheep known by the 
name of the Dishley or New Leicestershire ; to long-horned 
cattle, and to strong horses of the black breed, suitable to 
the harness for the army. The improvement of pies, and 
the cultivation of the best winter food for cattle, had latterly 
engaged his attention; and he had proved himself useful to 
the public by introducing into practice the flooding of 
meadows. The race of Dishley sheep are known by the 
fineness of their bones and flesh, the lightness of the offal, 
the disposition to quietness, and consequently to mature 
and fatten with less food than other sheep of equal weight 
and value. Mr. Bakewell improved his black horses by ad 
attention to the form which h best adapted to their use; 
His stallions have been let for the season for one hundred 
guineas and upwards. About ten years since he exhibited 
his famous black horse to the king and many of the nobility 
in the court-yard of St. James's. His long-horned cattle 
have been characterised by properties similar to those of his 
sheep, viz. for the fineness of the bone and flesh, the light* 
ntss of the offal, and the disposition to fatten. In a word, 
no competitor ever had the temerity to vie with him in his 
horses and cattle ; and his sheep continue universally un-^ 
rivalled, notwithstanding the competition excited at various 
times by motives of interest or envy. 

In this place it may be worth while to insert the follow- 
ing statement of the prices given at two leading auctions 
for stock bred from Mr. Bakewell's. These great prices, 
as well as the prices which the^e articles always maintain, 
are the most indubitable proofs of the high opinioa which 

Voju IIL A A 

35* B A K E W ELL. 

the best and most interested judges entertain of Mi^. Bafce-^ 
well's merit. 

. The first sale which we advert to was that of Mr. Fowler 
pf RoUwrighty in Oxfordshire. This gentleman had com- 
xnenced his breeding-speculations widi a couple of cows 
and a bull which he hired of Mr. Bakewell. After his 
death, one article of his live stock, the horned cattle, sold 
for a value equal to that of the fee simple of his farm ! Fif- 
teen head alone of bulls and cows sold for 2464/. or at the 
rate ^of 164/. each ! 

' The other auction was that of Mr. Paget, at IbstocL 
Mr. Paget had been many years the intimate friend, and in 
the Breeding Society, a very eminent and successful col- 
league, of Mr. Bakewell. The sale of his stock was there- 
fore looked up to with much eagerness by the public. At 
this 9ale, one bull sold for the sum of four hundred guineas 
(and a sixth share of the same has since been sold for one 
hundred), and a two-year old heifer for eighty-four! Two 
hundred and eleven ewes and theaves fetched 3315 i]ruineas^ 
T — on the average, seventeen guineas each ; and one lot of 
five ewes was sold for 3 10 guineas! 

* Mr. Bakewell, at the time of his death, was verging on 
his seventieth year. As he had never been married, his 
business devolved to Mr. Honeyborn, his nephew, a gentle- 
man possessed of genius and enterprise simil^ to that of his 
predecessor. In person Mr. Bakewell was tall, broad set, 
and, in his latter years, rather inclined to corpulence. His 
countenance bespoke intelligence, activity, and a high de- 
gree of benevolence ; his manners were frank and pleasing, 
and well calculated to maintain the extensive popularity he 
had acquired. His domestic arrangements at Dishley were 
formed on a scale of hospitality to strangers, that gained 
bim universal esteem ; of the numerous vistants induced by 
furiosi ty to call at his house, none ever left it without hav- 
ing reason to extol the liberality of its owner. Many inter- 
esting anecdotes are related of his humanity towards the 
various orders of animals ; he continually deprecated the 
atrocious barbarities practised by butchers and drovers^ 
shewing, by example on his own farm, . the most pleasing 
instances of docility iu the animals under his care. He de- 
parted this life on Thursday, October 1, 1795, after a te- 
dious illness, which he bore with the philosophical fortitude 
that ever distinguished his. character. ^ 

1 ) Oent. Itfag. for 1795.-^A^icu]tura^ Report for Leicestershire.— Nichols's 
Hist, of l«i«esterBhire, art. PishUy, vQl.^nU 

B A L A M I O. %55 

mm A 

* BAL^MIO (F£itDiNAKD), t>f fiicily, was physician to 
{)ope Leo X. who had a high esteem for him. He was no 
less skilled in the belles lettres than in medicine ; and cul- 
tivated poetry and Greek with much success. He trans-^ 
latedy from the Greek into Latin, several pieces of Galen; 
which were first printed separately, and afterwards in- 
serted in tlie works of that ancient physician, published 
at Venice in 1586, in folio. He flourished at Rome about 
the year 1555.* 


BALBI (John), a Genoese Dominican, named also 
Janua or Januensts, composed, in the thirteenth century, 
Commentaries, and several other works. His ^^ Catholicon, 
seu Summa Grammaticalis," was printed at Mentz, 1460, 
folio, by Fust and Schoeffer. He entitled it Catbolicon^ 
or Universal, because it is not a simple vocabulary, but a 
kind of classical encyclopaedia, containing a grammar, a 
body of rhetoric, and a dictionary. Notwithstanding that 
this book is badly digested, yet it was much wanted in 
the time of Balbi. A surprising number of copies were 
printed of it ; and it was one of the first books on which 
the art of printing was employed. It is very dear, and 
said to be very scarce, but the Diet Hist speaks of thirty- 
six copies being in existence. It was reprinted at Augs- 
burgh, in 1469, fol. also a very rare book. This John 
Balbi is to be distinguished from Jerom Balbo, bishop of 
Goritz, who died at Venice in 1535, author of the fol- 
lowing works: 1. " De rebus Turcicis," Rome, 1526, 
4to. 2. " De civili et bellica Fortitudine," 1526, 4to. 
S, "Defuturis Caroli V.successibus," Bologna, 1529, 4to. 
4. " Csu*mina,^' in the *' Deliciae Poetarum Italonim," 
and in 1792, Retzer published the whole under the title 
" Opera Poetica, Oratoria, ac Poetica-moralia,'* Vienna, 
£ vols* 8vo..* . 

BALBUENA (Bernard de), a Spanish poet, was bi<* 
shop of St. John in Porto Rico, in North America, to which 
Jie was appointed in 1620. He was a native of Valde- 
peguas^' a village in the diocese of Toledo, took his doc- 
tour's degree at Salamanca, from whence he was sent to 
America, and had the charge of judicature in Jamaica, and 
ithen was made bishop of Porto Rico. He was there when 

1 Moreri.— Mongitor Bibl. SicUienne. — Manget. 
' > Moreri.-^Marchand HUtoire de Plnoprimerie, 1740, p. 35.— -Gen. Diet. 

A A 2 

350 B A L B U £ N A. 

in 1625 it was plundered by the Dutch, who carried awaiy 
bis library. He died in 1627. H^ is reputed to be one 
of the first poets Spain has produced, although one of the 
least known. His productions are, a heroic poeoi, printed 
^t Madrid, 4to, in 1624, entitled " El Bernardo, 6 Vic* 
toria deRoncesvalles;" ten eclogues, entitled ^' Siecle d'or 
dans les bois d'Eriphile," Madrid, 8vo, 1608; andawori^ 
in prose and verse, on ** tlie grandeur of Mexico,^' printed 
at the same place, 1604, 8vo. Antonio censures the agnft 
very severely for having neglected the writings of Bernard, 
in which he discovers great majesty and elevation of verse, 
a prolific invention, a pleading variety, and a style not 
inferior in purity to that of any writer of the present age. 
His comparisons are just, and his descriptions rich and 
elegant, and lively beyond all the Spanish poets. ^ 

BALDE, or BALDUS (James), an eminent German 
poet, was bom at Ensisheim, in Alsace, in the year 1603. 
He entered the order of Jesuits in 1624, and after be-» 
stowing several years on the study of theology and the 
languages, became a preacher of note, even at the court 
of Bavaria. He was requested to write the history of Ba- 
varia, and Leibnitz says he saw some parts of the ptnr« 
formance ; but such was his attachment to the muses, that 
his history suffered many interruptions, while he gratified 
with eagerness those friends who asked him for poetical 
pieces. He died at Nieubourg, Aug. 9, 1663. His works 
are, 1. ** Carmen panegyricum Henrieo Ottoni Foggero 
veliere aureo donato," Augs\ 1629. 2. ^ Francisco Andrear^ 
comiti de Tilly, geniale ac praBsagum carmen,** Ingold. 
1631, 8vo. 3. ^^ Maximilianus primfi» AuslriacUs,*' In- 
gold. 1631, and Munich, 1639. This work is in prose 
and verse, and contains the history of Maximilian the First. 
4. '^ Epithalamion Maximiliano BoiarioB duci et Marisar Aus« 
triacae,^ Munich, 1635. o. << Hecatombe de vanitat^ 
mundi,'' Munich,- 1636, 8vo, in German and Latin. 
6. <^ Poema de vanitate mundi," Munich, 1638, 16m0j^ 
and 1651, 12mo. 7. ^^ Batraohomyomachia Homeri, tuba 
Romana cantata, et in libros V distributa." 8. " Inter-" 
pretatio Homeric! poematis oratione soluta.'' 9. '^ UgvH 
Batrachomyomachite ethicus, politicus, et polemicus,*^ 
Ingold. 1637, and 1 647, 1 2mo. 1 0. « Templum honoris 
apertum virtute Ferdinandi III. Anstriaci, regis Roma- 
norum^' Ingold. 1637, 8vo. IK 'VAgathyrsus,,encoimtta» 

* Antonio Bib!.' Hisp.— Moreri. 

B A L D E. 951 

etbisorum/' in Anacreontic vers6, Munich, I63S, S4mo. 
12. " Ode Parthenia> sive de latidibus beatse Mariae Vir- 
ginis," in German, Muni<:h, 1638 and 1647. 13. " Olym- 
pia sacra in stadio Mariano, sive certamen poeticum de 
laudibus beate Mariae Virginis super ode Parthenia Geiiha* 
nica," Cologne, 14. *<Lyricoruin lib. IV. Epodon lib. I." 
Munich, 1643, but a more correct and complete edition was 
published by Bieau at Amsterdam, which has, however, Co- 
logne in the title, 1 646, 1 2mo. 1 5. " Sylvse L3nricaB,*' Munich, 
1648, 12mo. Cologne ({.e. Amsterdam, Bleau), 12mo. 16. 
♦* MedicinsB gloria per Satyras XXII. asserta : praemUtitur 
bymnus in laudem sanctorum Cosmse etDamiani.** 17. '^Yul- 
tuosBB torvitavis encomium, in gratiam philosophorum et 
poetarum explicatum, cum dissertatione de studio poetico.'* 
1 8. " Satyra contra abusum tabaci." 1 9. •* Antagathyrsus, 
apologia pro pinguibus," in heroic verse, Munich, 1643 and, 
1651, 12mo. 20. *^ Poesis osca, sive drama Georgicum, in 
quo belli mala, pacis bona carmine antiquo, sctellano, dsco, 
casco," Munich, 1647, 4to. 21. " Chorea mortalis, sive 
Lessus in obitu augustissimae imperatrices Leopoldinos, 
CsBsari Femandino III. nuptft an. 1648, in puerperio 
mortuae anno 1^49," Munich, 1649, Latin and German, 
22. ^< Jepbtias, tragcedia,** Amberg, 1654, 8vo. 23. <<Eleo- 
pprsB Magdalenae Theresiss Neoburgicae genethliacon,** 
Nieubourg, 1655. 24. *^ Musss Neoburgicas in ortum 
h G. J. Ignatii ducis Neoburgici,'* Nieubourg, 1658. 
95* ^' Paraphrasis lyrica in Philomelam sancti Bonaven- 
tur®.'* 26. ^^Poematum tomi IV.** 1660, 12mo, an in-p 
correct collection of odes, epodes, and lyric pieces. 

27. ^' Solatium podagricorum,** Munich, 1661, 12mo. 

28. '^ De eclipsi solari anno 1654, die 12 Augusti £l 
pluribus speciata tubo optico, iterum si Jacobo Balbe tubo 
«atyrico perlustrata : Kb. duo," Munich, 1662, 12mo. 

29. ^^- Urania victrix, sive animas Christianae certamina 
adversns illecebras quinque sensuum corporis sui,*' Mu- 
nich, 1663, 8vo. This work, which is in elegiac verse, 
gave so much pleasure to pope Alexander VII. that he 
sent the author a gold medal, a very considerable ipark of 
regard from one who was himself a good Latin poet. 

30. " Paean Parthenius, sive hymnus in honorem S. 
Uisolae et sociarum martyrum,*'* Cologne, 1663, 8yo. 
5L ^* Expeditio polemico-poetica : sive castrum igno« 
rantiae, k poetic vetertbus ac novis obsessum, expugnatum, 
^v^rsum.'' 2'ji. << Apparatus novarum inveutionutn et 

35a B A L D E* 

thematum scribendorum/' Munich^ 1694, 12mo. Those 
who object to the style and taste of some of his works, 
allow that if he had not written too rapidly, be might have 
attained great excellence and reputation* ^ 

BALDERIC, a French historian, a native of Orleans, 
according to some writers, or of Mehun, a small town on 
the Loire, according to others,, flourished in the twelfth 
century. He was abb6 of Bourgueil, in 1089, bishop of 
Dol, in Britanny, in 1114, and 1115 he received the 
pallium from pope Paschal II. at the council of Rheims. 
About the year 1095, he had assisted at the council of 
Clermont, held upon account of the holy war, of which 
he wrote a history in fpur books, from its commencement 
to the taking of Jerusalem by Godfrey of Boulogne in 
1099, He wrote also various works of the historical kind 
in verse and prose, with the life of Robert D'Abrissel, 
founder of the order of Fontevraud. Michael Cosnier, 
curate of Poitiers, published an edition of this life^ with 
very curious notes; and Du Chesne has printed Bal- 
deric^s poems in the fourth volume of his collection of 
French writers. Balderic is said to have died Jan. 7, 1131> 
but this does not agree with his epitaph, which says that 
he was bishop of Dol twenty-two years, to which, as men-^ 
tioned above, he was appointed in 1 1 14.* 

BALDI, or BALDUS (Bernard), born at Urbino in 
the year 1553, was made abbot of Guastalla in 1586, with- 
out any solicitation of his own. He began his studies with 
the mechanics of Aristotle, and a course of history. ; he 
bad also made verses ; but, on being appointed abbot, he 
applied himself entirely to the canon law, the fathers, the 
councils, and to the oriental languages. He died in 16i7, 
with the reputation of a very laborious man, who under^ 
stood sixteen several languages. We have by him a great 
number of tracts on mechanics, as ** De tormentis bellicis 
et eorum inventoribus ;" *^ Commentaria in mechanica 
Aristotelis," 1582. " De Verborum Vitruvianorum sig* 
nificatione." *^ Novae Gnomonices, lib. V." 1595. ^* Yitap 
Mathematicorum, &c.^' Some of these are to be seen in 
the Vitruvius of Amsterdam, 1649, folio. " Versie Prose," 
Venice, 1690, 4to. Crescembini put his fables into Italian 
Terse, Rome, 1702, l2mo* He had begun an hbtorical 

^ Moreri. — Gen. Diet. 

i Du|iiii.-^MQreri.'-*'Saxii OnomasticoB. 

B A L D I. J5ft 


«Bd geograf^htcal description of the. worlds in all its parts;- 
but be did not live to finish this great undertaking. ^ 

BALDI DB UBALOUS, a cel^rated lawyer of thv 
fourteenth century , was a native of Perugia, and the dO» 
of Franci« Ubi^ldi, a learned physician, who had him edu* 
cated with great care. After studying philosophy and 
belles lettres, he became the pupil of Bartolus in law 
studies, and afterwards was his powerful rival. , He taught 
law himself at Perugia, where he had for his scholar cacw 
dinal Peter Beaufort, afterwards pope Gregory XI. He 
next became professor at Padua, from which the duk^ of 
Mil^in invited him to the same office at Pavia. He died 
April 28, 1400, aged 76, of the consequences of the bite 
of a favourite cat, a circujoostance thus e:spressed on hia 
epitaph ; 

*' Hospes, ^iscenovum mortis genus, improba fells 
Dum capitur, digitum mordet^ et intereo.*' 

His contemporaries differ very much, not only in regard 
to his personal character, but the merit of his works. He 
composed several treatises on civil law ; a commentary on 
the Decretals, Venice, 1595, and a consultation on the 
right of Urban VI. and Clement VII. printed by Re) naldus 
at the end of his seventeenth volume of Annals. ' 

BALDINGER (Ernest Gottfried), an eminent Ger- 
man physician, was born at Erfurt, May 18, 1738. During 
the seven years' war, he had the direction of the military 
hospital belonging to the Prussian army, and after the 
conclusion ' of peace, the landgrave of Hesse Cassel ap- 
pointed him his first physician. He was afterwards pro- 
fessor of medicine at Gottingen and Marpurg, where he 
died Jan. 2, 1804. He wrote very copiously on the sub^ 
ject of his profession: I. "A treatise on th^ Diseases of 
the Army," 1774, 8vo, 2. A species of periodical Work 
or " Magazine for Physicians," 3 vols. 1779—1799; 
3. " Sylloge opusculorum selectorum argumenti medico- 
pract." 4to, Gottingen, 1776 — 178'2,and some other works; 
and he edited an edition in German, of Boerner's lives of 
{)hysicians. ^ 

BALDINI (John Anthony), an Italian count, and a 
man of learning, was a native of Placentia, where he was 

1 Moreri. — ^VossioB in Matth. — Erythrsei Pinacotheca.— -Gen. Diet.— -Saxii 
Oaomast, * 

* Gen. Diet. — Moreri.— Saxii Onoraast.-**X>Upi]U«*Pttk\]lJovius,ili Elog* * 
t Pic(. Hi8t.-^Saxii Onomast, vol. Ylll. 


born July 8^ 1654* After studying philosopl^ and the 
classics- in the coUegie of St. Francis Xavier at Bologna, he 
went to RoDoe^ and passed through a course of theology, 
law, and mathematics. He was so pleased with Rome as 
to determine to take up his abode there ; and when the 
pope offered him. the place of nuncio at Brussels, and in 
Poland, be preferred a life of literary employment. Some 
time after, boirever, he accompanied cardinal d*Estr£es 
to Paris, tod the marchioness of Montecuculi to St, Ger-" 
main ; and afterwards went to Poland, to be present at 
the election of a successor to king John Sobieski, then 
deceased. In 1698, duke Francis, of Parma, sent him to 
Madrid, as his deputy; and in 1710 Sophia Dorothy 
duchess of Placentia employed him in the same honourable 
office at Vienna, and at several courts in Germany, Eng- 
land, and Utrecht- On his return, he passed the rest 
of liis life in a retired manner, and died Feb. 23, 1725. 
When in England he was elected a member of the royal 
society, with M. Bianchini. His rich cabinet of natural 
history, and his extensive library, were always open to men 
of learning, many of whom he assisted in their pursuits 
with great liberality. We know of none of his writings, 
except a discourse on the maps in the Atlas Historique, 
published at Amsterdam in 1719. ^ 

. BALDINI (John Francis), a learned Italian antiquary 
and philosopher, was born at Brescia in 1677, and died 
at Tivoli in 1765. He entered early into the congregation 
pf the regular clerks, and arrived at their highest dignities^ 
His works, alt in Italian, wer^, 1. ** Sopra le forze mo* 
venti.^' 2. ^^ Relazione delP Aurora Boreale, yeduta in 
Roma,** 1737, both inserted in ^^ Calogerae opusculis 
pbilologis." 3. ^' Dissertazion^ sopra certi Vasetti di 
creta trovati in lina camera sepolcrale nella Vigna di 
S. Ce^ario, in Roma.** 4i ** Dissertazione sOpra UU' ahtica 
piastra di bronzo, che si suppone un* Orologie da sole:*^ 
thesie two are inserted in ^ Saggi de Dissertatiqni di Cor« 
tona,** vol. IL and III. He published an edition of Vail* 
lant's Numismata Imp. Romanorum, Rome, 174S, 4tO| 
to which Kh(slla published a supplement in 1767, Vienna. 
He was also author of remarks on Anfistasius Bibliotheca* 
rius*s lives of the popes. * 

' Moreri. 

• fiact^ Httt-i^Saiu OB0iiMtii0o.-*-Mazztichelli« 


B A L D I N U C C I. 361 

•BALDINUCCI (Philip)j of Florence, an useful bioi 
gmpber of the academy of la Crusca, was bom in 162f« 
Having acquired great knowledge in painting and sculps 
tare, and made many discoveries by studying the works 
of the best masters, he was qualified to gratify cardinal 
Leopold of Tuscany, who desired to have a complete his<» 
tory of painters. Baldinucci remounted as far as' to Ci* 
mabue, the restorer of painting among the moderns ; and 
be designed to come down to the painters of the last age 
inclusive. He only lived to execute part of his plan, 
which was published in his life-time, in 3 vols. After 
his death (in 1696), three more appeared, and a new 
edition of the whole in 1731. The work, without beinj^ 
free from errors, is a valuable addition to Vasari. He 
published also, in. Italian, a '^ Treatise on Engraving, and 
the lives of the* principal Engravers,'* 1686, 4to.* 

BALDO, BALDI, orBALDIUS, a native of Florence, 
in the seventeenth century, was a very eminent physician 
and medical writer. He was reader on medicine in the 
university of Rome, where he held a canon's place, and 
jgbcquired the first reputation throughout Italy. His great 
ambition was to be physician to pope Innocent X. which 
he had no sooner obtained than he contracted a distemper 
which proved fatal a few months after his promotion^ 
None of his biographers give the date of his death (pro- 
bably about 164..), but all attribute it to the luxurious 
change- in the mode of living at court. He published 
many works which bear a high character, and among 
others: 1. ^' Pra&lectio de Contagione pestifera,*' Rome, 
1631, 4to. 2. ^' Disquisitio iatrophysica de Aere>'' Rome, 
1697, 4to. 3. '^ De loco affecto in pleuritide discepta« 
tione8,V Paris, 1640, 8vo; Rome, 1643, &c.' 

BALDOVINI (Francis), an Italian poet, wast born tt 
Florence, .in 1654. His first studies were devoted to the 
law, which his father wished him to pursue as a prof»- 
gion ; but, afi:er the death of his parents, he gave nimself 
wholly up to the enchantments of poetry and music. 'On 
visiting Rome, he obtained, through the interest of his 
uncle cardinal Flavio Chigi, the place of secretary to car- 
dinal Jacopo Filippo, and in that city, at the age of forty, 
he entered into holy orders. In 1676, he obtained the 
jiiving of St. Leonardo d*Artimino i and in 1694, Cosm^ 

f Moreri.«»*Dict. HisU :9 Maii^et.— HaHer.—Mtferi. 

$62 B A L D O V I N I. 

III. grand duke of Tuscany, conferred on him the prior- 
ship of Orbatelio; which, in 1699, he changed for that, 
of Santa Felicita. In the discharge of his new functions, 
be gave equal satisfaction to the court, the religious orders, 
ana his parishioners, by his exemplary piety, and his 
rigid attention to the duties of his station ; to which the 
amiableness of his manners, his knowledge of the world, 
and his proficiency in learning, rendered him perfectly 
adequate. He died in 1716. His chief work is a poem 
of the pastoral kind, entitled ^^ I] Lamento de Cecco da 
Varlungo," written in the provincial dialect of Tuscany, 
and in his youth; and published in 1694, by Bartolommei, 
to whom the author had given the manuscript. It was re* 
printed in 1755, with the author's life by Manni, and 
curious notes by Marini. In 1800, it was introduced 
into our language by John Hunter, esq. .under the title 
of " Cecco's Complaint," 8vo, from the preface to which 
this sketch is taken, ' 

BALDOCK (Ralph de), bishop of London in the reigns 
of Edward I. and IL was educated at Merton college in 
Oxford, became archdeacon of Middlesex, and, in 1294, 
dean of St. Paul's. The see of London being vacant by 
the death of Richard de Gravesend, Baldock was unani* 
mously chosen, Sept. 20, 1304. But, his election being 
controverted, he was obliged to repair to Rome ; and, 
having obtained the pope's confirmation, was consecrated 
at Lyons by Peter Hispanus, cardinal of Alba, Jan. 30, 
1306. Being returned into England, he made profes?» 
sion of canonical obedience to the archbishop in the 
church of Canterbury, March 22, 1306. The same 
year he was appointed by the pope one of the ooiumisr 
sioners for tbe examination of the articles alleged 
against the knights templars, "and in that* year also 
he was made lord high chancellor of England : but Ed- 
ward I. dying soon after, he held that post little more than 
a year. Dec. 2, 1 308, this prelate, with the approbatioa 
of tbe chapter, settled a stipend on the chancellor of St. 
Paul's for reading lectures in divinity in that church, ac- 
cording to a constitution of his predecessor, Richard de 
Gravesend. He contributed 200 marks towards building 
the chapel of St. Mary, on the east side of St. Paul's. He 
founded also a chantry of two priests in the said churchy 

1 Montlily Rer. -N. S. vol. XXXIV* 

B A L D Q C K. S^S- 

xiear the altar of St. Erkenwald. He was a person of a very 
amiable character, both for morals and learning, and de<* 
served well of bis country by his writings, which were, 
!• " Historia Anglica, or a history of the British affairs 
down to his own time." It is not now extant, though Le- 
Jand says he saw it at London. 2. ** A collection of the 
statutes and constitutions of the church of St, Paul's," ex- 
tant in the library of that cathedral in 1559. Bishop Bal* 
dock died at Stepne)', July 24, 1313, having sat from his 
consecration a little more than seven years, and was buried 
under a marble monument in the chapel of St. Mary. * 

BALDUCCI (Francis), a celebrated Italian poet- of the 
seventeenth century, was distinguished in his youth for his 
attachment to polite literature, and some verses of acknow- 
ledged excellence. He was a native of Palermo, and on 
account of his talents, very early admitted into the aca- 
demy of the Reaccensi, but &is confined circumstances 
obliged him to leave his native country in pursuit of bet- 
ter fortune. He went first, for a short time, to Naples, 
and thence to Rome, where he entered into the army, and 
served in Hungary in the papal army under the command 
of John Francis Aldobrandini. He returned afterwards to 
Rome, and having resumed his studies, was received with 
great honour into the academy of the Humourists. Here 
liis poetry, his anacreontics, and particularly the enco- 
mi^^stic verses he wrote on the distinguished persons of the 
court of pope Urban VIIL procured him fame, and might 
have enriched him, if he bad not been deficient in the ar- 
ticle of ceconomy, which some of his biographers ascribe 
to his extravagance, and others to his charity. It is cer- 
tain, however, that he became poor, and was obliged to 
enter into the service of some gentlemen in the capacity of 
secretary, but either from feeling the miseries of depend- 
anee, or from m unsettled turn, he very frequently changed 
his masters, Erythr^eus relates many stories of the man- 
ner in whiph he shifted for subsistence, which are not much 
to his credit, but the veracity of Erythraeus on this as well 
as many other occasions, has been called in question by 
contemporary biographers of good authority, and whatever 
truth may be in his account, we do not find that Balducci 
lost the esteem of the learned at Rome. At length he took 
orders^ and officiated^ as chaplain in the hospital of St 

364 B A L D U C CI. 

Sixte^ but having afterwards been attacked by an illness 
at the house of a nobleman, who had a high regard for | 
him, and would have administered to all his wants, he 
caused himself to be removed to the hospital of St. John 
Latran, where he died in 1642, or according to Crescem* 
bifti, either in 1645 or 1649. His works were, 1. ** Tri- 
l^iKto di Parnasso alia Maesta Cesareo di Ferdinando III. 
d^Au^tria,'* Rome, 1638, 4tOv 2; " La Pace Urbana,** 
Naples, 1632, 4to. 3. " Poesie degli Accademici Fan-» 
tastici di.Roma,'' Rome, 1637. 4. ^^ Rime, parte prima,^* 
Rooie, 163Q, 1645, 12ma. 5. <^ Rime, parte seconda,** 
Rome, 1646. All tliese werer collected^ and twice pub- 
lished at Venice, 1655 and 166S, 12mo. He also wrote 
mme *^ Canzoni Siciliane,'^ and prefaces to part of the 
works of his friend Stigliani. ^ 

BALDWIN, archbishop of Canterbury in the reigns of 
Henry II. and Richard I. was born of obscure parents at 
£xeter, where he received a liberal education, and in his 
younger years taught school. Afterwards, entering inta 
boly orders, he was made archdeacon of Exeter ; but soon 
quitting that dignity and the world, he took the habit of 
the Cistertian order in the monastery of Ford in Devon- 
shire, and in a few years became its abboL From thence 
he was promoted to the see of Worcester (not Winchester, 
as Dupin says), and consecrated August 10, 1180. Upon 
4hedeatiiof Richard, archbishop of Canterbury in 1184, 
he was translated to that see, with some difficulty, being 
the first of bis order in England, that was ever advanced to 
the archiepiscopal dignity. He was enthroned at Canter- 
bury the l^th of May 1185, and the same day received 
the pall from pope Lucius III. whose successor Urban III. 
appointed him his legate for the diocese of Canterbury, 
Soon after he was settled in his see, he began to build a 
church and monastery at Hackington, near Canterbury, in 
honour of St. Thomas Becket, for the reception of secular 
priests : but, being violently opposed by the monks of 
.Canterbury) supported by the pope^s authority, he was 
obliged to desist. The 3d of September 1 189, he solemnly 
|>erformed the ceremony of crowning king Richard I. at 
Westminster. The same year, the king having given the 
see of York to bis bastard brother Geoffry bishop of Lin- 
coln^ archbishop Baldwin took this occasion to assert tha 

* Cbaufepie's JDiot. Bisterique. 

fi A L » W 1 K S€S 

pre-eminence of the see of Canterbury^ fbrbiclding the 
bishops of England to receive consecration from any other 
tbkn the archbishop of Canterbury. The next year, de^ 
signing to foHow king Richard to the Holy Land, he made 
a progress into Wales, where he performed mass pontifi^ 
cally in all the cathedral churches, and induced sereral of 
the Welsh to join the crusade. Afterwards embarking at 
Dover, with Hubert bishop of Salisbury, he arrived at the 
king^s army in Syria ; where being seized with a mortal 
distemper, be died at the siege of Acre, or Ptolemais, and 
was buried there. Giraldus Cambrensis^ who accompanied 
this prelate, both in his progress through Wales and ia 
his expedition to the Holy Land, tells us, he was of a dark 
€<Hiiplexion, an open and pleasing aspect, a middling sta- 
ture, and a spare, but healthful, constitution of body; 
modest and sober, of great abstinence, of few words, and 
not easily provoked to anger. The only fault be charges 
him with is a remissness in the execution of his pastoral 
office, arising from an innate lenity of temper ; whence 
pope Urban HL in a letter addressed to our archbishops 
began thus, ^* Urban, &c. to the most fervent monk, warm 
abbot, lukewarm bishop, and remiss archbish(^ ;'' ind* 
mating, that he behaved better as a monk than as an shhot^ 
and as a bishop than as an archbishop. His principdi 
works were, 1. *^ Of the Sacrament of the Altar.** 2. " Faith 
recommended.^' 3. " Of Orthodox Opinions* 4. " Of 
Heretical Sects." 5. '* Of the Unity of Charity.'' 6. « Of 
Love.** 7. "Of the Priesthood of John Hircaaus.'^ 
S. **0f the Learning of Giraldus." 9. " Thirty-^three 
Sermons." 10. ** Concerning the Histories of Kings/^ 
11. ♦* Against Henry bishop of Winchester." 12. " lo 
praise of Virginity." 13. " Concerning the Message of 
^e Angel." 14. "Of the Cross." 15. "Concerning 
Mythology." 16. "A Devotionary Poem." 17. "Let- 
ters." These were collected and published by Bertrand 
Tissier, in 1662.* 

BALDWIN (William), according to Wood, was bom 
in the west of England, and spent several years at Oxford 
in the study of logic and philosophy ; there he supposes 
bim to have been the same Willidim Baldwin, who suppli-*- 
cated the congregation of regentjs for a master^ s degree ia 
1592, but it does not appear by the register that it was 


S6« B A L D W I tJT. 

granted. He afterwards became a schoolmaster znd a 
ininister, and was one of those scholars who followed priirt* 
ing, in order to promote the reformation. In this cha-* 
racter, we find him employed by Edward Whitchurch, pro* 
bably as the corrector of the press, though he modestly 
styles himself " seruaunt with Edwarde Whitchurche.'* 
This, however,' seems to have been his employment at 
first, and chiefly : yet he afterwards appears to have qua* 
lified himself for a compositor. As an author. Bale and 
Pits ascribe some comedies to him, which were probably 
mysteries or moralities now unknown, but he compiled 
** A treatise of moral Philosophy," which was printed by 
Edw. Whitchurch, in 1547, and in 1550, and without date. 
This was afterwards enlarged by Thomas Palfryman, and 
went through several editions. His next performance vyas 
" The Canticles or Balades of Solomon, phraselyke de-» 
clared in English metres," printed by himself, 1549, 4to. 
He wrote also " The Funeralles of king Edward VI." ia 
verse, printed in 1560, 4to. But he is perhaps best known 
Jiow by the share he had in the publication of " The Mir- 
ror of Magistrates," originally projected by Thomas Sack«- 
ville, first lord Buckhurst, and afterwards earl of Qorset, 
who wrote the poetical preface, and the legend of Henry 
Stafford, duke of Buckingham, and recommended the 
completion of the whole to our William Baldwin and 
George Ferrers. The time of his death is not specified, 
but he appears to have lived some years after the accession 
of queen Elizabeth. * 

BALE (John), in Latin BALEUS or BAL^EUS, bishop 
of Ossory in Ireland, about the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, was born the 21st of November 1495, at Cove,: a 
small village in Suffolk, near Dunwich. His parents, 
whose names were Henry and Margaret, being incum- 
bered with a large family, young Bale was entered, at 
twelve years of age, in the monastery of Carmelites at 
Norwich, and from thence was sent to Jesus college in 
Cambridge. He was educated in the Romish religion ; 
but afterwards, at the instigation of the lord Wentworth, 
turned Protestant, and gave a proof of his having re- 
nounced one of the errors of popery (the celibacy of die 
clergy) by immediately marrying his wife Dorothy. This, 

' Bale, Pits, and Tanner. — Ath. Ox, vol. I. — Censura Literaria, vols. T. and 
IV.— Bibliographer, vol. II. p. 97.— Warton** History, vdl. HI. p. 212—14. 
— Amed and Herbert, vol. I.— Ritson's Bi]l)l. Poetics. 

BALE. *67 

as may be conjectured, exposed him to the persecution of 
the Romish clergy, against whom he was protected by 
lord Cromwell, favourite of king Henry VIII. But, on 
Cromwell's death, Bale was forced to retire into the Low 
Countries, where he resided eight years} during which 
time he wrote several pieces in English. He was then re- 
called into England by king Edward VI. and obtained the 
living of Bishop's Stocke in the county of Southampton, 
The 15th of August 1552, he was nominated by king Ed- 
tirard, who happened to be at Southampton, to the see of 
Ossory. This promotion he appears to have owed to his 
accidentially waiting on his majesty to pay his respects to 
him. Edward, who had been told he was dead, expressed 
bis surprize and satisfaction at seeing him alive, and im- 
mediately appointed him to the bishopric, which he re- 
fused at first, alleging his poverty, age, and want of health. 
The king, however, would not admit of these excuses, and 
Bale set off for Dublin, where Feb. 2, 1553, he was con- 
•secrated by the^rchbishop. On this occasion, when he 
found that it was become a question whether the common 
prayer published in England should be used, he positively 
refused to be consecrated according to the old popish form, 
and remaining inflexible, the new form was used. He un- 
derwent, however, a variety of persecutions from the 
popish party in Ireland, and all his endeavours to reform 
the people and priesthood in his diocese, and to introduce 
the reformed rehgion, were not only frustrated by the 
death of Edward VI. and the accession of queen Mary, 
but in the mean 'time exasperated the savage fury of his 
enemies so much, that he found it necessary to withdraw 
from his see, and remain concealed in Dublin. After- 
wards, endeavouring to make his escape in a small trading 
vessel in that port, he was taken prisoner by the captaiti 
of a Dutch man of war, who rifled him of all his money, 
apparel, and effects. This ship was driven by stress of 
weather into St. Ives in Cornwall, where our prelate was 
taken up on suspicion of treason, but was soon discharged. 
From thence, after a cruize of several days, the ship ar- 
rived in Dover road, where he was again in danger by a 
false accusation. Arriving afterwards in Holland, he was 
kept a prisoner three weeks, and then obtained his liberty 
on the payment of thirty pounds. From Holland he re*- 
tired to Basil in Switzerland ; and continued abroad during 
the short reign of queen Mary. On the accesnion of queen 

36S BALE. 

EUzabeth^ he reitirned tb England, but not to his bishc^d 
in Ireland^ contenting himself with a prebend in the cathe-^ 
dral church of Canterbury, to which he was promoted thd 
1 5th of January, 1560. He died Nov. 1563, in the 6 ^th 
year of his age, at Canterbury, and was buried in the ca« 
tbedral of that place. 

' Bishop Balers fame now principally rests on his valuable 
colleictioo of British biography, which was first published^ 
under the title of ^^ Illustrium Majoris Britanniss scripto* 
rum, hoc est, Anglise, Cambriae et Scotise, Summarium,'' 
Ipswich, 1549, 4};o, containing only five centuries of wri- 
ters. To these he added afterwards four more centuries^ 
with many additions and improvements on the first edition, 
the whole printed in a large folio, at Basil, by Oporinus^ 
1559* The title is greatly enlarged, and informs us, that 
the writers, whose lives are there treated of, are those of 
the Greater Britain, namely, England and Scotland ; diat 
the work commences from Japhet, one of the sons of Noah^ 
and is csu'ried down through .a series of 3618 years, to the 
year of our Lord 1 557, at which time the author was an exile 
for religion in Germany ; that it is collected from a great 
variety of authors, as Berosus, Gennadius, Bede, Honorius^ 
Boston of Bury, Frumentarius, Capgrave, Bostius, BiireU 
Iu9, Trithemius, Gesner, and our great antiquary John 
Leland ; that it consists of nine centuries, ctimprises the 
antiquity, origin^ aunals, places, successes, the more re^ 
markable actions, sayings, and writings of each author; id 
all which a due regard is had to chronology : the whole 
with this particular view, that the actions of the reprobate 
as well as the elect ministers of the church may historically 
and aptly correspond with the mysteries described in the 
Revelation^ the stars, angels^ horses, trumpets, thunder* 
lugs, heads, horns, mountains, vials, and plagues, through 
eyery age of the same church. There are appendixes to 
many of the articles, and an account of such actions of the 
contemporary popes as are omitted by their flatterers, Car-^ 
sulanus, Platina, &c. together with the actions of the monks> 
particularly those of the mendicant order, who (he says) 
are meant by the locusts in the Revelation, ch. ix. ver. 3 
and 7. To these Appendixes is added a perpetual success 
fion both of the holy fathers and the antichrists of the 
church, with curious instances from the histories of various 
nations and countries ; in order to expose their adulteries, 
4ebaucheries9 strifes, seditions^ sects, deceits, poisonings^ 

BALE. 3?d 

tnurders, treasons^ and innumerable imppstores. The bpok 
is djedicat^d to Qtho Heiiry^ prince palatine of ike li^iQe, 
duke of both the fiavariad'^ and el<^tor of the Roqian etn^ 
pire; and the epistle dedicatory is dated froiQ Baul ia 
September, 1557. After\varda> in 1559, appe^ed a coa-* 
tin.uation of the work, ' with the siddition pf five nior^ cen-* 
turL^s (which the editors of the BiQg. 3rit. call a pew edi- 
tion). His other works' are divided by Fuller intp two parts, 
those be wrate when a papist, apd tho$e wbep a prptei^tant ; 
but Fuller'9 list containiDg oply the subjects of hi^ wprks« 
and not the titles or dates^ we shall prefer the following list 
from Anies and Herbert; preoiising, th{^» acpoi'ding to 
Fox, in his Acts and Monuments, Sale wrote some book^ 
Y^der the name of John Harrison. He was the son of 
Henry Bale, and on that account, perhaps, took the name 
of Harri&on : 1. ** The Actes of Englysh Votaries, ^pmprci^ 
hendiog their unchast practyses and e^ample^ by all 9ge9> 
from the world's beginning to this present yea/, collected 
out of their own legendes and chronicles^, ^yp, 1546, 1548, 
1 55 1, and 1560. 2. ^^ Yet a course at the Jloipysb^ Fpx,'' 
by John Hamson, i.e. Bale, Zurich, 1543. Frpf9 tbi^ 
was publi^ed the ** Declaration of WilUapi Tplwyo," JU«»-» 
dpn, date uncertain, Ames says 1542, wbich must be a 
mistake. S. ^* I'he Apology of Johau Bale agay n^te a rfuik<$ 
Papyst, answering both hym and bys dpctour^, that neyr 
ther their vowes nor yet their priestliode arp of th^gpspel^ 
but of Antichrist;'* with this, ** A brefe ^xposycipn upoa 
the XXX fliapter of Numeri," Loudon, 13.S0, 8vo. 4. ^ Au 
Expostulation or Complaynt, agaynsta the blasphemyes pf 
a frantic Papyst of Ham&hyr^," with metrical versions pf 
die 23d and ISQtfa Psalms,'' London, 1552, |uid 1584, 8vo. 
5. ^* The Image of both Churches, after Uie most wonder* 
ful and heavenly Revjelatipn of Sainct John the Evangelist^ 
contaynipg a very fruitefull e7q>oaicion or paraphrase upon 
the sanae,** first, second, and third parts, London, 1 550, and 
i534, 8vo. 6. A brefe Chronicle concerning tLci examinaT* 
cion and death of the blessed Martir of Christ, Sir Jobam 
Oldecastle, Lord Cobham," 1544 and 1576, 8vq, roprint^ 
also ia 1729. 7. ^^ The vocacyon of Johan Bale to tha 
Bisboprick of Ossorie io Ireland, his persecucions in tbe 
same, and final deliveraunce," London, 1553, Svo. Herbert 
mentions two editions in the same year. 8. '^ A Declaratioa 
of £dmonde Bonner's Articles, concerning th^ Cleargye 
of London Dyocese, whereby that execrable antycbriste i$ 
Vol.111. Ba 

S7d B A L E. 

In his righte colonrs reueled in the year of oar Lord 15544 
Newlye set fourth and allowed," London, 1561, Svo. 9# 
** The Pageant of Popes, containing the lyves of all the 
bishops of Rome from the beginninge of them to the yeare 
of grace 1555, London, 4to, 1574. Thii» is a translation 
from Bale's Latin edition, by J. S. i. ev John Stndley. 10« 
** A new Comedy or Interlude, concerning the Laws of 
Nature, Moises, and Christ," London, 1562, 4to. This 
was written in 1532^ and fir^t printed in the time of £d^ 
ward VL 1 1. " A Tragedie or Enterlude, manifesting the 
chief promises of God unto man, by all ages in the olde 
lawe, from the fall of Adam to the incarnation," London^ 
1577, 4to. 12. "A Mystereye of Inyquyte contayned 
within the heretycall genealogye of Ponce Pantolabus, is 
here both dysclosed and confuted," Geneva, 1545, 16mo;. 
13. ** The First Examination of the worthy servaunt of God 
Mastres Anne Askew," Marpurg, 1546, \6mOf and the 
'^ Lattre Examinacion" of the same, ibid. 1547. 14. >^ A 
brife and faythfuU declaration of the true Faith in Christ,*' 
1547, 16mo. Mr. Herbert conjectures this to be Bale'sb 
The initials only of the author are given. 15. " The la** 
boryouse journey and serche of Johan Leylande, for Eng- ' 
landes Antiquitees, &c." London, 1549, 16mo, reprinted 
in the Life of Leland (with those of Wood and Hearne) 
1772, and followed there by a memoir of Bale. 16, " The 
confession of the synner after the sacred scriptures, 1549^ 
Svo. 17. "A Dialogue or Communycacyon to be- had at 
a table between two chyldren gathered out of the Holy 
Scriptures, by John Bale for his two yonge sonnes, Johan 
and Paule," London, 1549. He also translated, 1.'* Bapt. 
Mantuanus's treatise on Death," London, 1584, 8vo. 2. 
** The true hystorie of the Christen departynge of the re- 
verend man D. Martyne Luther, &c." 1546, Svo. 3. "A 
godly Medy tacyon of the Christen Soule, from the French 
of Margaret.queen of Navarre," London, probably, 1548^ 
Svo. Tanner has given a list of hisMSS. and .where preservedL 

' These printed works are now rarely Ao be met with, and 
many of them, particularly his dramatic pieces, may be 

consigned to oblivion without much regret. The *' Acts of 
the English Votaries," and other pieces written against the 
Papists, are best known, although censured for theirin- 
teniperance and partiality. The character, indeed, of few 

writers has been more variously represented. Gesner, 
«in his Bibliotheca, calls him a writer of the greatest dili- 

{j^cnce, and bishop Godwin ^ives him the character of a 

.bale/ »7l 


laborious inquirer into British antiquities. Similar praise 
is bestowed on bim by Humphrey in his *^ Vaticinium dfi 
Roma,*' and by Vogler in his " Introduct. Universal, in 
notit Scriptor." who also eiccuses his asperity against the 
Papists> from what £nglan4 had suffered from them, and 
adds, that even the popish, writers cannot help praising his 
great biographical work. On the other hand, bishop Mon- 
tague, Andreas Valerius, and Vossius,, while they allow hi^ 
merit as a writer, object to his warmth and partiality. Pitts^ 
bis successor in British biography, and a bigotted Papist, 
rails against him without mercy, or decency, but may be 
forgiven on account of the pains he took to give us a more 
correct book, or at least, what could be alleged on the 
other side of the question. Even Fuller imputes intem- 
perance of mind to him, and calls him " Biliosus Balaeus,"' 
imputing his not being made a bishop, on his return, by 
queen Elizabeth, to this cause ; but it is equally probable, 
that he had conceived.some prejudices against the hierarchy, 
while residing with the Geneva reformers abroad. We 
);:now this was the case with Coverdale, a man of less equi- 
vocal character. Wharton, in his "Anglia Sacra," and 
Nicolson, in his " Historical Library,'* censure those 
errors which in Bale were either unavoidable, or wilfuli ia 
dates, titles of books, and needlessly multiplying the lat^ 
ter. After all these objections, it will not appear sur- 
prising that Bale's work was speedily inserted among the 
prohibited books, in the Index Expurgatorius: Such a 
writer was naturally to be forbidden, as an enemy to the 
see of Rome. From one accusation, the late Dr. Pegge has 
amply defended him in his " An6nymiana :" It was said 
that after he had transcribed the titles of the volumes of 
English writers which fell into his hands, he either burnt 
them or tore them to pieces. This calumny was first piib-p 
lished by Sti'uvius ia his " Acta Literaria," upon the au- 
thority of Barthius. Upon the whole, with every .dedfuc* 
tion that can be made from his great work, it must (ever be 
considered as the foundation of English biography, and as 
such, men of all parties have been glad to consult it, al- 
though with the caution necessary in all works written in 
times of great animosity of sentiment, and political and 
religious controversy. * 

* * Biog. Britannica.— Faller*s Abel Redlvivus.— Strype's Cranmer, p. 120, 20^, 
S78, 314, 360^, Appendix.*— Wharton's Character of him, p. 259, 268.-^trype% 
Anttals.— -Strype's Parker, p. 63, 142, 538. — Warton's Hist, of Poetry, see lu* 
dex.-^Oibdiu'(i Bibliomauia.^Tanh«r's Bibt.— Life of UUnd, 1T78. 

. BB 2 


BALECHOU (Nicholas), born at Adcs in 1719, mi 
PfKi Df a button -seiler, and died suddenly at Avignon in 
the HiiQintii of August 1765. He made himoelf famous bj 
his eagmTitig^ which obtained him a place in the academy 
of painting at Paris. He had acquired a peculiar manner 
of engtmving, which gave a meliownesS and delicacy to his 
wwks. When he would, he united the nice finishing of 
£detink and Nanteuil, with the bold strokes of Mellan. 
Hift principal pieces are *^ Les belles marines/* which be 
engraved from M. Vernret, and the portrait of Frederick 
A«gustui, elector of Saxony and king of Poland Tliis 
piMimit, a master-piece of engraving, was the fatal cause 
.of all bis misfortunes, of his exclusion from the academy, 
and of his forced retreat to Avignon. It was by order of 
ihe dauphiness that he had executed this portrait; and he 
took profiof-impressions of it, contrary tt the express pro- 
mise he had given to that princess. It is at the head of the 
fine collection of the Dresden gallery. The talents of Ba- 
lecfaou were not confined to ehgraving. He had a taste 
and «oime skill in cfaymtstry, which he had studied to a 
eenain extent, it is even not imj^robable, that a chymical 
temedy, of which he either took too strong a dose, or at 
am improper time, nright contribute not a little to his sud^ 
den and premature death. 

8triatt says of this engraver, that although th^ clearness 
of his strokes, and the depth of colour vi^iich he produced, 
mte £ar beyond any production prior tdi h\B own, yet he did 
not dvaw weU, and on this account his prints wtfnt that 
fineedom, coitectness and harmony, which a p^fect know>^ 
ledge of drawing generally produces* With all their beauty, 
they appear heavy ; and the flesh is i^cft sufficiently distin*^ 
guished, by the style of engmving, from the other parts 
of the figm'e ; but haa a cold silvery effect. This observa- 
tion must be supposed to refer only to Iris figures. The 
two large plates (above mention^) which he did from Ver* 
fi^t, one representing a storm, the other a calft, must evet 
be considered as very astonishing exertions of the artist. 
Tkem are eoo well known, and too much admired, lo need 
any fertber euloginun : and were never equidted, tintil Vtt^ 
were sorpassed by a countryman of ours (Woollett). Let 
any one look at the Niobe, the Ceyx and Alcyone, &c. 
£rom Wilson, and a very moderate share of judgment will 
ht aecessary to turn the balance in favour of the latter. ] * 

^ met HlBt^i-Stnitt'i PiaHusry. 


BALEN (Henprick Yak)) an artist, was bom at Ant- 
werp, in 1560, and was a disqiple of Adam Van Oort; 
but he quitted that master, to acquire a better taste of de-> 
sign and compo»ition, by pursuing his studiea at Rome, 
where he resided for a considerable time. Hq copied the 
antiques, he attended to the works of the most meaoovable 
Biodern artists ; and at bis return to his own country, the 
vi3ibie improvement of his taste recommended him to the 
favour and esteem of the ablest judges of the art. He di»* 
tinguished himself by a good manner of designing, and his 
works are admitted into the cabinets of the curious, among 
those of the principal painters. He particularly excelled 
in the naked, and gave to his figures truth, roundness, and 
correctness of outline. Several line portraits of his himcl 
are at the Hague ; among which there is one adorned y^hh 
allegorical figures of Widom and Justice. All the historical 
subjects painted by Van Balen have merit. His designs of 
the Qeluge, of Moses striking the Rock, and the drowning 
of Pharaoh, are grand and noble compositions. Houbraken 
observes, that Van Balen, with great judgment, hath in^ 
troduced the Israelites in a clear light in the back ground, 
but the Egyptians in a strong shadow in the fore ground, 
which had a very fine effect; the figures being well de- 
signed, the attitudes and draperies well chosen^ and the 
number of the figures being very qonsiderable. Of thi^ 
master's band also the Judgment of Paris is account^ a 
masterly perfbrmanee ; in which the figure of Venus is so 
elegantly designed, so full of life, and so round, that it 
6eems to atand forth from the surface. The landscapea 
and back grounds of the pictures composed by Van Ba- 
len, were generally painted by the Velvet BruegheL 
Van Balen was the first master of Vandyck. He died in 
1672. His son, John Van Balen, was born at Antwerp, 
in 1611, and derived his knowledge of the art, and his fine 
taste of drawing and design, from his father ; but, ^s soon 
as he had made a competent progress, he travelled to Rome, 
and lived for several years in that and other cities of Italy. 
There he acquired a good taste for design, though he was 
sometimes incorrect ; his particular merit was shewn in 
naked figures of boys, cupid^, nymphs bathing or hunting, 
of which subjects he painted a considerable number, and 
he procured both praise and riches by his landscapes and 
histories. His pictures were well handled, his trees touched 
with spirit, and his herbage and verdure looked natural and 
lively. The carnations pf his figures were clear and fresh^ 

374 BALE N. 

bis colouring in general was transparent, and the Uirs'of 
his heads were in the manner of Albano. ^ 

BALES (Peter), the most famous master in the art of 
penmanship, and all its relative branches, of his time, in 
our country, was born in 1547. Anthony Wood says he 
was a most dextrous person in his profession, to the great 
wonder of scholars and others, and adds, ^^ That he spent 
several years in sciences among the Oxonians, particularly, 
as it seems, in Gloucester hall; but that study whith he 
used for a diversion only, proved at length an employment 
of profit." It seems probable, however, that he resided 
at that university to teach his own art, for profit. The 
earliest account we have of his skill, mentions a micro- 
graphical performance, in which the writing was so wonder- 
fully small, yet so very legible, that it surprised all who 
saw it, and advanced his name into Holinshed's Chronicle. 
This delicate specimen of bis art is also thus celebrated by 
Mr. Evelyn. . ** Adrian Junius speaks of that person as a 
miracle (F. Alumnus), who wrote the apostles' creed, and 
beginning of St. John's gospel, in the compass of a farthing. 
What would he have thought of our famous Bales, who, in 
J557j wrote the Lord's prayer, creed, decalogue, with twp 
short Latin prayers, his own name, motto, day of the month, 
year, of our Lord, and of the queen's reign, to whom he 
presented it at Hampton court, all within the circle of a 
single penny, enchased in a ring and border of gold, and 
covered with crystal, so nicely wrote as to be plainly le- 
gible, to the admiration of her majesty, her privy council, 
imd several ambassadors who then saw it." He was also 
skilled in other excellencies of the pen, which seem to have, 
recommended him to employment, upon certain particular 
emergencies, under the secretary of state, about 1586, 
when the conspiracies of Mary queen of Scots with the 
Popish faction were discovered. And as sir Francis Wal- 
singham had other able instruments to unveil the disguised 
correspondence which passed between them, he had also 
need of^some one who was expert in the imitation of hands,, 
and could add, according to instruction, any postscript, or 
continuation of one, in the very form and turn of letters 
wherein the rest of the epistle was written, to draw out such 
farther intelligence as was wanted for a complete discovery^ 
from, the traitors themselves, of their treasonable inter'* 

* Pict, I^ist— Pill^iogton. 

BALES. 375; 

course. Mr. Bales was famous for this dangerous talent, 
and was employed to exercise the same, sometimes, for the 
service of the state. A few years after, about 1589, and, 
Dot long before the death of the said secretary,' Bales, by a 
friend, complained that some preferment which he bad 
been led to expect, had not been settled upon him, for wbat 
he had formerly performed in behalf of the government be«^ 
fore the said queen's death ; and, upon the merit of this, 
service, he- was several years after in quest of a place at 
court, though we cannot find that he ever obtained it. It 
appears also, that he had some occasion given him to write 
or speak something in defence of accurate penmen, or those 
who were masters in the art of writing, against the unrea- 
sonable and illiberal insinuations of some supercilious cour* 
tier, who would have objected Jiis profession against his 
promotion, as if writing were but a mechanic art, and the 
masters of it fitter to guide the hands of boys than the 
heads of men. Bales took much pains to confute these 
ebjections, and although disappointed, he continued to fol« 
low^is business, teaching the sons and daughters of many 
persons of distinction, some at their own houses, others at 
his school, situated at the upper end of th^ Old Bailey, 
where also some of the best citizens sent their children* 
Here we find him in 1590, publishing the first fruits of his 
pen, as he obsertes in his epistle, his " Writing School- 
master, in three parts." From the first of which, shewing 
how, by the contraction of words into literal abbreviations^ 
the pen of a writer may keep pace with the tongue of -a 
moderate speaker, Mr. Evelyq conceived he was the inven- 
tor of short-hand, but he was rather the imprqver of a 
scheme published about two years before (1588) by Dr. Ti- 
mothy Bright, a physician of Cambridge ; yet his improve- 
ment was so great as perhaps to constitute him the founder 
of all those successive systems of short-hand which have 
since led to perfection in this useful art. 

In or not long after 1592, he was employed in writing for 
or to sir John Puckering, lord keeper of the great seal, 
whose servant he styles himself; and it is certain there were 
several petitions, letters, &c. about that time, written in 
the fine small secretary and Italian hands, by Bales, among 
that lord keeper's papers, many of which are still in being. 
Among the rest there are several letters written by one 
TopclifFe, who was much employed about the country in 
searching out the Popish priests and their plots, and h^ 

«7$ BALES. 


made liofne discoveries vrhich it^was necessary to' communis 
cate in a secret manner ; but disliking the use Of multiplied 
alphabets^ aft a method too tedious, preferred an invention 
of Bales' s, which is calUd his lineal alphabet, or character 
of da^esy as the shortest and simplest he had heard of^ 
\^herein every letter was expressed by a single straight 
stroke, only in different postures and places. Bale was 
also one 6f the earliest writing-masters who had his speci- 
inet^s engraven on copper-plates, and one of those occurs 
in Hondius's " Theatrum Artis Scribendi," fol. 1614. On 
Michaelmas day, in 1595, he being then forty-eight years 
of age, had a gtett trial of skill in the Blackfryers, with one 
Daniel Johnson, for a golden pen of twenty pounds value^ 
and won it, though his antagonist was a younger man by 
above eighteen year^, and was therefore expected to have 
the advantage of a greater steadiness of hand. We are 
further told by a contemporary author, that he had also the 
arms of calligraphy given him, which are, Azure, a pen Or^ 
at a ptii^e, where solemn trial was made for mastery in this 
art, among the best penmen in London, which being a trial 
ambng more opponents than one, this, wherein the said 
arms were given to him, should seem different from that 
wherein he w6n the golden pen from Daniel Johnson be* 
fofe^mentioned* 't'hat is the first contention we meet with 
for the g6lden pen, though other memorable ones have 
uitice occurred. In,l 597, when he re-published his " Writ- 
ing Schoolmaster,'" he was in such high reputation for it, 
that no les« than eighteen copies of commendatory verses, 
eb^posed by learned and ingenious men of that time, were 
])rinted before it. He also, by ot^her exercises of his pen, 
recom^ertd^d hitnself to many other persons of knowledge 
and distinction), particularly by making fair transcripts of 
the Ifsarn^d and ingenious compositions of some honourable 
authors, which they designed as presentation-books to the 
queen, or others their friends or patrons, of high dignity; 
sbnie 6f whifch manuscripts have been, for the beauty of